Crazy Horse, a principal war chief of the Lakota Sioux, was born in 1842 near the present-day city of Rapid City, SD. Called “Curly” as a child, he was the son of an Oglala medicine man and his Brule wife, the sister of Spotted Tail.Crazy Horse, a principal war chief of the
Sioux – Wikipedia
, was born in 1842 near the present-day city of Rapid City, SD. Called “Curly” as a child, he was the son of an Oglala medicine man and his Brule wife, the sister of Spotted Tail.
What Native American tribes had horses?
Tribes like the Comanche and Cheyenne who had horses and knew how to use them first pushed other tribes like the Apache, Wichita and Tonkawa south and west off the plains.
What is the Sioux tribe known for?
The Sioux tribe are known for their hunting and warrior culture. They have been in conflict with the White Settlers and the US Army. Warfare became the central part of the Plains of the Indian Culture. The Sioux tribe were admired for their great courage and exceptional physical strength.
Did Cherokee Indians use horses?
When colonists arrived, the Cherokee saw them not as rivals but as equals and adopted many of the new ways of the colonists. They used horses, mules, and burros for farming and hauling, just as the colonists did.
Did the Cherokee have horses?
The Cherokee were avid traders and began trading horses and selling them. They also began passing their horses down from father to son. The horses became a source of pride and travelers of the day wrote about the Cherokee people’s quality horses.
What did the Sioux smoke?
The Sioux, and other Native Americans, smoked tobacco.
Does the Sioux tribe still exist?
Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States; and Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, and Alberta in Canada.
What tribes were enemies of the Sioux?
Enemies of the Sioux were the French, Ojibway, Assinibone, and the Kiowa Indians. One of the allies of the Sioux were the Arikara.
Did Choctaw use horses?
The Choctaw Horse is a horse breed from the state of Mississippi in the United States that was originally used by the Choctaw tribe of Native Americans. To the Choctaw, this particular breed of horse was symbolic of wealth, glory, honor, and prestige. They were also used for barter.
When did Comanches get horses?
Comanche tribe members with their horses. The acquisition of the horse in the 1600s brought immediate and sweeping changes to the Plains Indians. For the first time it gave them a wide range and mobility for hunting and military might. It brought about the most glorious period in their history.
Which American Indian tribes were the first to start using horses?
The Comanche people were thought to be among the first tribes to obtain horses and use them successfully.
Where did Native American horses come from?
Horses were first introduced to Native American tribes via European explorers. For the buffalo-hunting Plains Indians, the swift, strong animals quickly became prized. Horses were first introduced to Native American tribes via European explorers.
What is a Cherokee horse?
One of those breeds that survived the Trail of Tears is the Cherokee horse, a distinctive breed that is recognized by the Southwest Spanish Mustang Association. The breed is descended from the horses brought to the Americas by Spanish conquistadors like Hernando de Soto. “These horses are part of that plan.”
When did the Cherokee start using horses?
After European Contact. After the arrival of Europeans, the Cherokee began growing peaches and watermelons acquired through trade. Cherokees began keeping and breeding horses circa 1720, and by the mid-1700s they were growing apples from Europe, black-eyed peas from Africa, and sweet potatoes from the Caribbean.
Crazy Horse was born in the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1841, the son of an Oglala Sioux shaman of the same name and his wife, who was a member of the Brule Sioux tribe. Crazy Horse’s parents were both Oglala Sioux shamans. Crazy Horse was distinguished by having a lighter skin and hair than the other members of his tribe, as well as enormous curls. Traditionally, boys were not given a permanent name unless they had an event that earned them one. As a kid, Crazy Horse was known as “Curly Hair” and “Light-Haired Boy,” among other nicknames.
Crazy Horse’s Vision Quest
With regard to his tribe’s customs, Crazy Horse was a nonconformist, dismissing many of the traditions and ceremonies that the Sioux were accustomed to. Crazy Horse set off on a vision quest across the plains in 1854, deliberately neglecting the traditional ceremonies that were expected of him. During his two-day fast, Crazy Horse was visited by a vision of an unadorned horseman who instructed him to display himself in the same manner, with no more than one feather and never wearing a war bonnet.
Crazy Horse stayed true to these guidelines until the day he died.
General William Tecumseh Sherman
In 1866, the discovery of gold along the Bozeman Trail in Montana prompted General William Tecumseh Sherman to establish a series of forts in Sioux territory as a result of the finding of gold along the trail. Following an ambush in which Crazy Horse served as a decoy, a group of white soldiers under the leadership of Captain William Fetterman came into conflict with Sioux and Cheyenne warriors. The remains of the troops were chopped apart in order to convey a message to Sherman. Crazy Horse took part in an attack on a minor fort in 1867, and the fort was captured.
By 1868, the soldiers had been removed from the contested forts, and a treaty had been reached, transferring possession of the Black Hills, lands west of Missouri, and property in Wyoming to the indigenous peoples of the region.
Crazy Horse, on the other hand, refused to sign the treaty, choosing instead to launch raids against other tribes.
Black Buffalo Woman
Crazy Horse’s first love was a woman named Black Buffalo Woman. While Crazy Horse went on a raid, they met and fell in love, but she married a guy named No Water while he was away. Crazy Horse continued to be attracted to her and, in 1868, eloped with her when No Water was on a hunting trip with his friends. Before No Water returned his wife to him, he and Black Buffalo Woman shared one night together before Crazy Horse was shot in the nose and had his jaw broken by No Water. Despite their worries of escalating violence between the two communities, the two men reached an agreement.
Eventually, Crazy Horse married two women: Black Shawl, who died of TB, and Nellie Larrabee, a half-Cheyenne, half-French lady who was born to Crazy Horse’s parents.
Black Buffalo Woman’s fourth kid, a female, was a light-skinned infant who was assumed to be the consequence of her night with Crazy Horse, according to local legend.
General George Armstrong Custer
Conflicts between Native Americans and troops grew as railways extended westward, according to historians. It was in 1872 when Crazy Horse joined forces with Sitting Bull to launch a raid against 400 American soldiers, during which his horse was shot out from beneath him as he made a reckless sprint ahead to confront the American army. General George Armstrong Custer crossed the border into Sioux country in 1873. Crazy Horse initially came into contact with Custer while traveling down the Yellowstone River, when he came upon a group of troops who had fallen asleep in their trenches.
Despite the fact that Custer’s men crossed into the Black Hills in pursuit of gold, they did so in violation of treaties and with the intention of bringing in civilian miners who outnumbered the Native population.
Battle of Rosebud
To join Sitting Bull’s army, a significant number of tribes assembled along the Little Big Horn River in Montana in 1876, according to historical records. After recently raiding a village that had been falsely claimed by Crazy Horse, General George Crook attempted an attack, but Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led forces to push Crook back in what is known as the Battle of Rosebud. Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led forces to push Crook back in the Battle of Rosebud.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
The Battle of Little Big Horn took place one week later, when General Custer refused to heed the counsel of his Native advisers, who predicted that he would lose the battle. The Battle of Little Big Horn took place one week later, when General Custer refused to heed the counsel of his Native advisers, who predicted that he would lose the battle. After leading up to 1,000 warriors to flank Custer’s soldiers in the Battle of the Little Big Horn, popularly known as Custer’s Last Stand, Crazy Horse was instrumental in ensuring the general’s ignominious defeat and death.
Crazy Horse Surrenders
Crazy Horse moved to Big Butte to annoy white miners in the Black Hills, while the Sioux were subjected to ongoing hostilities by General Crook through a severe winter that nearly annihilated the tribe. Crazy Horse died in the process. Colonel Nelson A. Miles attempted to negotiate with Crazy Horse after recognizing the tribe’s plight for survival. He promised to assist the Sioux and treat them decently in exchange for their cooperation. When Crazy Horse dispatched messengers to negotiate the terms of the agreement, troops opened fire, killing many and forcing Crazy Horse to flee.
Crazy Horse was unable to talk with Lieutenant Philo Clark because of the winter’s incapacity.
Crazy Horse was in agreement.
Crazy Horse’s Arrest
During the course of the discussions, Crazy Horse encountered opposition from both the Army and his other tribal members. Crazy Horse declined to travel to Washington, despite Clark’s efforts to persuade him to do so. This only served to reinforce the Army’s conviction that Crazy Horse was too untrustworthy for negotiations. Following a report that Crazy Horse had gained favor with white people, several Sioux became agitated with one another. They believed that white people intended to establish Crazy Horse as the leader of all the Sioux.
When Crazy Horse was present at these sessions, an interpreter stated that Crazy Horse had pledged that he would not stop fighting until all white men were slain, despite the fact that Crazy Horse had made no such commitment.
In order to battle the Nez Perce warriors, several Sioux warriors enlisted in the Army. Crazy Horse became enraged and threatened to walk away from the discussions. He was apprehended shortly after.
Crazy Horse Death
When Crazy Horse returned to camp the next day, he wanted to speak with military authorities, but was instead taken to a holding cell. Crazy Horse struggled as he realized he had been betrayed. Crazy Horse was restrained by an old buddy, Little Big Man, who worked as a police officer for the Army and sought to hold him after Crazy Horse drew a hidden knife on him. A soldier attempted to stop Crazy Horse from stabbing Little Big Man by shoving a bayonet into Crazy Horse’s belly, piercing his kidneys.
Only his father was permitted to pay him a visit.
He was 35 years old and had been fighting for his life.
READ MORE: American-Indian Wars: Timeline, Battles, and a Summary of the Conflict
Crazy Horse Memorial
Crazy Horse is known for his bravery, leadership, and tenacity of spirit in the face of what seemed like insurmountable obstacles. His legacy is commemorated at the Crazy Horse Memorial, an unfinished massive sculpture located in the Black Hills, not far from Mount Rushmore, that pays tribute to him and his achievements. The Crazy Horse Memorial, which began construction in 1948 under the direction of artist Korczak Ziókowski (who also worked on Mount Rushmore), would be the biggest sculpture in the world when finished.
Crazy Horse: A Biography. Larry McMurtry is a writer and musician from the United States. Crazy Horse was the Oglala Sioux’s war chief and a legendary warrior. Martin S. Goldman is an American businessman and philanthropist. Wounded Knee is where I want to bury my heart. Dee Brown is a writer and poet. Quick Facts about the Crazy Horse Memorial. Crazy Horse National Monument
Crazy Horse is a Sioux name for a horse. The Oglala band of Lakota (Teton or Western Sioux) chief Ta-sunko-witko (b. ca. 1842? near present-day Rapid City, South Dakota, U.S.—died September 5, 1877, Fort Robinson, Nebraska), a skilled tactician and a tenacious warrior in the Sioux resistance to European Americans’ invasion of the northern Great Plains. Crazy Horse was a leader in his people’s opposition of U.S. ambitions to build a road to the Montana goldfields as early as 1865, according to historical records.
- Fetterman and his regiment of 80 men on December 21, 1866, as well as the Wagon Box combat on August 2, 1867, both took place near Fort Phil Kearny in Wyoming Territory, and he was one of those who took part.
- Quiz on the Encyclopedia Britannica History: Is it true or false?
- You’ll learn the actual story behind the invention of moveable type, who Winston Churchill referred to as “Mum,” and how and when the first sonic boom was heard.
- The next year, General George Crook attempted to drive Crazy Horse from his winter encampments along the Tongue and Powder rivers in Montana Territory, but the chief just retreated farther into the mountains.
- Crazy Horse MemorialCrazy Horse Memorial mountain monument under construction in the Black Hills of South Dakota, sculpted by Korczak Ziolkowski, is dedicated to the memory of Crazy Horse.
- There, he assisted in the annihilation of a battalion of United States soldiers under Lieutenant Colonel George A.
- Afterwards, Crazy Horse and his people retreated to the hill region, where they resumed their former ways of life.
- Miles, who was on the trail of the man.
He was imprisoned in Fort Robinson, and he was murdered in a skirmish with soldiers who were attempting to lock him in a guardhouse there. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
In the 1800s, Crazy Horse was an Oglala Sioux Indian chief who campaigned against his people being forced to live on an Indian reserve. At the Battle of Little Big Horn, he took part in the action.
Who Was Crazy Horse?
Native American chief Crazy Horse was an Oglala Sioux warrior who battled against his people’s deportation to a reservation in the Black Hills. The Battle of the Little Bighorn took place in 1876, during which he joined up with Cheyenne warriors in a surprise attack against Gen. George Crook. He subsequently joined forces with Chief Sitting Bull for the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Crazy Horse surrendered in 1877 and was slain in a skirmish with troops shortly after.
Crushingly unyielding and fearless Lakota leader who was dedicated to preserving his people’s way of life from harm, Crazy Horse was born around 1840 near what is now Rapid Springs, South Dakota with the Native American name Tashunka Witco in the area that is now known as Crazy Horse National Monument. On the table for discussion are the specifics of how he came to bear the moniker Crazy Horse. According to one legend, his father, who was also known as Crazy Horse, gave him the name after seeing his son’s prowess as a warrior and passing it on to him.
He was fair-skinned and had brown, curly hair, which distinguished him from other boys his age by giving him a distinct physical aspect from them.
The Lakota people were experiencing a prosperous period at the time of Crazy Horse’s birth.
Their jurisdiction stretched from the Missouri River in the east to the Big Horn Mountains in the west, encompassing a massive span of country.
Changes for the Lakota
The Lakota, on the other hand, began to see significant changes in the 1850s. As European settlers began making their way west in quest of gold and a new life on the frontier, competition for resources between these newcomers and the Lakota exacerbated tensions between the two groups. Military fortifications were built in various locations across the Great Plains, resulting in an influx of European immigrants and the introduction of illnesses that decimated the local Indian populations. The Grattan Massacre, which took place in August 1854, was the culmination of all that had gone before.
The outbreak of violence occurred as a result of Chief Conquering Bear’s refusal to accede to their demands.
Generally speaking, the Grattan Massacre is regarded as the skirmish that triggered the First Sioux War between the United States and the Lakota tribes. The incident also contributed to Crazy Horse’s developing disdain for white people, which would last for the rest of his life.
The Fetterman Massacre, Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868
As tensions between the Lakota and the United States grew more intense, Crazy Horse found himself at the center of a number of pivotal confrontations. Crazy Horse was the leader of an attack against Captain William J. Fetterman and his brigade of 80 soldiers, which resulted in a significant win for his people. Known as the Fetterman Massacre, the incident became an international disgrace for the United States Armed Services. Crazy Horse persisted in his struggle even after the signing of the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1868, which granted the Lakota valuable land, including the desired Black Hills country, in exchange for their renunciation of their traditional ways.
He declined to be photographed and refused to sign any documents that were presented to him for signing.
The Battle of the Little Bighorn
Following the finding of gold in the Black Hills and the support of European explorers in the land by the United States government, the War Department ordered the Lakota people to relocate to reservations. Crazy Horse and ChiefSitting Bull declined to take part in the ceremony. A group of 1,200 Oglala and Cheyenne warriors marched against General George Crook and his brigade on June 17, 1876, and successfully repelled the soldiers as they attempted to advance into Sitting Bull’s encampment on the Little Bighorn River.
In the Battle of the Little Bighorn, a week later, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull joined forces to annihilate Lt.
George Armstrong Custer and his illustrious Seventh Cavalry, in what is considered to be the greatest Native American victory over American troops in history.
The Death of Crazy Horse
Following Custer’s loss, the United States Army launched a ferocious counteroffensive against the Lakota, employing a scorched-earth policy with the goal of forcing total submission. While Sitting Bull and his men fled to Canada to avoid the fury of the United States Army, Crazy Horse remained on the battlefield. However, when the winter of 1877 set in and food supplies began to run low, Crazy Horse’s supporters began to turn their backs on him. On May 6, 1877, he rode to Fort Robinson, Nebraska, where he surrendered his arms.
Crazy Horse was taken back to Fort Robinson after his capture, when he engaged in a struggle with the officers and was bayoneted in the kidneys as a result.
On September 5, 1877, he died away peacefully with his father at his side. After more than a century has passed, Crazy Horse is still regarded as a visionary leader who battled valiantly to keep his people’s traditions and way of life alive and well.
The Crazy Horse Memorial is located in the Black Hills of South Dakota, and it is dedicated to the Native American leader Crazy Horse. The colossal artwork, which was begun in 1948 and is still being worked on today, is carved from Thunderhead Mountain and is located around 17 miles from Mount Rushmore. Eventually, it will become part of a museum and cultural center dedicated to Native Americans.
About Crazy Horse the Man : Crazy Horse Memorial®
Around 1840, Crazy Horse, also known as Tasunke Witco, was born on Rapid Creek, some 40 miles northeast of Thunderhead Mountain (now Crazy Horse Mountain), as a member of the Oglala Lakota tribe. Cultural clashes erupted, land became a source of fatal strife, and traditional Native methods were challenged and subjugated throughout this period. Crazy Horse answered by placing the needs of his people ahead of his own, a decision that would permanently cement his place in American history and cement his legacy.
- Crazy Horse Memorial Flag (in English) Crazy Horse, the son of a medicine man, was reared by the ladies of histiospayeor family throughout his early years of life.
- Crazy Horse received advice on his life path as a result of this rite of passage.
- Crazy Horse was already a full-fledged warrior by the time he was in his mid-teens, according to legend.
- The only thing he wore on his head was a single hawk feather, and he also had a rock behind his ear and a lightning sign painted on his face.
- Crazy Horse led a party of Lakota warriors in an attack on Custer’s Seventh United States Cavalry unit in 1876.
- Custer, nine other commanders, and 280 enlisted men were all killed when the conflict was finally done.
- Due to Crazy Horse’s crucial role in preventing reinforcements from coming, the battle’s outcome would have been drastically different had he not been present.
It was as a result of this that many Indian tribes were compelled to migrate throughout the nation under the constant surveillance of troops until they were driven to surrender by hunger or exposure.
Crazy Horse traveled to Fort Robinson in 1877, under the guise of a cease-fire.
According to eyewitnesses, the translator was to responsible for the collapse in discussions because he mistranslated what Crazy Horse had stated.
After realizing that his commanding officers intended to jail him, he resisted and pulled his knife to defend himself.
As Crazy Horse struggled to free himself, a bayonet-wielding infantryman made a successful lunge at him, gravely wounding the famous warrior.
There are several distinct versions of his death, all of which place it about midnight on September 5, 1877.
Crazy Horse lived under the notion that by taking a photograph, a piece of his soul would be taken away and his life would be cut short by the act of photographing him.
When Korczak drew Crazy Horse for Crazy Horse Memorial®, the figure he produced was based on details provided by survivors of the Battle of the Little Bighorn and other contemporary witnesses to Crazy Horse’s life.
Sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski decided to create a monument that captured Crazy Horse’s likeness based on the descriptions provided in order to honor the principles and values for which Native Americans stood, as well as to honor all indigenous peoples of North America, and he used Crazy Horse’s likeness as inspiration.
When Crazy Horse was asked about his territories, he said, “My lands are where my dead rest.” Documentation:
- Indian Museum of North America®, 2008 Korczak’s Heritage, Inc
- Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas, 2004 Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas, 2004 Mari Sandoz’s Crazy Horse (Tashunka Witko) Great Warrior of the Oglalas (Teaton Sioux), 2003. Crazy Horse (Tashunka Witko) Great Warrior of the Oglalas (Teaton Sioux) by Mari Sandoz. Crazy Horse A Lakota’s Life, a 1956 film directed by Harold P. Howard Bray, Kingsley M.
- Bray, Kingsley M.
Crazy Horse (tashunka witco) – Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)
In 2008, Korczak’s Heritage, Inc. established the Native American Indian Museum of North America®. In 2004, Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas was published by Korczak’s Heritage, Inc. Mari Sandoz’s Crazy Horse (Tashunka Witko) Great Warrior of the Oglalas (Teaton Sioux), 2003. Crazy Horse (Tashunka Witko) Great Warrior of the Oglalas (Teaton Sioux) is a sculpture by Mari Sandoz. Crazy Horse: A Lakota’s Life, a 1956 film directed by Harold P. Howard. Kingsley M. Bray is an American author and businessman.
Tashunka Witco (Crazy Horse)
Crazy Horse is one of the few Native American names in North America that elicits as much immediate awareness as Crazy Horse. He is considered to be one of the greatest soldiers in American history. The historical Crazy Horse will be found on a route that is obscured by myth and folklore if we desire to learn more about him. Crazy Horse passed away in the early hours of September 5, 1877. Because he died so shortly after the conclusion of the Sioux War of 1876-1877, he was never interviewed by journalists or historians.
- Other well-known Western Sioux individuals lived for many years after the hostilities were resolved, allowing for the chance to compile biographies of those who had passed away.
- The years 1838 to 1840 are usually cited as the years of his conception.
- Crazy Horse was the name of his father’s band, and Rattle Blanket Woman was the name of his mother’s band.
- Crazy Horse was known as Curley Hair when he was a little lad.
- Throughout a confrontation with the Arapahoes, the youthful Crazy Horse displayed courage and tenacity in the conflict.
- Worm would be the father’s given name from that point on.
How Crazy Horse earned his ‘insane’ name as a child
Crazy Horse’s name will be known for eons to come, but his face will be forgotten as well, because he refused to allow himself to be photographed during his life. During the Plains Wars, the Oglala Lakota chieftain gained notoriety by taking part in some of the most epic engagements, including the Native Tribes’ most significant win over American forces at Little Bighorn. It’s just as intriguing to learn how he came to have that name in the first place. The guy known as “Crazy Horse” was born in 1842 to two members of the Lakota Sioux tribe.
- He was also known by the nickname “Crazy Horse” since his father, an Oglala Lakota who married a Miniconjou Lakota, was also known by this moniker.
- Despite the fact that his mother, Rattling Blanket Woman, died when he was only four years old, she bestowed upon him the enduring moniker “Curly,” which was given to him because of his light, curly hair.
- Nevertheless, as the young man grew in age, neither his given name nor his given nickname seemed fitting for the young man.
- By the age of 18, he was commanding war groups against all of his tribe’s adversaries.
- The young man would be known as “Crazy Horse” from that point forward.
- Crazy Horse was captured at Fort Laramie.
- After taking the wife of another guy, he was shot in the face by the police.
Crazy Horse was left with a scar on his face as a result of the incident, but he was still relatively unknown outside of the region that is now known as South Dakota.
A lieutenant accused the Lakota of stealing animals from a settler’s camp.
Crazy Horse’s perception of the White Man was finally put to rest.
Crazy Horse engaged in battle with Col.
Throughout his life, Crazy Horse led his people in battle against the Americans on multiple occasions, attacking the Americans at their weakest spots.
William Fetterman, annihilating Fetterman’s army and handing the Army their greatest loss at the hands of Native Americans at the time of the attack.
Crazy Horse replied by fighting alongside Gen.
He was able to fight Crook to a draw, but he was able to dissuade Crook from his intention to join forces with the United States 7th Cavalry, which was headed by George Armstrong Custer.
Custer’s failure to connect up with Crook resulted in him not having the personnel necessary to smash Crazy Horse at Little Bighorn, and he and his men were murdered as a result.
In the end, Crazy Horse handed himself in to the authorities in an attempt to provide a better life for what was remained of his tribe, only to be bayoneted by a jail guard.
12 Things to Know About Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse, also known as Ta-Sunko-Witko, was a renowned warrior and Lakota Oglala commander who defended Oglala territory and assisted in the defeat of General George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Crazy Horse, also known as Ta-Sunko-Witko, was born into a family of warriors. Crazy Horse is alleged to have declared, “We preferred our own way of life.” “There was no cost to the government in having us here.” It was only quiet and being left alone that we wished for.” Learn more about the Lakota war chief by reading his biography.
1. “CRAZY HORSE” WAS NOT HIS FIRST GIVEN NAME.
Crazy Horse was given the name Cha-O-Ha, which means “Among the Trees,” when he was born about 1840 to Lakota parents. (His mother, on the other hand, insisted on his being referred to as “Curly.”) He was given the same name that his father and grandfather had given him, Ta-Sunko-Witko, which means “Crazy Horse,” when he reached adulthood.
2. HE RAN AWAY WITH A MAN’S WIFE AND WAS SHOT IN THE FACE.
Crazy Horse was given the name Cha-O-Ha, which means “Among the Trees,” when he was born in 1840 to Lakota parents. Although he preferred to be referred to as “Curly,” his mother insisted on calling him by that name. He was given the same name that his father and grandfather had given him, Ta-Sunko-Witko, which means “Crazy Horse,” when he reached the age of adulthood.
3. AND THEN PROMPTLY FELL IN LOVE WITHANOTHERWOMAN.
Following Crazy Horse’s shooting, a lady named Black Shawl was dispatched to assist him in his recovery. Crazy Horse found himself in love again again. They were married and had a daughter, but she died when she was a toddler due to complications during pregnancy.
4. HE GOT HIS FIRST TASTE OF BATTLE THANKS TO A WANDERING COW.
In 1854, a free cow walked into a Lakota camp in present-day Wyoming. The cow did not survive for long: it was slaughtered, butchered, and the flesh was distributed among the members of the village. Lieutenant John Lawrence Grattan and 29 other United States troops arrived at the camp shortly after, with the goal of apprehending the person who had “stolen” the cow. Eventually, they shot and killed the Lakota leader, Conquering Bear. In return, the Lakota slaughtered all 30 troops. A young Crazy Horsesaw itall, and the experience fueled his resentment of white people.
5. AFTER THE MASSACRE, CRAZY HORSE WENT ON A VISION QUEST.
For young males of the plains tribes, it was normal practice to seek visions, which were more or less like instructions on how to fulfill one’s destiny in life. Crazy Horse began to experience visions from another realm after refusing to eat or drink for four days. He discovered that if he lived simply and declined war trophies, and embraced an attitude of simplicity, he would never be hurt in combat. Crazy Horse is claimed to have suffered only one injury during the succeeding conflicts, and that was his leg.
6. CRAZY HORSE’S GREATEST BATTLES WERE PROMPTED BY AMERICA’S LUST FOR GOLD.
Because of its insatiable desire for gold, the United States government violated several of the treaties it had signed with Native Americans. In 1863, explorer John Bozeman forged a road to Montana’s gold fields, passing through Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapahoe territory, which had previously been off-limits to European settlers under an 1851 treaty with the tribes. Tensions began to rise. The massacre of more than 200 innocent Cheyenne, the bulk of whom were women and children, took place in Colorado in 1864, according to historical records.
Approximately 80 troops from Wyoming’s Fort Phil Kearny, a massive garrison established to defend white emigrants and gold seekers, were commanded by Captain William Fetterman on the 21st of December, 1866.
Fetterman’s soldiers trailed after them, rushing headlong into the clutches of 1000 hidden warriors. The soldiers from the United States were all dead. This was known as the Fetterman Massacre by the Americans; however, it was known as the Battle of the Hundred-in-Hands by the Lakota.
7. A BROKEN TREATY BROUGHT CRAZY HORSE AND CUSTER INTO CONFLICT.
Even though the Sioux claimed ownership of the Black Hills of South Dakota under the terms of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie, the pact was violated just six years after it was signed, mostly as a result of the discovery of gold in the region by prospectors. When the United States government ordered General George Armstrong Custer to head a surveying mission to the area in 1874, it was considered a success. When the Sioux refused to surrender their lands, the government forced them to relocate to smaller reserves, which the Native Americans refused to accept as their new home.
8. HIS LEADERSHIP AT THE BATTLE OF ROSEBUD SPELLED CUSTER’S DOOM.
The United States Department of War ordered all Lakota people to live on reservations in 1876. Crazy Horse, on the other hand, declined. His soldiers instead engaged Brigadier General George Crook’s forces at Little Bighorn, where they were attempting to attack Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull’s encampment. He commanded 1500 Lakota and Cheyenne warriors in a battle against Crook’s men. Crazy Horse scored a strategic win in this engagement, as it drove Crook’s army off the field and prevented George Custer’s Seventh Cavalry from receiving much-needed reinforcements.
9. HIS PERFORMANCE AT THE BATTLE OF THE LITTLE BIGHORN WAS LEGENDARY.
And by legendary, we mean that no one knows exactly what Crazy Horse accomplished. However, there are rumors. Crazy Horse, according to an Arapaho warrior named Water Guy, “was the fiercest man I’d ever seen.” He rode closest to the soldiers, giving orders to his warriors as he passed them. All of the troops were aiming their weapons at him, yet he was never struck.” The words of another Native American soldier, “Crazy Horse was the most fearsome combatant in the entire battle.”
10. HE WAS STARVED INTO SURRENDERING.
Following the Battle of the Little Bighorn, two of the battle’s most important leaders—Sitting Bull and Gall—flew to Canada to begin a new life. Crazy Horse stayed in the United States. It was a decision that would alter the course of my life. Colonel Nelson A. Miles was on a crusade to force all Native Americans into reservations at the time, and during the winters of 1876 and 1877, Miles attacked the Lakota where it hurt: buffalo herds were devastated, and the winter became particularly difficult for Crazy Horse’s people.
He was sent to Fort Robinson, Nebraska, where he was placed on a reserve.
11. HE WAS STABBED TO DEATH.
Crazy Horse was forced to leave the reserve without authorization in September 1877. In this case, his wife had grown unwell, and he sought to transport her to her mother’s home. The warrior’s detention was authorized by General Crook because he feared he might return to the battlefield.
A bayonet was shoved into the body of Crazy Horse during his capture, which was a result of his resistance. It proved to be a lethal blow. He turned down an invitation to sleep on his back while Crazy Horse was bleeding out. He passed away on the floor.
12. IF COMPLETED, THE CRAZY HORSE MEMORIAL COULD BE THE WORLD’S LARGEST SCULPTURE.
The Crazy Horse Memorial, which has been under construction since 1948, was commissioned by Henry Standing Bear, the Oglala Lakota leader, in the late 1930s as a reaction to the erection of Mount Rushmore. Thememorial, which is being constructed by a non-profit organization that will not accept government money, is still in its early stages. The monument, which will be carved into the side of South Dakota’s Thunderhead Mountain when it is completed, will reach 563 feet tall.
Native Americans and Mount Rushmore
Mount Rushmore|Article about Mount Rushmore
Native Americans and Mount Rushmore
Native Americans are represented in the collection. The narrative of Mount Rushmore’s construction is one of struggle — and, according to some, sacrilege. The Black Hills are considered sacred by the Lakota Sioux, who were the area’s indigenous inhabitants before white immigrants came. The four presidents cut into the hillside are not without bad connotations for some people. The Sioux have had a difficult time coping with white males in the past. The Sioux land, which included the Black Hills, was given in perpetuity by the United States government in the Treaty of 1868.
- The Sioux were thus obliged to give up their claim to the Black Hills part of their reservation by the federal government.
- When Ulysses S.
- Either this or a war of annihilation is the only option.” Assimilation was not an option for many of the land’s original inhabitants; for them, the only alternative was to go to battle.
- However, the army’s defeat in the Battle of Little Bighorn in America’s centennial year, 1876, caused the federal government to redouble its efforts against General George Armstrong Custer and his soldiers.
- The Battle of Wounded Knee, which took place in 1890 in South Dakota, was the final significant defeat of Native Americans in the United States.
- The history of Wounded Knee would inspire activists from the American Indian Movement (A.I.M.) to take over the site in 1973 and occupy it.
- It wasn’t long before the FBI became involved in what became known as the Second Siege at Wounded Knee, resulting in a heated confrontation that claimed the lives of two Native Americans and injured a number of others on both sides.
After being convicted of killing the FBI officers in a case that has sparked widespread debate, A.I.M.
In 1927, with a turbulent history as a backdrop, a white man from Connecticut traveled to the Black Hills and dynamited and drilled the faces of four white men into the mountain’s face, therefore creating Mount Rushmore.
Rushmore is considered an insult to certain Sioux for at least three reasons: 1.
Two, the Black Hills, in particular, are revered as holy territory.
In 1939, Sioux Chief Henry Standing Bear urged sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski, who had previously worked on Rushmore, to carve a tribute to the Sioux nation in the Black Hills, as a counterpoint to the white faces of the monument.
Citing Borglum’s difficulties with financial managers, Ziolkowski himself purchased a mountaintop with a granite outcropping and raised the funds necessary to complete the project entirely on his own alone.
Although Korczak Ziolkowski passed away in 1982, his family has continued to work on this monumental project; Crazy Horse’s face was finished and dedicated to the public in 1998.
The Crazy Horse monument is not without its detractors and detractors of the Crazy Horse monument.
Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger Foreward
Red Dog was an Oglala Lakota who resided in the Red Cloud Agency in Nebraska from 1876 to 1877, according to historical records (Nebraska State Historical Society RG2955.ph). The Sioux Indian Agency in Nebraska and Dakota Territory were taken under control by the United States Army in the summer of 1876 following Lt. Col. George A. Custer’s loss at the Battle of the Little Bighorn (Little Bighorn). According to reports, the agency camps were providing as a source of supplies and reinforcements for the fighting Sioux who had slaughtered Custer, and the military planned to put an end to this assistance by any means necessary.
- Further down the road in 1876 and 1877, when the Sioux War came to a close and many of the once hostile bands began to drift into the agency under the weight of following army field commanders, the military census records were enlarged to include full registration of these surrendering bands.
- Formed under the command of two young army lieutenants, the ledger provides the administrative statistical record of Indian tribes affiliated with the Red Cloud Agency, which was located near Camp (later Fort) Robinson in northwest Nebraska.
- To fully comprehend the book’s worth and the treasures contained inside its pages, it would be beneficial to read or reread the writings of George Hyde, Mari Sandoz, and James C.
- The census ledger builds on the historical foundation laid by these authors to present a more complete picture of the human component of the Oglala experience during this pivotal time period.
- In the case of the Oglala Lakota, we can observe, for example, how the military administration of the agency in 1876-77 contributed to the ultimate dissolution of the traditional tribal system among them.
- Some of these were recognized by their traditional names (Kiyuksa, Wazhazha), while others were identified by the names of their chiefs or headmen (Red Cloud, Young Man Afraid of His Horses), or a mix of the two methods.
- Lieutenant Johnson’s census, which was done in February 1877, named the “Melt Band” as a prominent Oglala agency group under the Yellow Bear agency group.
Lieutenant Johnson lists Garnett as a member of the Melt band, which he believes to be correct (p.
Spleen Band is the name given to this tribal group by those who are better familiar with it (Tapishlecha).
One can only speculate as to how such an antique word form came to be a part of Garnett’s lexical repertoire.
For readers who are familiar with the history of the Oglala Lakota, there will be a number of familiar names on the pages of the ledger that will be known to them.
Twiss, Indian agent for the Upper Platte Agency from 1855 to 1861, are of great interest to me.
One can only speculate whether either Lieutenant Calhoun or Lieutenant Johnson were aware that the late husband of the woman, and the father of the teen-age boys, Jimmy and Charles, who are mentioned on the census, was an honor graduate of the United States Military Academy when they visited the Twiss home—for the entry on page 72 contains a “h” notation which I believe to signify “house” or “log cabin.” In 1826, Twiss graduated second in his class at West Point, where he was a classmate of Generals Albert Sidney Johnston, Samuel P.
- Heintzelman, and Silas Casey, all of whom went on to distinguished careers in the Mexican and Civil Wars.
- Born out of partnerships between white fathers and Sioux women, the mixed-blood kids of these marriages were frequently referred to as “half-breeds” and their paternal grandparents were referred to as “squaw men” in written records from the time period.
- As a result, Mrs.
- Randall, and so on are represented by entries.
This plainly disproves the long-held and commonly repeated idea that all, or the majority, of the mixed-blood families were linked with the Oglala “Loafer Band.” As the “Loafers” or “remain about the fort people” were known, they were the Sioux tribes that began to settle near Fort Laramie in the 1850s and 1860s, rather than continuing their customary buffalo hunting lifestyle as they had done in earlier years.
A number of mixed-blood families were living with the Loafer band in 1876-77, according to the census (pp.
It is clear from this that many mixed families were still associated with the tribal divisions to which the wife and mother in the household belonged, and that the wife and mother in the household remained a part of her traditional tiospaye (family clan or group) until the end of the nineteenth century.
As one progresses through the book, other well-known names come to the reader’s attention.
163), is listed as one of the Crazy Horse band’s members on page 163 of the book.
The name of Little Wound’s father, Old Bad Wound (p.
White Cow Killer (pp.
25, 66) are two notable Oglala tribe historians who feature in the book, whose winter counts were published by the Bureau of American Ethnology in its fourth annual report and who are also mentioned in the book.
17,62) is still dwelling in his son’s camp at the agency.
He was an exceptional leader during this time period.
27) refers to the southern Oglala warrior chief, rather than the more well-known Hunkpapa Sioux leader of the same name, which is confusing.
On the Yellowstone River, near an army cantonment, he was betrayed and murdered by Crow scouts in the month of December, 1876.
Since practically the time of the battle, authors have asserted an enormous number of lodges for the Little Bighorn camp and computed that each lodge had, on average, two warriors per lodge as a general rule of thumb.
In more recent analyses of the subject, the magnitude of the Indian fighting force has been taken into consideration with greater prudence; yet, there has not always been enough reliable statistical data available to prove the strength of Custer’s conquerors.
Based on an examination of the composition of this group of 145 lodges and 217 adult males, it can be concluded that: One adult male warrior may be found in each of the 66 lodges.
There are three or more adult male warriors in each of the twenty groups.
Even if all widows’ lodges were closed down, the average number of adult males of fighting age in each lodge would still be 1.7 per lodge.
This and other data strongly supports the notion that Custer and his Seventh Cavalry were destroyed by a warrior force with greater combat abilities rather than just by sheer numbers.
When the agency bands were counted, it was revealed that the population of those peaceable groups averaged 52 percent adults and 48 percent children (both Sioux and Arapaho, the latter of whom were known to have remained at Red Cloud throughout the summer’s hostilities).
Even though other factors may have contributed to these statistically significant differences, it appears from this data that the military columns’ pursuit, attacks on winter camps, and unusual winter hunting opportunities took a fatal toll on the fighting bands’ young fighters and soldiers.
It was not until the late eighteenth century that authorities at Sioux agencies took the necessary precautions to clean up such personal identity information before the official tribe census rolls were prepared for administrative purposes.
For example, one name could be a formal tribal identity, which could and frequently did change over time, whereas another name could be a nickname given to someone by their friends or close associates.
Examples include the names of Crazy Horse himself, his uncle Little Hawk, Little Big Man, He Dog, Black Elk, and other major individuals in the camp on pages 163-70, which lists the members of the vast Crazy Horse party in alphabetical order.
He must have entered the agency during the surrenders that took place the previous spring, but he must have used a different identity.
Blish, A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux, University of Nebraska Press, 1967) reveal that he was also known by another name, Holy Buffalo.
170) reveals that He Dog’s household contained four additional adult males who were all identified as members of his lodge.
2, Wound in Back—match the names of He Dog’s siblings listed in the extremely detailed and authoritative record kept by Amos Bad Heart Bull, who was a relative of He Dog.
Thus, while the Crazy Horse surrender ledger is an extremely useful and essential historical record, it is not the final word on some of the themes with which it deals at the time it was published.
To the credit of the Nebraska State Historical Society, it was able to follow up on the acquisition of this remarkable record with a publication that will reach a broad audience of appreciative readers, both Indian and white, as a result of their efforts.
Harry H. Anderson is a well-known author. Milwaukee County Historical Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving the history of Milwaukee County. Milwaukee, Wisconsin is a city in the United States.