1184 B.C.: During the Trojan War, the Greeks depart in ships, leaving behind a large wooden horse as a victory offering.
- The term Trojan horse has come to refer to subversion introduced from the outside. Beginning in the late 20th century, the name “ Trojan horse ” was applied to deceptively benign computer codes that seem like legitimate applications but are written to damage or disrupt a computer’s programming or to steal personal information.
Was the Trojan Horse a true story?
Turns out the epic wooden horse that gave the Greeks their victory was all a myth. Actually, historians are pretty much unanimous: the Trojan Horse was just a myth, but Troy was certainly a real place.
How long were they in the Trojan Horse?
The story of the Trojan Horse is well-known. First mentioned in the Odyssey, it describes how Greek soldiers were able to take the city of Troy after a fruitless ten-year siege by hiding in a giant horse supposedly left as an offering to the goddess Athena.
What year did the Trojan War start and end?
Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War are derived from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the 12th or 11th century BCE, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BCE, which roughly correspond to archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VII, and the Late
Who built the Trojan Horse and why?
Trojan horse, huge hollow wooden horse constructed by the Greeks to gain entrance into Troy during the Trojan War. The horse was built by Epeius, a master carpenter and pugilist.
Does Trojan horse still exist?
According to the article they claim what they have discovered are remains of the legendary Trojan Horse. The remnants were assembled in a strange form, that led the experts to suspect they belong to the Trojan Horse. The wooden structure was inside the walls of the ancient city of Troy.
Where is the city of Troy today?
The ancient city of Troy was located along the northwest coast of Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey.
What year did Troy fall?
Troy fell into ruin at the end of the Bronze Age, around 1180 BC, as did all the centres of power of the Mediterranean world, for reasons that are not completely understood.
Who won in Trojan War?
The Greeks finally win the war by an ingenious piece of deception dreamed up by the hero and king of Ithaca, Odysseus – famous for his cunning. They build a huge wooden horse and leave it outside the gates of Troy, as an offering to the gods, while they pretend to give up battle and sail away.
Who Killed Achilles?
According to legend, the Trojan prince Paris killed Achilles by shooting him in the heel with an arrow. Paris was avenging his brother, Hector, whom Achilles had slain. Though the death of Achilles is not described in the Iliad, his funeral is mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey.
Was there really a Helen of Troy?
There are many conflicting elements to the mythology that surround the figure of Helen, some interpretations of the myth even suggest that she was abducted by Paris. But ultimately, there was no real Helen in Ancient Greece, she is purely a mythological character.
Did Achilles exist?
The consensus of Historians and scholars seems to be that Achilles was a legend. His humanity was not literal but rather literary. Homer’s skill created a character that encompassed both the heroism and the failings of the warriors who held Troy’s walls against a siege.
How much of Troy is true?
Most historians now agree that ancient Troy was to be found at Hisarlik. Troy was real. Evidence of fire, and the discovery of a small number of arrowheads in the archaeological layer of Hisarlik that corresponds in date to the period of Homer’s Trojan War, may even hint at warfare.
Why is it called Trojan Horse?
Trojans take their name from the hollow wooden horse that the Greeks hid inside of during the Trojan War. The Trojans, thinking the horse was a gift, opened their walled city to accept it, allowing the Greeks to come out of hiding at night to attack the sleeping Trojans.
What’s the story of Helen of Troy?
Helen of Troy, Greek Helene, in Greek legend, the most beautiful woman of Greece and the indirect cause of the Trojan War. She was daughter of Zeus, either by Leda or by Nemesis, and sister of the Dioscuri. When Paris was slain, Helen married his brother Deiphobus, whom she betrayed to Menelaus once Troy was captured.
What does Trojan horse mean today?
Today, the term “Trojan horse” is still used to refer to any kind of deception or trick that involves getting a target willingly to allow an enemy into a secure place. The Trojan horse is also the source of the nickname “Trojans” for computer programs — called malware — that can infect computer systems.
In the Trojan War, the Greeks built a massive hollowwooden horse called the Trojan Horse to gain entry into the city of Troy. Peius, a great carpenter and pugilist, was responsible for the construction of the horse. Pretending to leave the fight, the Greeks fled to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon in charge of convincing the Trojans that the horse was a sacrifice to Athena(goddess of war) that would render Troy impenetrable. Sinon was captured and executed by the Greeks. However, despite the cautions of Laocoön and Cassidra, the horse was driven through the city gates.
The story is presented in great detail in Book II of theAeneid and is briefly mentioned in theOdyssey as well.
Beginning in the late twentieth century, the term “Trojan horse” was used to refer to deceptively innocent computer codes that appear to be genuine applications, but are really created to destroy or disrupt a computer’s programming or to collect personal information from the user of the computer.
Frequently Asked Questions
What started the Trojan War?
A mythological struggle between early Greeks and the inhabitants of Troy in western Anatolia that has been dated to the 12th or 13th centuries BCE by later Greek authors has been dubbed the Trojan War. As much as any other event in ancient Greek history, the war stirred the imagination of the ancient Greeks, and it was commemorated in theIliad and theOdysseyofHomer, among other early works that have since been lost, and it frequently served as source material for the great dramatists of the Classical Age to draw upon.
According to legendary stories, Paris, the son of the Trojan king, fled with Helen, the wife of Menelausof Sparta, whose brother Agamemnonthen launched a Greek expedition against Troy and was captured by the Greeks.
In response to the Trojan’s introduction of the horse into their city, the disguised Greeks unlocked the gates to their fellow soldiers, who subsequently destroyed Troy, slaughtered its men, and abducted its women and children.
Achilles kills Penthesilea during the Trojan War, shown in the interior of an Attic cup, around 460 BCE; on display at the Museum of Antiquities in Munich.
Located in New York City is the Mansell Collection/Art Resource. Adam Augustyn was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.
Inside The True Story Behind The Legendary Trojan Horse
Photograph by Adam Jones / Wikimedia Commons In Turkey’s Dardanelles, there is a facsimile of the Trojan Horse. Ancient Greek legend has it that it was the Trojan horse that enabled the war-weary Greeks to eventually invade the city of Troy and claim victory in the Trojan War. In accordance with legend, the horse was erected at Odysseus’s request and he then concealed himself within its framework with several other warriors in order to eventually lay siege to the city of Troy. Its architecture — as well as its function — was so monumental that it was immortalized in classical masterpieces for all time.
Historical scholars have recently questioned if the over-the-top exhibition of Grecian military strength was nothing more than a fiction, created to make the Greek army appear more like a heavenly force and less like the simple mortals that they actually were.
Irrespective of whether or not the Trojan horse actually existed, its significance in history cannot be overstated.
The Trojan Horse in theAeneid
When the Trojan horse appears in antiquity, it’s in Virgil’s epic poem The Aeneid, written in 29 B.C. by a Roman poet from the Augustan era, who was inspired by the story of Achilles and his horse. According to Virgil’s version of the story, a Greek soldier by the name of Sinon tricked the Trojans into believing that he had been abandoned by his men and that the Greeks had returned home. However, he claimed that one of his troops had left behind a horse as a homage to the Greek goddess Athena.
The Trojan priest Laocoön, on the other hand, soon sensed that something was awry.
Sadly, it was too late — “the horse had already reached Troy,” and thus was created the legend of the Trojan horse.
It is said that they should “pull the statue to her dwelling” and “give prayers to the goddess’s divinity.” We were successful in breaching the wall and allowing the city’s defenses to be penetrated.
An Early Skeptic Of The Trojan Horse Story
A drama by Euripides called The Trojan Women, which was written before the Aeneid, also makes allusion to a “Trojan horse.” Throughout the play, which was initially composed in 415 B.C., Poseidon (the Greek deity of the sea) addresses the audience as the play opens. For from his home beneath Parnassus, Phocian Epeus, assisted by Pallas’ craft, framed a horse to bear within its womb an armed host, and sent it within the battlements, fraught with death; wherefrom in days to come men will tell of “the wooden horse,” with its hidden load of warriors, said Poseidon in the opening scene.
Even though the wooden horse was appropriately represented in The Trojan Womenplay as a metaphor, the Aeneid’s representation caused historians to believe that the wooden horse was more literal, as well as really existing in the real world.
Pausanias, a Greek explorer and geographer who lived in the second century A.D.
Pausanias depicts a horse made of metal, rather than wood, that was used to transport Greek warriors in his book,Description of Greece.
But tradition has it that the horse was ridden by one of the most heroic of the Greeks, and the design of the bronze figure corresponds to this account rather well.” Menestheus and Teucer may be seen peering out of the opening, as well as the sons of Theseus.
Historians Think The Trojan Horse May Have Been A Metaphor — Or Siege Engine
Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Trojans are seen celebrating as the horse is driven into town in this image from 2004’s Troy. Image from the film Troy. Dr. Armand D’Angour of the University of Oxford clarified the situation more recently, in 2014. In the University’s newsletter, he said that “archaeological evidence suggests that Troy was certainly burned down; but, the wooden horse is an imaginative myth, presumably inspired by the way ancient siege-engines were coated with wet horse-hides to prevent them from being set alight.” However, as recently as August 2021, researchers in Turkey discovered dozens of wooden planks going back thousands of years in the hills of Hisarlik — which is widely thought to be the historical location of the city of Troy — which they claim to represent the site of the ancient metropolis.
- The archaeologists were pretty confident they had discovered the remnants of the very genuine Trojan Horse itself, despite the fact that many historians expressed skepticism.
- Regardless of whose version of the narrative you choose to believe, the phrase “Trojan horse” is still in common usage today.
- The term “Trojan horse” — more generally referred to as merelya trojan— is now more widely employed in the context of computer malware that deceives users about the real nature of the infection.
- Perhaps, in the same manner that we regard Virgil and Pausanias now, historians of the future will regard computer scientist Ken Thompson, who initially invented the phrase in the 1980s.
- ‘Perhaps it’s more necessary to put your faith in the individuals who built the program,’ he suggests.
- Followed by a story of an old Greek jar that was used to curse more than 55 persons in Athens, Greece.
Did the Trojan Horse exist? Classicist tests Greek ‘myths’
We are all familiar with the story of the Trojan Horse. First stated in Homer’s Odyssey, the Trojan Horse relates how Greek troops were able to capture the city of Troy after a failed ten-year siege by hiding in a gigantic horse that had been left as a sacrifice to the goddess Athena by the Trojans. Was it, however, a fabrication? Archaeological evidence reveals that Troy was definitely burned down; but, the wooden horse is an imaginary myth, presumably inspired by the way ancient siege-engines were coated with damp horse-hides to prevent them from being set ablaze, according to Oxford University classicist Dr Armand D’Angour.
- The Iliad and Odyssey, which are known as Homer’s epics, were created orally, without the use of written manuscripts, somewhere in the 8th Century BC, according to Dr D’Angour, following a long history of oral minstrelsy that had existed for years before that time.
- Even though the poems were produced without writing and verbally conveyed, we can be certain that they were eventually written down in Greek because that is the only way they have survived.’ According to Dr.
- The story has been read by millions of people and is among the most shared on the BBC website over the previous few days.
- D’Angour is working on a two-year project to restore the sounds of Greek music and to determine the importance of these sounds in some of the most renowned poetry from Ancient Greece.
- It was poets who produced the Iliad and Odyssey, as well as the love poems of archaic Lesbos, the victory odes of the early fifth century BC, and the choral sections of Greek tragedy and comedy, who composed the words that were to be sung and accompanied by musical instruments.
The melodic structures of ancient Greek music are given even less attention, in spite of the fact that we now have enough fragments and voluminous writings by ancient authors and musical theorists (all of which have been admirably translated and compiled by Andrew Barker in Greek Musical Writings) to exercise an informed scholarly imagination on them.
It is inevitable that readers of ancient writings will lose part of the original artistic effect of these songs if they do not pay attention to the auditory dimension of them.
Did the Trojan War actually happen?
Is it true that the Trojan War took place? From Homer’s Odyssey to Alexander Pope, it has been a source of interest for people all around the world for thousands of years. Was the ancient conflict, on the other hand, a dreadful reality or a myth? Daisy Dunn examines the information and makes a decision. Whilst putting together Of Gods and Men, a new collection of ancient stories translated by great writers, I was shocked to learn how ubiquitous the story of The Trojan War has been throughout history.
- In addition to being a fantastic narrative, the Trojan War has long been thought to have occurred.
- Achilles is shown as murdering the Amazon queen Penthesilea on an Athenian amphora from 530 BC (Credit: Trustees of the British Museum) The Trojan War, in fact, was much more than a fiction for the majority of ancient Greeks.
- As evidenced by the historical texts – Herodotus and Eratosthenes – it was widely believed to have been a genuine occurrence.
- It all started when Paris, Priam’s unfortunate son, declared Aphrodite to be the most beautiful goddess, prompting her to offer him Agamemnon’s lovely sister-in-law, Helen, as a reward for his judgment.
- Desperate to reclaim Helen and punish the Trojans, Agamemnon and his brother defeated the Trojans.
- (Image courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) Even eminent historians of antiquity were inclined to accept the possibility that this conflict truly took place.
- Mathematician Eratosthenes was more exact in his estimation, placing the conflict around 1184/3 BC.
Is it possible that the Trojan War took place at all?
Ancient Greek vases, Roman paintings, and more recent works of art representing stories inspired by Troy are on display with archaeological artifacts going back to the Late Bronze Age in this exhibition.
The exhibition Troy at the British Museum includes a Bronze-age pot from Troy, which is one of the exhibits.
In his epic, the Aeneid, Virgil describes how the hero Aeneas, accompanied by a party of companions, escaped from the burning castle after the Greeks rode into the city on their wooden horse.
Reality is bleak.
Even today, it is difficult to believe that the Iliad’s depictions of warfare were not based on actual observations of fighting conditions.
Troy, too, is depicted in such exquisite detail in the epic that the reader is compelled to imagine himself within its beautiful walls.
Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy Prussian businessman who traveled to what is now Turkey in the late nineteenth century, was motivated by the promise of uncovering Homer’s Troy, according to historians.
He unearthed a vast number of ancient riches, many of which are now on exhibit in the British Museum, and he is still digging today.
The majority of historians now accept that the ancient city of Troy was located near Hisarlik.
Evidence of fire, as well as the discovery of a limited number of arrowheads in an archaeological stratum in Hisarlik that corresponds to the time period of Homer’s Trojan War, may point to the presence of a military campaign in the area.
None of this is conclusive evidence of a Trojan invasion.
In 1825, Filippo Albacini painted The Wounded Achilles, which is now in the Devonshire Collections in Chatsworth/Chatsworth Settlement Trustees’ possession.
When the citadel was rather compact, as archaeologists have discovered, it is difficult to conceive a conflict taking place on the scale depicted by the poet and lasting as long as ten years.
The warriors in Homer’s conflict, on the other hand, appear to be all too human and realistic in their actions.
In the Bronze Age, there would have been no deities directing the outcome of war, but soldiers who found themselves surrounded and outnumbered by their opponents may easily have believed in the existence of deities when the tide of battle swung against them.
In this depiction of Odysseus escaping the sirens on his lengthy trip home from the Trojan War, which dates from 480-470 BC, an Athenian pottery jar is depicted (Credit: Trustees of the British Museum) The Greeks discovered in the legacy of the Trojan War an explanation for the bloodthirsty and inferior society in which they were forced to dwell.
Their age had passed away, leaving behind all of the bloodthirstiness of the Trojan War, but none of the heroism or martial excellence that had characterized it.
After the war, the Greek tragedian Aeschylus described Clytemnestra as murdering her husband, Agamemnon, who “carelessly, as if it were a head of a sheep/Out of the abundance of his fleecy flocks,/Sacrificed his own daughter,” Iphigenia, in order to appease a goddess so that he might have a fair wind for his voyage to Troy.
Whether it was influenced by a long-ago conflict or was just an amazing innovation, it made its mark on the globe and continues to be of colossal historical significance to this day.
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What Is a Trojan Horse?
LANGUAGE ARTS—WRITING IN LANGUAGE
Have You Ever Wondered.
- What is a Trojan horse and how does it work? Identify which epic poetry contains the narrative of The Trojan Horse. What may the appearance of a modern-day Trojan horse be like
When we look at today’s Wonder of the Day, we are transported back in time to the time of the Trojan War. In Virgil’sAeneid, a famous epic poem, it is stated that the Greeks attempted to seize the ancient city of Troy and theTrojanpeople who had lived there for more than ten centuries. They were finally successful as a result of a creative bit of ruse. It was under Odysseus’ instruction that the Greeks created the enormous wood horses that served as symbols of Troy and stationed them at the city’s entrance gates for the rest of their lives.
- A big wooden horse, according to the Trojans, was a peace sacrifice to their gods and, as such, a sign of their victory following a longsiege They dragged the massive wooden horse through the streets of the city center.
- That night, when the Trojans had retired to their beds, the Greek troops trapped within the horse were able to break free and unlock the city’s gates, allowing the remainder of the Greek army to enter, which had returned under cover of darkness from its nighttime voyage.
- The word “Trojanhorse” is still in use today “Even today, the phrase “deception” or “trick” refers to any type of deception or trick that includes convincing a target to allow an adversary to enter a secure location.
- In this way, they are able to persuade people to install and use them without them recognizing the danger they are putting themselves in.
Wonder What’s Next?
An apple a day will not keep the Wonder of the Day away from you tomorrow!
Try It Out
Would you fall for the traditional Trojan horse ruse if it was presented to you today? Maybe not.especially if you were accompanied by a group of supportive friends and family members! Gather a group of people to assist you in participating in one or more of the following activities:
- Do you enjoy reading about the mythology of ancient Greece? It’s incredible how much of today’s popular culture, including old sayings, can be traced back to these ancient tales. Today, go online and have a good time going through various articles. Some Outstanding Greek Myths! Which ones are your personal favorites? Why? What old sayings or present pop culture allusions have you heard that have their roots in an ancient Greek myth? Can you name any? Would a Trojan horse still be effective today? What are your thoughts? Wouldn’t you feel a little skeptical if a gigantic wooden horse showed up on your porch and demanded your attention? Probably! The question is, what kind of present would you be most likely to accept? What if you opened your door and discovered.what? Are you talking about a video game console? Is it time for a new cell phone? How about a life-size replica of your favorite music star? Was there anything you needed to do in order to open your arms and welcome it into your home? Of course, such products would not be able to support an army. But who knows what they may be hiding. Is it some sort of listening device? Is there a concealed video camera here? Is it possible that a super-secret brain scanner from the future exists? Yikes! Consider what a Trojan horse may look like in today’s world and create a short tale to describe how it might function in our world. As soon as you’re finished, upload your tale to Facebook so that all of your Wonder Friends may enjoy it. We can’t wait to see what kind of ideas you come up with. Do you want to take on a challenge? To assist children of all ages in learning about cyber security, the National Science Center (NSC) has developed an entertaining game that teaches them how to spot malware and avoid being a victim of computer “trojan horses.” Do you go on the internet, send emails, or use a cell phone? Then, using NSC Cyber Security methods, you can learn how to keep safe. Put your skills to the test against the Cyber Swarm! Defenders can be used to halt them dead in their tracks! When it comes to interfering with cyber security, these people aren’t fooling around. Learn how to beat them at their own game by understanding their strategy.
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From Homer and Herodotus to Sophocles and Virgil, the account of the Trojan War—the Bronze Age struggle between the kingdoms of Troy and Mycenaean Greece—crosses the boundaries of history and legend in ancient Greece, and it has inspired some of the finest authors of antiquity, including Virgil. After re-discovering the site of Troy in what is now western Turkey in the 19th century, archaeologists have unearthed more and more evidence of a kingdom that reached its zenith and may have been destroyed around 1,180 B.C.—perhaps serving as a model for the tales recounted by Homer some 400 years later in his epic poems the “Iliad” and the “Odyssey.”
The Narrative of the Trojan War
It was the abduction (or elopement), according to ancient traditions, of Queen Helen of Sparta by the Trojan prince Paris that triggered the outbreak of battle. Her betrayed husband Menelaus persuaded his brother Agamemnon, the king of Mycenae, to launch an expedition to reclaim Helen from exile in Spartia. Among those who followed Agamemnon on his expedition were the Greek heroes Achilles, Odysseus, Nestor, and Ajax, as well as an army of more than a thousand ships from all across the Hellenic world.
- After more than a decade of fights and skirmishes, including the legendary deaths of the Trojan prince Hector and the supposedly invincible Achilles, the Greek soldiers finally withdrew from their camp, leaving a massive wooden horse outside the city’s gates.
- When night fell, the horse’s mouth opened and a party of Greek warriors, headed by Odysseus, crawled out and sacked the city of Troy from the inside out.
- Odysseus’ long and sometimes interrupted journey home to Ithaca, as recorded in Homer’s “Odyssey,” took him a total of ten years.
- Following his death, some reports claim she was deported to the Greek island of Rhodes, where she was executed by hanging by a spiteful war widow.
The Trojan War Epics
It was the abduction (or elopement), according to ancient traditions, of Queen Helen of Sparta by the Trojan prince Paris that triggered the outbreak of the war. Her betrayed husband Menelaus persuaded his brother Agamemnon, the king of Mycenae, to undertake an expedition to bring Helen back to his side. More than a thousand ships from all around Greece accompanied Agamemnon and his allies on their journey to Athens. They were joined by the Greek heroes Achilles, Odysseus, Nestor, and Ajax. Their mission was to march over the Aegean Sea to Asia Minor and lay siege to Troy, demanding that Priam, the Trojan ruler, deliver Helen to her home in Greece.
In the end, the Trojans were able to bring the unusual gift inside the city after considerable deliberation (and despite Cassandra’s repeated warnings).
It took the Greek heroes some time to return home after the Trojan victory.
Helen, whose two subsequent Trojan husbands were both murdered during the conflict, returned to Sparta to govern with Menelaus when the war ended. According to some accounts, she was sent to the island of Rhodes, where she was executed by a bitter war widow, who was also a widow of a fallen soldier.
Is the Trojan War a Real War?
Many passages of Homer’s epic of the Trojan War are difficult to comprehend historically. Helen was fathered by Zeus, who disguised himself as a swan and raped her mother Leda), and much of the action is led (or interfered with) by the many rival Greek gods. For example, according to legend, Paris won Helen’s heart after bestowing the golden apple upon the goddess Aphrodite in recognition of her beauty (“The Judgment of Paris” tells the story of how Paris was asked to choose the most beautiful goddess among Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite by bestowing the apple upon the winner).
- In 1870, under the guidance of German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, extensive excavations at the site of Troy uncovered a tiny citadel mound and layers of rubble that were 25 meters thick.
- until its eventual abandonment in A.D.
- Following recent digs, it was discovered that Troy had an occupied area ten times the size of the citadel, establishing it as a large Bronze Age metropolis.
- At the time of Homer’s writing, 400 years later, the ruins would still have been evident.
Numerous passages in the Trojan War saga are difficult to comprehend historically speaking. One or more of the major protagonists is descended from one or more of the Greek gods (Helen was fathered by Zeus, who disguised himself as a swan and raped her mother Leda), and much of the action is led (or interfered with) by the different rival gods. For example, according to legend, Paris won Helen’s heart after bestowing the golden apple upon the Goddess Aphrodite in recognition of her beauty (“The Judgment of Paris” tells the story of how Paris was asked to choose the most beautiful goddess among Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite by bestowing the apple upon the winner).
A tiny citadel mound and piles of rubble 25 meters thick were discovered at the Troy site by German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann during major excavations conducted in 1870.
until its eventual abandonment in 1350 A.D., according to later investigations, which have documented more than 46 different building phases, which have been divided into nine bands.
It is believed that this layer of the excavations, which dates to around 1180 B.C., contains burnt debris and dispersed bones, evidence of a wartime destruction of the city that may have served as inspiration for elements of the myth of the Trojan War.
Its remains would have been still evident in Homer’s day, 400 years after he lived.
It was Homer’sIliad (written somewhere in the 8th century BCE) that provided us with the majority of our knowledge of The Trojan War, in which he chronicles 52 days during the last year of the ten-year struggle. The Greeks believed that the conflict took place somewhere during the 13th century BCE. It is also worth noting that, previous to Homer’s writing, the conflict was the topic of a long oral tradition, which, together with other sources like as the fragmentaryEpic Cyclepoems, allows us to get a more full picture of what the Greeks felt the Trojan War was all about.
Helen was kidnapped by the Trojan prince Paris (also known as Alexandros) and taken as a prize for choosing Aphroditeas as the most beautiful goddess in a competition with Athena and Hera at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, where she was the most beautiful goddess in the competition with Athena and Helen.
The Greek Army
It was King Agamemnon of Mycenae who was in charge of the coalition of Greek warriors (or Archaians, as Homer refers to them). Boiotia, Phocia, Euboea, Athens, Argos, Corinth, Arcadia, Sparta, Kephalonia, Crete, Rhodes, Magnesia, and the Cyclades were among the cities or areas that were represented at the exhibition. It is unknown how many males were involved in all of this. It is stated that there is an army numbering in the “tens of thousands,” or even better, in the poetic sense, “[as numerous as]the leaves and flowers that bloom in the springtime.” Do you enjoy history?
- The gods had their favorites among the men engaged in battle on the fields of Troy, and they frequently shielded them by diverting spears in their direction.
- These were the leaders of the Peloponnesian War.
- Achilles, Odysseus, Ajax, Diomedes, Patroclus, Antilokus, Menestheus, and Idomenus were among the most famous of the Greek heroes.
- In Homer’s version of the conflict, Athena, Poseidon, Hera, Hephaistos, Hermes, and Thetis all assisted the Greeks in some way, either directly or indirectly.
Men battling on the fields of Troy were particularly prized by the gods; they frequently shielded them by deflecting spears and even spiriting them away in the midst of combat to a secure location away from danger.
The Trojan Army
The Trojan army, headed by their king Priam, defended the enormous city of Troy with the support of a large number of allies, including the Greeks. The Carians, Halizones, Kaukones, Kikones, Lycians, Maionians, Mysians, Paionians, Paphlagonians, Pelasgians, Phrygians, and Thracians were among the peoples that lived in this area. AchillesPenthesileia Marie-Lan Nguyen’s full name is Marie-Lan Nguyen (CC BY) They, like the Trojans, had their semi-divine heroes, among whom were Hector (son of Priam), Aeneas, Sarpedon, Glaucus, Phorkys, Poulydamas, and Rhesos, among many more.
The majority of the Trojan War was in reality a lengthy siege, and the city’s defenses were largely responsible for the city’s ability to hold out against the invaders for such a long period of time. Indeed, according to Greek mythology, the walls of Troy were erected by Poseidon and Apollo, who were obliged by Zeus to serve the Trojan King Laomedon for a year after committing an act of impiety. But there were wars outside the city where armies battled, occasionally with chariots, but primarily with spears and swords, protected by a shield, helmet, and armour for the chest and legs, and sometimes with chariots.
Paris v Menelaus
Menelaus, weary of losing battle after battle, volunteered to confront Paris in a single combat and thereby put an end to the war’s stalemate. Following their agreement, the two warriors drew lots to determine who would be the first to throw their spear. Paris had won and hurled first, but his spear lodged harmlessly in Menelaus’ shield, preventing him from being killed. The Greek king then launched his weapon with incredible power, and the spear pierced Paris’ shield and continued through his armour to puncture his chest armor.
Menelaus, on the other hand, was not done, and with his sword he dealt a terrifying blow on the helmet of the Trojan prince.
With his own hands, Menelaus snatched Paris’ helmet from his shoulders and dragged him away from the field.
Achilles and Ajax are two of the most famous Greek heroes.
Hector v Ajax
The meeting of the two great heroes is reminiscent of the meeting of Menelaus and Paris in Greek mythology. Each throws their spears, but none of them have any effect. Afterwards, Hector launched a massive boulder at the Greek, only for him to deflect it away with his shield. Ajax then repaid the favor by stomping on Hector’s shield with an even larger boulder, destroying it. They then grabbed their swords and prepared to engage in mortal battle, but were each stopped by their companions, who pleaded with them to bring a halt to the fighting because it was getting dark.
With the assistance of Apollo, an invigorating Hector, in his best hour, defeated the Greeks once more and returned them to their ships.
The Greek Ships Attacked
Following a grueling day of combat, Hector led the Trojans in an attack on the Greeks’ camp’s outer walls, which was ultimately successful. Following their successful break-in, the Trojans fled to their ships, sending the Greeks running in terror. However, while Zeus was temporarily distracted by the allure of Hera, Poseidon stepped in to encourage the Greeks, who rallied and drove the Trojans to flee the battlefield in defeat. And then it happened again: with the help of Apollo, an indomitable Hector, in his best hour, once more defeated the Greeks and drove them back to their ships, where he attempted to set them fire.
In the aftermath of a grueling day of combat, Hector led the Trojans in an assault against the Greeks’ camp’s very walls. Following their successful break-in, the Trojans fled to their ships, sending the Greeks running in fear. Nevertheless, when Zeus was temporarily distracted by Hera’s seduction, Poseidon intervened to inspire the Greeks, who rallied and forced the Trojans to flee. And then it happened again: with the help of Apollo, an indomitable Hector, in his best hour, once again defeated the Greeks and forced them back to their ships, where he attempted to set them afire.
Achilles’ New Armour
He was filled with grief and wrath when he discovered the murder of his great friend Patroclus, and he resolved to exact terrible vengeance on the Trojans, and in especially on Hector and his sons, as soon as he could. Achilles ultimately made the decision to return to the battlefield after putting on a proper display of grieving. It was a decision that would ultimately determine the destiny of Troy. Achilles, still enraged, looked resplendent in his gleaming armour as he routed the Trojans in predictable fashion.
The deity created a gigantic shield out of bronze, tin, silver, and gold, on which were painted a plethora of terrestrial sceneries as well as all of the stars.
Agonizing in his gleaming armor, Achilles, still enraged, dispatched the Trojans, who fled in terror behind the protection of their city walls.
Hector v Achilles
He was filled with grief and wrath when he discovered the murder of his great friend Patroclus, and he resolved to exact severe vengeance on the Trojans, and in especially on Hector and his men. Achilles ultimately chose to return to the battlefield after putting on a proper display of grieving. A choice was made that would determine the fate of Troy for all time. Achilles, still enraged, looked resplendent in his gleaming armour as he routed the Trojans in predictable style. Achilles, on the other hand, required new armour before he could take part in the battle, which was given by his heavenly mother Thetis, who commissioned Hephaistos, the master craftsman of Olympus, to create the most gorgeous piece of armour that had ever been seen for her son.
A similarly glitzy, gold-crested helmet for the hero was also created by him. When the Trojans fled to the safety of their city walls in fear of being routed, Achilles was resplendent in his gleaming armor and still enraged, and he predictably routed them.
The Trojan HorseVictory
In addition to Achilles’ battle with and slaying of the Ethiopian King Memnon, there were numerous other spectacular occurrences throughout the war, including the battle with and killing of the Amazon Penthesilea, who both came to the Trojans’ help. Achilles was even claimed to have fallen in love with the lovely Amazon right before he murdered her with his spear, according to Greek legend. Achilles himself met his doom and was murdered by an arrow that was shot by Paris and directed by Apollo and lodged in his single weak area, his ankle, killing him.
- After slaughtering a flock of sheep he mistook for Greeks, he committed himself by falling on his sword in a chaotic and useless scene.
- Finally, Odysseus was able to sneak inside the city and take the precious Palladion statue of Athena, which had been guarded by the city’s guards.
- The concept of the wooden horse, on the other hand, was the ultimate and decisive action.
- Before sailing away into the sunset, the Greeks left behind a curious present to the Trojans: a massive wooden horse that, in actuality, was concealing a bunch of warriors within it.
- The Trojans were successful in bringing the horse inside the city walls, but while they were engaged in a drunken celebration of their victory, the Greeks climbed out of the horse and opened the city walls to allow the returning Greek army to enter.
- Helen was returned to Argos, and Aeneas was the only one of the Trojan heroes to survive and eventually establish a new home in Italy.
The gods punished the Greeks for their pitiless ravaging of the city and its people, and even worse, for their outrageous sacrilegious acts such as the rape of Kassandra, by sending storms to wreck their ships, and those who did manage to return were forced to endure a long and difficult journey home.
Tetraktyas, or the Trojan Horse, is a type of horse that is used to deceive people (CC BY-SA)
Trojan War: ArtLiterature
Aeschylus’ Agamemnon, Euripides’TrojanWomen, and Virgil’sAenid are only a few of the many works that include Troy and the Trojan War in Classical Greek and Roman literature. Artists were intrigued by the Trojan War in a variety of mediums, including pottery ornamentation and sculpture. Some of the many moments from the epic that would recur in art again and again throughout the years were the judgment of Paris, Achilles’ battle with Hector, Achilles playing dice with Ajax, and Ajax falling on his sword, to name a few.
Perhaps more crucially, the Trojan War came to represent the battle of the Greeks against foreign powers, and it recounted stories of a period when men were better, more competent, and more honorable than they are now.
There has been much scholarly debate over whether or not the mythical city of Troy actually existed, and if it did, whether or not the archaeological site discovered in Anatolia, which revealed a city that had prospered over thousands of years of habitation, was actually the same city; however, it is now almost universally accepted that the archaeological excavations have revealed the city of Homer’sIliad; however, there has been much scholarly debate over whether or not the mythical city of Troy actually existed Troy VI (c.
1750-1300 BCE) is the most plausible candidate for the besieged city of Homer’s Trojan War, out of a number of cities that were erected on top of one another at the time.
Troy VI was largely destroyed, although the specific reason, aside from some indications of fire, is now unknown.
The timing of these events (about 1250 BCE) and the destruction of the site correspond to Herodotus’ accounts of the Trojan War.
Even if such fights were unlikely to have been on the size of Homer’s war, they may have contributed to the creation of the epic legend of the Trojan War, which has captivated audiences for ages.
Prior to publication, this paper was checked for correctness, dependability, and conformance to academic standards by two independent reviewers.
Greek & Roman Mythology – Homer
|Unit 2 :Pronunciation GuideHomer and Epic”Introduction” inOdyssey|
|Unit 3 :Odysseus in the Trojan WarTrojan War SummaryLearn a current version of XENIA|
|Unit 4 :Homeric CompositionOdysseyMapsOdysseyTimelines|
|Homer Help Pages :The Gods40 Day ChronologyFAQ 1-12FAQ 13-24|
|The Trojan War|
|Until about a 100 years ago, we were quite sure that the Trojan War was purely legend, and that asking when it happened would be like asking when Atlantis sank.But at the close of the 19th century archaeologists led by Heinrich Schliemann found the remains of a great citadel that existed on the Western shore of Asia Minor, the traditional location of Troy, and which appeared to be overrun in a great war around the year 1250 B.C.E., a time which is compatible with the traditional story of the Trojan War.In the ancient world, the legend underwent many changes and amplifications. The kernel of the story is contained in Homer’s two epics, theIliadand theOdyssey. The incidents he relates, whether narrated in depth or only touched upon, were elaborated or developed by the post-Homeric poets, partly by connecting them with other popular traditions, and partly by the addition of further details of their own.The account that follows highlights the important incidents of the war in Homer’s version, and in other versions where they are relevant for our class.|
|In Homer it is simply the rape of Helen which is the occasion of the war.A later legend traced its origin to the marriage ofPeleus and Thetis, when Eris threw down among the assembled gods a golden apple inscribed, “For the fairest.” The quarrel that ensued between Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite for the prize of beauty was decided by the Trojan prince Paris in favor of Aphrodite, who in return secured for him the possession of Helen, while Hera and Athena became, from that time onward, the implacable enemies of the whole Trojan race. According to Homer, after Paris carried off Helen, her husband Menelaus was understandably upset.He happened to be brother to Agamemnon, the greatest king among the Greeks, and the two of them visited all the Greek chieftains and convinced them to take part in a great expedition which they were preparing to avenge the wrong. Agamemnon was chosen commander-in-chief; next to him the most prominent Greek heroes are his brother Menelaus, Achilles and Patroclus, two unrelated men named Ajax, Teucer, Nestor and his son Antilochus, Odysseus, Diomedes, Idomeneus, and Philoctetes, who, however, at the very outset of the expedition had to be left behind, and does not appear on the scene of action until just before the fall of Troy. The entire host of 100,000 men and 1,186 ships assembled in the harbor of Aulis. Here, while they made sacrifices to secure the good will of the gods for the expedition, a snake darted out from under the altar, ascended a tree, devoured a brood of eight young sparrows and the mother-bird, and finally was turned into stone. This omen Calchas, the seer of the host, interpreted to mean that the war would last nine years, and terminate in the tenth with the destruction of Troy. Agamemnon had already received an oracle from Delphi that Troy would fall when the best of the Greeks quarreled.|
|In Homer the crossing to Troy follows immediately; but in the later story the Greeks at first land by mistake in Mysia, in the country of Telephus.They are dispersed by a storm and driven back to Greece, and then assemble afresh at Aulis. Once there, they learn that divine disfavor is preventing them from the crossing to Troy until Agamemnon agrees to sacrifice his own daughter Iphigenia to appease the angry gods (an incident entirely unknown to Homer). After landing, skirmishing, and pitching their camp, Odysseus and Menelaus proceed as ambassadors to Troy, to demand the surrender of Helen. But this proposal, in spite of the inclination of Helen herself and the admonition of the Trojan Antenor, never takes hold, owing to the opposition of Paris. War is declared. The number of the Trojans is scarcely one tenth that of the besiegers; and although they possess many brave heroes, such as Aeneas, Sarpedon, Glaucus, and especially Hector, in their fear of Achilles they dare not risk a general engagement, and remain holed up behind their walls. On the other hand, the Achaeans can do nothing against the well-fortified and defended town, and see themselves confined to laying ambuscades and devastating the surrounding country, and compelled by lack of provisions to have resource to foraging expeditions in the neighborhood, undertaken by sea and by land under the generalship of Achilles.|
|At last the decisive tenth year arrives. TheIliadnarrates the events of this year, confining itself to the space of fifty-one days. Over the course of the war, the Greeks have taken many war prizes from the surrounding countryside.One of these prizes happens to be Chryseis, the daughter of Chryses, a priest of Apollo.He comes in priestly garb into the camp of the Greeks to ransom his daughter from Agamemnon. He is rudely repulsed, and Apollo consequently visits the Greeks with a plague. In an assembly of the Greeks summoned by Achilles, the seer Calchas declares the only means of appeasing the god to be the surrender of the girl without ransom. Agamemnon assents to the general wish; but, by way of compensation, takes from Achilles, whom he considers to be the instigator of the whole plot, his favorite slave Briseis. Achilles withdraws in a rage to his tent, and implores his mother Thetis to obtain from Zeus a promise that the Greeks should meet with disaster in fighting the Trojans until Agamemnon returns the girl and restores Achilles’ honor. The Trojans immediately take the open field, and Agamemnon is induced by a promise of victory, conveyed in a lying dream from Zeus, to start the fight.|
|The armies are standing opposed to one another, prepared for fight, when they agree to a treaty that the whole conflict will be decided by a duel between Paris and Menelaus. Paris is overcome in the duel, and is only rescued from death by the intervention of Aphrodite. When Agamemnon presses for the fulfillment of the treaty, the Trojan Pandarus breaks the peace by shooting an arrow at Menelaus, and the agreement falls apart.The first open engagement in the war begins, in which, under the protection of Athena, Diomedes performs miracles of bravery and wounds even Aphrodite and Ares. Diomedes and the Lycian Glaucus are on the verge of fighting, when they recognize one another as hereditary guest-friends and stop their duel, a marker of how important is the concept of hospitality (XENIA, in Greek). The day ends with an indecisive duel between Hector and Ajax son of Telamon. They call a truce to bury their dead, and the Greeks, acting on the advice of Nestor, surround their camp with a wall and trench. When the fighting begins again, Zeus forbids the gods to take part in it, and ordains that the battle shall end with the defeat of the Greeks. On the following night Agamemnon already begins to think about fleeing, but Nestor advises reconciliation with Achilles. Agamemnon sends an embassy, including Odysseus, to make amends with Achilles. The efforts of ambassadors are, however, fruitless. Then Odysseus and Diomedes go out on a night-time reconnaissance mission, kill many Trojans, and capture a Trojan spy. On the succeeding day Agamemnon’s bravery drives the Trojans back to the walls of the town; but he himself, Diomedes, Odysseus, and other heroes leave the battle wounded, and the Greeks retire behind the camp walls.The Trojans advance and attack the Greek walls. The opposition of the Greeks is brave; but Hector breaks the rough gate with a rock, and the stream of enemies pours itself unimpeded into the camp. Once more the Greek heroes who are still capable of taking part in the fight, especially the two Ajaxes and Idomeneus, succeed with the help of Poseidon in repelling the Trojans, while Telamonian Ajax dashes Hector to the ground with a stone; but the latter soon reappears on the battlefield with fresh strength granted to him by Apollo at the command of Zeus. Poseidon is obliged to leave the Greeks to their fate; they retire again to the ships, which Ajax in vain defends. The Trojans advance still further to where they are able to begin torching the Greek ships.At this point, Achilles allows his friend Patroclus to borrow his armour and enter the battle with their contingent of soldiers to help the distressed Greeks. Supposing it to be Achilles himself, the Trojans in terror flee from the camp before Patroclus, who pursues them to the town, and lays low vast numbers of the enemy, including the brave Sarpedon, whose corpse is only rescued from the Greeks after a severe fight. At last Patroclus himself is slain by Hector with the help of Apollo; Achilles’ arms are lost, and even the corpse is with difficulty saved. And now Achilles repents of his anger, reconciles himself to Agamemnon, and on the following day, furnished with new and splendid armour by Hephaestus at the request of Thetis, avenges the death of his friend on countless Trojans and finally on Hector himself.|
|TheIliadconcludes with the burial of Patroclus and the funeral games established in his honor, the restoration of Hector’s corpse to Priam, and the burial of Hector, for which Achilles allows an armistice of eleven days. Immediately after the death of Hector the later legends bring the Amazons to the help of the Trojans, and their queen Penthesilea is slain by Achilles. Then appears Memnon at the head of an Ethiopian contingent. He slays Antilochus son of Nestor, but is himself slain by Achilles.And now comes the fulfillment of the oracle given to Agamemnon at Delphi; for at a sacrificial banquet a violent quarrel arises between Achilles and Odysseus, the latter declaring craft and not valour to be the only means of capturing Troy. Soon after, in an attempt to force a way into the hostile town through the Scaean gate, Achilles falls, slain by the arrow of Paris, directed by the god. After his burial, Thetis offers the arms of her son as a prize for the bravest of the Greek heroes, which provokes a fight among the Greeks for the title and the arms. Odysseus wins, and his main competition, the Telamonian Ajax, kills himself.|
|Odysseus captures Helenus, son of Priam, who advises the Greeks that Troy could not be conquered without the arrows of Heracles and the presence of someone related to Achilles.They fetch Philoctetes, the heir of Heracles, whom the Greeks had abandoned and left for dead on the island of Lemnos, and Neoptolemus, the young son of Achilles, who had been brought up on Seyros.The latter, a worthy son of his father, slays the last ally of the Trojans, Eurypylus, the brave son of Telephus; and Philoctetes, with one of the arrows of Heracles, kills Paris. Even when the last condition of the capture of Troy, the removal of a small statue of Athena, called the Palladium, from the temple of Athena on the citadel, has been successfully fulfilled by Diomedes and Odysseus, the town can only be taken by treachery. On the advice of Athena, Epeius, son of Panopeus, builds a gigantic wooden horse, in the belly of which the bravest Greek warriors conceal themselves under the direction of Odysseus. The rest of the Greeks pretend to abandon the fight. They burn their camp and embark on ship, only, however, to hide in waiting behind a nearby island. The Trojans, streaming out of the town, find the horse, and are in doubt as to what to do with it. According to the later legend, they are deceived by the treacherous Sinon, a kinsman of Odysseus, who has of his own free will remained behind. He pretends that he has escaped from an evil plan of Odysseus to use him as a human sacrifice, and that the horse has been erected to expiate the robbery of the Palladium.To destroy it would be fatal to Troy, he claims, but should it be brought into the city, the Trojans would conquer Europe. The Trojan Laocoon warns against the Greek gift and is killed by sea monsters. The Trojans take it as a sign and decide to bring the statue into the city.|
|The Trojans are overjoyed and celebrate their victory and the departure of the Greeks. Sinon in the night opens the door of the horse. The heroes descend, and light the flames that give to the Greek fleet the agreed-upon signal for its return. Thus Troy is captured; all the inhabitants are either slain or carried into slavery, and the city is destroyed. The only survivors of the royal house are Helenus, Aeneas, Hector’s wife Andromache, and Cassandra, who is taken as a war prize by Agamemnon. The Greeks run riot in the conquered city and their offenses set off divine outrage. For many of the Greeks, their sufferings are far from over.Their voyages home, in Greek NOSTOI, are fraught with troubles.Only Nestor, Diomedes, Neoptolemus, Philoctetes, and Idomeneus reach home in safety; while Menelaus and Odysseus first have to undergo wanderings for years. The Locrian Ajax is killed at sea, and Agamemnon immediately after his arrival home.|
|See Also:Odysseus in the Trojan War|
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