Trojan Horse. Which Greek Hero Masterminded It, According To The Legend? (Solved)

As Odysseus was the chief architect of the Trojan Horse, it is also referred to in Homer’s Odyssey.

Which Greek hero masterminded the Trojan Horse?

Unlike the other famed Heroes of the Trojan War, Odysseus prefers using subterfuge to outwit his enemies. As the mastermind behind the Trojan Horse, Odysseus cements himself among the most cunning minds Greece has ever seen…

What is the legend of the Trojan Horse?

According to ancient Greek history, the Trojan horse allowed the war-weary Greeks to enter the city of Troy and finally win the Trojan war. Legend has it that the horse was built at the behest of Odysseus, who hid inside its structure along with several other soldiers to ultimately lay siege to the city.

Who came up with the Trojan Horse idea?

The Trojan War had been going on for a decade, with no end in sight and many Greek heroes dying, when Odysseus came up with an idea that won the war for the Greeks. Because the Trojans considered horses to be sacred, the Greeks built a large, hollow wooden horse.

Who was the Greek hero of the Trojan War?

Who was Achilles? In Greek mythology, Achilles was the strongest warrior and hero in the Greek army during the Trojan War. He was the son of Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, and Thetis, a sea nymph. The story of Achilles appears in Homer’s Iliad and elsewhere.

Where is the real Trojan Horse now?

Finding Troy There was — actually, there was more than one. Today, the spot is known as Hisarlik, and it can be found atop a large mound in western Turkey.

Is the Trojan horse in the Iliad?

There is no Trojan Horse in Homer’s Iliad, with the poem ending before the war is concluded. But in the Aeneid by Virgil, after a fruitless 10-year siege, the Greeks at the behest of Odysseus constructed a huge wooden horse and hid a select force of men inside, including Odysseus himself.

How did the Greeks get the Trojan horse?

The horse was built by Epeius, a master carpenter and pugilist. The Greeks, pretending to desert the war, sailed to the nearby island of Tenedos, leaving behind Sinon, who persuaded the Trojans that the horse was an offering to Athena (goddess of war) that would make Troy impregnable.

Who has the Trojan horse?

The Greeks, under the guidance of Odysseus, built a huge wooden horse — the horse was the symbol of the city of Troy — and left it at the gates of Troy. They then pretended to sail away. The Trojans believed the huge wooden horse was a peace offering to their gods and thus a symbol of their victory after a long siege.

What is the origin of the Trojan Horse?

The story of the Trojan Horse is well-known. First mentioned in the Odyssey, it describes how Greek soldiers were able to take the city of Troy after a fruitless ten-year siege by hiding in a giant horse supposedly left as an offering to the goddess Athena.

Did Archaeologists find the Trojan Horse?

Archaeologists claim they have found what they believe are pieces of the Trojan Horse. According to a report by the Greek news site Naftika Chronika, the researchers excavating the site of the historical city of Troy on the hills of Hisarlik have unearthed a large wooden structure.

Who is the Iliad hero?

The prime example is Akhilleus, more commonly known as Achilles in the English tradition. This, the greatest hero of the Iliad, was the son of Thetis, a sea-goddess known for her far-reaching cosmic powers. 3.

Who is the greatest Trojan?

Amongst the defenders of Troy these were the twelve most important figures in Homer’s Iliad.

  • Hector: Greatest Trojan Hero of the Iliad.
  • Sarpedon: Staunch Ally of the Trojans.
  • Memnon: Glorious son of the Dawn.
  • Aeneas: Trojan Hero and Progenitor of the Romans.
  • Troilus: Doomed Young Hero of Troy.

Who is the greatest Trojan champion?

In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector (/ˈhɛktər/; Ἕκτωρ, Hektōr, pronounced [héktɔːr]) was a Trojan prince and the greatest warrior for Troy in the Trojan War. He led the Trojans and their allies in the defence of Troy, killing countless Greek warriors. He was ultimately killed in single combat by Achilles.

Which Greek Hero Was The Mastermind Of The Trojan Horse?

How Did the Trojan Horse Come to Be? Which Greek Hero Was the Mastermind Behind It? IN THE NAME OF THE LORD OF ITHACA A Odysseus was a shrewd, battle-hardened leader who felt that the route to triumph lay in subtlety rather than direct confrontation. He was also the genius behind the Trojan Horse, a clever ruse that ultimately led to the destruction of the mighty city of Troy. What Greek is the brains behind the Trojan horse? It was suggested by the poet Quintus Smyrnaeus that Odysseus construct an enormous wooden horse (the horse being the symbol of Troy), conceal an elite army within it, and trick the Trojans into carting it into town as a prize.

What was the name of the Greek hero who appeared in the narrative of the Trojan Horse?

Examine the life and times of this hero, from his well-known rage to his “Achilles heel.” Who was the cunning Greek warrior who came up with the Trojan horse idea?

The Greeks are eventually victorious in the conflict thanks to a brilliant bit of deceit devised by Odysseus, the hero and king of Ithaca, who is well-known for his ingenuity.

Which Greek Hero Was The Mastermind Of The Trojan Horse – Related Questions

Epeius, a great carpenter and pugilist, was responsible for the construction of the horse. The Greeks, claiming to have deserted the fight, departed to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon behind, who persuaded the Trojans that the horse was an offering to Athena (the goddess of war), which would render Troy impenetrable if it was sacrificed.

Is Trojan War real?

The Trojan War, in fact, was much more than a fiction for the majority of ancient Greeks. The event took place in the distant past and was a watershed moment in their history. As evidenced by the historical texts – Herodotus and Eratosthenes – it was widely believed to have been a genuine occurrence.

Is Trojan Horse story real?

Was it, however, a fabrication? According to Dr. Armand D’Angour of Oxford University’s Department of Classics, “Archaeological evidence shows that Troy was indeed burned down; however, the wooden horse is an imaginative fable, perhaps inspired by the way ancient siege-engines were clothed with damp horse-hides to prevent them from being set ablaze.”

Did Helen love Paris?

As a result, Aphrodite and Helen were chosen by Paris. The fact that Helen had already been married to King Menelaus of Sparta (a point that Aphrodite failed to convey) meant that Paris had to invade Menelaus’s home in order to whisk Helen away from him — according to other tales, she fell in love with Paris and left voluntarily.

Is Troy a real city?

Troy is a city in Greek mythology that was besieged for ten years before being taken by an army headed by King Agamemnon.

Troy may also refer to a genuine historical city located on the northwest coast of Turkey that has been identified by many as the Troy mentioned in the tale since antiquity. This city has been identified as the Troy described in the narrative since antiquity.

Who won Trojan War?

The Greeks were victorious in the Trojan War. As told by the Roman epic poet Virgil, the Trojans were vanquished after the Greeks left behind a giant wooden horse and appeared to be sailing back to their homeland. The Trojans were completely unaware that the wooden horse was brimming with Greek fighters.

Why did Achilles kill Hector?

Returning to the battlefield after being upset about the loss of his comrade, Patroclus, Achilles kills Hector in order to exact vengeance on him.

What is Trojan Horse attack?

A Trojan horse is a sort of malware that infiltrates a computer by masquerading as a genuine software and then running on the machine. Despite its name, a Trojan horse is so named because of the technique by which it is delivered, which often involves an attacker using social engineering to conceal harmful code within normal software.

What does Trojan horse mean today?

Today, the phrase “Trojan horse” is still used to describe to any type of deceit or ruse that includes convincing a target to enable an adversary to enter a secure location freely and without prompting. The Trojan horse is also the inspiration for the term “Trojans,” which refers to computer programs (also known as malware) that have the ability to infect computer systems.

What race were the Trojans?

Troja was a people that lived in the city state of Troy, which was located on the coast of modern-day Turkey, near the Aegean Sea, about the 12th or 13th centuries BCE. However, no one is certain of their origins, which we believe to be Greek or Indo-European.

Who Killed Paris?

Philoctetes assassinated Paris toward the end of the war.

What is Troy called now?

The ancient city of Troy was located on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey, and was known as the “City of Victory.”

Is Achilles a God?

He was born to Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, and Thetis, a sea goddess. Peleus was Achilles’ paternal grandfather. Achilles was very powerful as a result of his half-god status, and he quickly rose to the rank of renowned warrior. He was, on the other hand, half human and so not eternal like his mother.

How big was the real Trojan horse?

The Horse would have measured around 10 feet in width (3 metres). This is based on the breadth of the broadest gate unearthed in the remains of Troy, which was a whopping ten feet wide. In light of the fact that the Trojans had to demolish the higher walls in order for the horse to pass through, it is reasonable to assume that the Horse stood at least 25 feet (7.6 metres) tall.

Did Helen of Troy exist?

Helen of Troy is a fictional figure in Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad, who appears in Greek mythology. There is, however, no credible evidence to prove that Helen was a genuine person in the first place. Despite the fact that the Iliad contains the earliest written account of Helen, the mythology surrounding her has its roots in the Bronze Age and goes back thousands of years.

Who found the city of Troy?

Heinrich Schliemann is credited with establishing archaeology as the science that we are familiar with today. 130 years ago, a German adventurer and multimillionaire named Heinrich Schliemann found Troy and what he believed to be the Treasure of Priam. He died a year later.

Did Helen and Paris have a child?

A second narrative claims that Helen and Paris had three sons, Bunomus, Corythus, and Idaeus.

Unfortunately for the family, these sons died when the roof of the family home in Troy caved in, killing them.

Why was Paris of Troy cursed?

He rejected offers of kingly authority from Hera and military prowess from Athena in favor of Aphrodite, who offered him a bribe to assist him in winning the most beautiful lady on the face of the planet. This, along with his seduction of Helen (the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta), and his unwillingness to return her, was the catalyst for the Trojan War.

Where is the real Trojan horse?

The site is currently known as Hisarlik, and it may be located atop a big hill in western Turkey, where it was discovered. However, there isn’t a single city hidden behind that hill. At the very least, there are ten of them. Heinrich Schliemann, a German archaeologist who was overzealous in his pursuit of Troy, was the first to identify Hisarlik as Troy in the 1870s.

What happened to the survivors of Troy?

According to Virgil, the majority of the Trojans who appear as characters in the Aeneid perish at the end of the story. In the case of the Trojans, the majority of the males were slaughtered, while the majority of the women were captured and held as slaves by the invading Greeks. Those that remained were taken prisoner and sent back to Greece along with Agamemnon and his forces.

Who is the most feared Greek god?

Phobos was the God of Fear and Terror, whilst his brother Deimos was the God of Panic and Panic was the god of fear and terror. The two brothers were reported to frequently follow Ares into combat, according to legend. They were frequently accompanied by Ares’ sister Eris, who was also a frequent companion. Soldiers throughout the Greek battlefields dreaded and revered the names Deimos and Phobos, and they did so for good reason.

Which Greek Hero Was The Mastermind Of The Trojan Horse?

How Did the Trojan Horse Come to Be? Which Greek Hero Was the Mastermind Behind It? IN THE NAME OF THE LORD OF ITHACA A Odysseus was a shrewd, battle-hardened leader who felt that the route to triumph lay in subtlety rather than direct confrontation. He was also the genius behind the Trojan Horse, a clever ruse that ultimately led to the destruction of the mighty city of Troy. What Greek is the brains behind the Trojan horse? It was suggested by the poet Quintus Smyrnaeus that Odysseus construct an enormous wooden horse (the horse being the symbol of Troy), conceal an elite army within it, and trick the Trojans into carting it into town as a prize.

What was the name of the Greek hero who appeared in the narrative of the Trojan Horse?

Examine the life and times of this hero, from his well-known rage to his “Achilles heel.” Who was the cunning Greek warrior who came up with the Trojan horse idea?

The Greeks are eventually victorious in the conflict thanks to a brilliant bit of deceit devised by Odysseus, the hero and king of Ithaca, who is well-known for his ingenuity.

They construct a massive wooden horse and place it outside the city’s gates as a gift to the gods, all the while pretending to have given up the fight and sailing away.

Which Greek Hero Was The Mastermind Of The Trojan Horse – Related Questions

Epeius, a great carpenter and pugilist, was responsible for the construction of the horse. The Greeks, claiming to have deserted the fight, departed to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon behind, who persuaded the Trojans that the horse was an offering to Athena (the goddess of war), which would render Troy impenetrable if it was sacrificed.

Is Trojan War real?

The Trojan War, in fact, was much more than a fiction for the majority of ancient Greeks. The event took place in the distant past and was a watershed moment in their history. As evidenced by the historical texts – Herodotus and Eratosthenes – it was widely believed to have been a genuine occurrence.

See also:  Why Are Horse Flies So Bad This Year 2021? (Solution found)

Is Trojan Horse story real?

Was it, however, a fabrication? According to Dr. Armand D’Angour of Oxford University’s Department of Classics, “Archaeological evidence shows that Troy was indeed burned down; however, the wooden horse is an imaginative fable, perhaps inspired by the way ancient siege-engines were clothed with damp horse-hides to prevent them from being set ablaze.”

Did Helen love Paris?

As a result, Aphrodite and Helen were chosen by Paris. The fact that Helen had already been married to King Menelaus of Sparta (a point that Aphrodite failed to convey) meant that Paris had to invade Menelaus’s home in order to whisk Helen away from him — according to other tales, she fell in love with Paris and left voluntarily.

Is Troy a real city?

Troy is a city in Greek mythology that was besieged for ten years before being taken by an army headed by King Agamemnon. Troy may also refer to a genuine historical city located on the northwest coast of Turkey that has been identified by many as the Troy mentioned in the tale since antiquity. This city has been identified as the Troy described in the narrative since antiquity.

Who won Trojan War?

The Greeks were victorious in the Trojan War. As told by the Roman epic poet Virgil, the Trojans were vanquished after the Greeks left behind a giant wooden horse and appeared to be sailing back to their homeland. The Trojans were completely unaware that the wooden horse was brimming with Greek fighters.

Why did Achilles kill Hector?

Returning to the battlefield after being upset about the loss of his comrade, Patroclus, Achilles kills Hector in order to exact vengeance on him.

What is Trojan Horse attack?

A Trojan horse is a sort of malware that infiltrates a computer by masquerading as a genuine software and then running on the machine. Despite its name, a Trojan horse is so named because of the technique by which it is delivered, which often involves an attacker using social engineering to conceal harmful code within normal software.

What does Trojan horse mean today?

Today, the phrase “Trojan horse” is still used to describe to any type of deceit or ruse that includes convincing a target to enable an adversary to enter a secure location freely and without prompting. The Trojan horse is also the inspiration for the term “Trojans,” which refers to computer programs (also known as malware) that have the ability to infect computer systems.

What race were the Trojans?

Troja was a people that lived in the city state of Troy, which was located on the coast of modern-day Turkey, near the Aegean Sea, about the 12th or 13th centuries BCE.

However, no one is certain of their origins, which we believe to be Greek or Indo-European.

Who Killed Paris?

Philoctetes assassinated Paris toward the end of the war.

What is Troy called now?

The ancient city of Troy was located on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey, and was known as the “City of Victory.”

Is Achilles a God?

He was born to Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, and Thetis, a sea goddess. Peleus was Achilles’ paternal grandfather. Achilles was very powerful as a result of his half-god status, and he quickly rose to the rank of renowned warrior. He was, on the other hand, half human and so not eternal like his mother.

How big was the real Trojan horse?

The Horse would have measured around 10 feet in width (3 metres). This is based on the breadth of the broadest gate unearthed in the remains of Troy, which was a whopping ten feet wide. In light of the fact that the Trojans had to demolish the higher walls in order for the horse to pass through, it is reasonable to assume that the Horse stood at least 25 feet (7.6 metres) tall.

Did Helen of Troy exist?

Helen of Troy is a fictional figure in Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad, who appears in Greek mythology. There is, however, no credible evidence to prove that Helen was a genuine person in the first place. Despite the fact that the Iliad contains the earliest written account of Helen, the mythology surrounding her has its roots in the Bronze Age and goes back thousands of years.

Who found the city of Troy?

Heinrich Schliemann is credited with establishing archaeology as the science that we are familiar with today. 130 years ago, a German adventurer and multimillionaire named Heinrich Schliemann found Troy and what he believed to be the Treasure of Priam. He died a year later.

Did Helen and Paris have a child?

A second narrative claims that Helen and Paris had three sons, Bunomus, Corythus, and Idaeus. Unfortunately for the family, these sons died when the roof of the family home in Troy caved in, killing them.

Why was Paris of Troy cursed?

He rejected offers of kingly authority from Hera and military prowess from Athena in favor of Aphrodite, who offered him a bribe to assist him in winning the most beautiful lady on the face of the planet. This, along with his seduction of Helen (the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta), and his unwillingness to return her, was the catalyst for the Trojan War.

Where is the real Trojan horse?

He rejected offers of kingly authority from Hera and military prowess from Athena in favor of Aphrodite, who offered him a bribe to assist him in winning the most beautiful lady on the face of the earth. The Trojan War was triggered by his seduction of Helen (the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta), and his reluctance to return her.

What happened to the survivors of Troy?

According to Virgil, the majority of the Trojans who appear as characters in the Aeneid perish at the end of the story. In the case of the Trojans, the majority of the males were slaughtered, while the majority of the women were captured and held as slaves by the invading Greeks. Those that remained were taken prisoner and sent back to Greece along with Agamemnon and his forces.

Who is the most feared Greek god?

Phobos was the God of Fear and Terror, whilst his brother Deimos was the God of Panic and Panic was the god of fear and terror. The two brothers were reported to frequently follow Ares into combat, according to legend.

They were frequently accompanied by Ares’ sister Eris, who was also a frequent companion. Soldiers throughout the Greek battlefields dreaded and revered the names Deimos and Phobos, and they did so for good reason.

Trojan horse

In the Trojan War, the Greeks built a massive hollowwooden horse called the Trojan Horse to gain entry into the city of Troy. Peius, a great carpenter and pugilist, was responsible for the construction of the horse. Pretending to leave the fight, the Greeks fled to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon in charge of convincing the Trojans that the horse was a sacrifice to Athena(goddess of war) that would render Troy impenetrable. Sinon was captured and executed by the Greeks. However, despite the cautions of Laocoön and Cassidra, the horse was driven through the city gates.

The story is presented in great detail in Book II of theAeneid and is briefly mentioned in theOdyssey as well.

Beginning in the late twentieth century, the term “Trojan horse” was used to refer to deceptively innocent computer codes that appear to be genuine applications, but are really created to destroy or disrupt a computer’s programming or to collect personal information from the user of the computer.

The trojan horse. which greek hero masterminded it, according to the legend?

According to the notion of mercantilism, a nation’s economic might is derived from its ability to aa. enslave people b. industrialize c. be ready to explore d. have a favorable balance of trade. Answers: 2Which of these constitutional amendments resulted in the naturalization of all individuals born or naturalized in the United States of America as citizens of that country? Answers are as follows: 1 What are three arguments in favor of the notion that opium was wrongly traded on the Chinese market?

(during the Opium Wars) Answers are as follows: 1 What would you say is the current state of the relationship between the main global religions?

Answers are as follows: 1 Do you know what the correct answer is?

Questions in other subjects:

Mathematics, September 17, 2020, 05:01 a.m. Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01English, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01English, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09. Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01Mathematics, 17.09.2020 05:01

The myth of the Trojan War

The Wounded Achilles is a painting by Filippo Albacini (1777–1858).

Marble, about 1825. The Devonshire Collections are located in Chatsworth. The Chatsworth Settlement Trustees have granted permission for this reproduction.

Introducing an epic tale

The narrative of the ancient city of Troy, as well as the epic battle that was waged over it, has been told for more than 3,000 years, according to some sources. It was first told by traveling storytellers in strong words by the Greek poet Homer as early as the ninth to seventh centuries BC – and then transformed into striking visuals by ancient Greek and Roman painters as early as the eighth century BC. It continues to captivate audiences now in the same way that it did in the past, and it’s simple to understand why this is the case.

  1. The story takes place in the fabled past of Greece and spans several decades.
  2. For ten years, the Greeks besieged the city, sailing over the Aegean Sea to exact retribution for a terrible offense – the kidnapping of a woman – and remained there until the end of the story.
  3. Even the gods are involved in this affair.
  4. Its protagonists – none more so than the great Achilles – are multifaceted, possessing heroic might while still possessing human faults, and at the end of the story, it is unclear who, if anybody, truly triumphs.
  5. According to one version of the story, their gazes lock at the exact moment of her death, and he falls in love with her at that instant.
Judgement of Paris

The plot of the story begins with a wedding. Thetis, the sea-goddess, is getting married to a mortal man, and all of the gods and goddesses are invited, with the exception of Eris, the goddess of discord, who is not invited. When she becomes enraged, she tosses a golden apple into the celebration, with the words ‘to the most beautiful’ written on it. Three goddesses each claim it for themselves, and the king of the gods, Zeus, who does not want to become involved personally, appoints the Trojan prince Paris to serve as a judge in the dispute.

There’s only one problem with that.

The Judgement of Paris is shown in this Etruscan tomb artwork.

Aphrodite, the third and final goddess, raises her garment to reveal a glimpse of leg.

The face that launched a thousand ships

Paris, prince of Troy, pays a state visit to Sparta, but, in an astonishing turn of events, he departs with his host’s wife Helen, queen of Sparta. The misled husband, King Menelaus, assembles a massive army of Greek warriors in order to reclaim Helen and reclaim his honor. Its commander is Menelaus’ brother Agamemnon, ruler of the strong Greek city of Mycenae and a descendant of the legendary Greek warrior Achilles. The army sails to Troy, where it establishes a base and begins to lay siege to the city.

The Greeks, on the other hand, are successful in attacking nearby Trojan settlements and capturing some of their residents as prisoners.

Some believe Paris kidnapped Helen, but others believe she fell in love with him and followed him freely.

Aphrodite appears immediately in front of Helen, who is revealing her face to the world for the first time in Paris. In the image below, Eros encourages a dog to chase a goose, presumably implying that smitten humans are but gods’ playthings.

The rage of Achilles

While on a state visit to Sparta, Paris, prince of Troy, departs with his host’s wife Helen, queen of Sparta, which is considered scandalous at the time. The duped husband, King Menelaus, gathers a massive army of Greek warriors in order to reclaim Helen and reclaim his honor. One of its leaders is Agamemnon, Menelaus’ younger brother and ruler of the ancient Greek city of Mycenae. Upon reaching Troy, the army establishes camp and begins a siege of the city. Trojans, on the other hand, have fortified their city with sturdy walls, and they have defended it fiercely for nine long years of battle.

Briseis is one of them; she is a young lady who is presented to the Greek warrior Achilles as a reward of honor for her services.

‘The gods are to blame,’ argues the creator of this vessel from southern Italy.

It is possible that smitten people are simply toys for the gods when they allow a dog to chase a goose in the image below.

The death of Hector

Achilles returns to the battlefield, this time clad in new armor supplied by his mother to the fight. The Greeks are victorious once more, and Achilles is able to murder Hector with his sword once more. In battle, Achilles and Hector square off against one other. In the meantime, Achilles surges forward and Hector stumbles back, his injured chest exposed. In his fury and grief, he does not allow Hector’s body to be retrieved by the Trojans and brought back to Troy for the usual funeral. Instead, he desecrates it by dragging it behind his chariot, all while Hector’s terrified family watches from the city’s fortress walls.

  • The gods, on the other hand, have compassion on Hector and his family, protecting Hector’s body from deterioration and harm.
  • He begs Achilles for the body of his son, which he believes is worth a ransom.
  • It is an incredible and dramatic meeting that restores humanity to the hero as well as a sense of order to the rest of creation.
  • This is the moment in the tale where theIliadends takes place.
  • Danish archaeologists discovered this beautiful Roman silver cup in the burial of a chieftain.
  • Denmark’s National Museum (National Museum of Denmark)
The death of Achilles

Although Hector is no longer alive, the fight continues. Troy has not yet been defeated, and additional supporters, some from far away, come to the city’s assistance. The Greeks, with the assistance of Achilles, beat both the Amazons (a group of female soldiers commanded by their queen Penthesilea) and the Ethiopians under King Memnon in battle. Achilles, on the other hand, is well aware that he is doomed to die young, since his heavenly mother had said that if he remained in Troy to battle, he would have a brief life.

When Achilles was a young child, his heavenly mother attempted to make him impervious to damage by immersing him in the waters of the river Styx, according to one version of the myth.

See also:  What Is The Name Of Don Quixote'S Horse? (Perfect answer)

Achilles is gripping the arrow that has penetrated his heel in this neoclassical marble sculpture by Filippo Albacini (1777–1858), which was commissioned for the sculpture gallery at Chatsworth House and installed in the sculpture gallery in 1858.

The Devonshire Collections are located in Chatsworth. The Chatsworth Settlement Trustees have granted permission for this reproduction.

The fall of Troy

The Greeks are eventually victorious in the conflict thanks to a brilliant bit of deceit devised by Odysseus, the hero and king of Ithaca, who is well-known for his ingenuity. They construct a massive wooden horse and place it outside the city’s gates as a gift to the gods, all the while pretending to have given up the fight and sailing away. They have, however, secretly gathered their greatest warriors to fight on their behalf. Following their successful deception, the Trojans transport the horse into the city to celebrate their triumph.

  • After the city has been sacked, all of the men and boys, including King Priam and Hector’s little son Astyanax, are ruthlessly murdered, and the women are captured.
  • However, there is still hope for the Trojans’ survival because Aeneas, the son of King Priam’s cousin, manages to flee the city with his elderly father, his small son, and a band of other Trojan refugees, saving the day.
  • Late 2nd century AD Roman coffin lid with inscription The Ashmolean Museum is located on the University of Oxford’s campus.
  • The magnificent wheeled horse is itself equipped with a helmet and shield, evoking the warriors who may be hidden behind its walls.
Returning home

Following the fall of Troy, the remaining heroes and their armies had little opportunity to bask in the glory of their triumph. A large number of Greeks committed sacrilegious acts during the sacking of Troy, and this has enraged the gods. Few Greeks have easy access to their houses or live long enough to appreciate their homecoming. The trip of Odysseus, as recounted in Homer’sOdyssey, is the most arduous, long, and action-packed of them all. Having been forced to go to the most remote parts of the Mediterranean Sea by the sea deity Poseidon, he is tormented by the god of the sea.

  1. Upon his return to his hometown, Odysseus discovers his house surrounded by men seeking the hand of his wife, who had expected him to perish on the trip.
  2. He murders the suitors and is reunited with his devoted wife, Penelope, as a result of his actions.
  3. It is he who has his soldiers bind him to the ship’s mast and then plug their own ears with wax so that they may continue rowing without being distracted by the bird women’s enticing singing.
  4. For thousands of years, audiences have been attracted by the stories of the heroes and heroines of the epic, whether they were Greek or Trojan, triumphant or fallen.

The BP exhibition Troy: Myth and Reality was on display from November 21st, 2019 through March 8th, 2020. You can purchase the book that goes along with the show here. BP is providing financial support.

The Greek Myth of Odysseus and the Trojan Horse

It is believed that one of the earliest myths told about Odysseus had anything to do with the famous Trojan Horse. Many horses, including those from Homer’sOdyssey, have made reference to this horse. Even back in ancient Greece, oral storytelling was a part of the society, and it’s probable that the stories were recounted on a regular basis; it’s just that there aren’t many written copies of them to be found. A “Trojan Horse” is described as “someone or something that is utilized to conceal or conceal what is genuine or real in order to fool or hurt an opponent.” This interpretation is derived from the original narrative, which is based on Greek mythology.

What Literature Has to Say About the Trojan Horse

We can trace a great deal of what we know about Odysseus and the Trojan Horse back to Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey. According to this great epic poem, the following is what he had to say about this story: This was also an incredible feat accomplished by that powerful man, who rode the carven horse on which all of us Argives chiefs were seated, carrying death and destruction to the Trojans. Please alter your tune and sing about the construction of a wooden horse, which Epeius built with the assistance of Athena, and which Odysseus once led up into the citadel as a ruse after filling it with the soldiers who sacked Ilion.

This story was mentioned in Virgil’s Aeneid as well.

The Beginning of the Trojan War

Hermes, the messenger deity, spoke about three stories that had anything to do with Odysseus. Even though the earliest of these legends detailed the story of the Trojan Horse, the story began with the events of the Trojan War itself. All three stories revolve around Odysseus’ role at the conclusion of the battle, but The Trojan Horse is unquestionably the most well-known of them all. Legend has it that Zeus was presented with a golden apple, which he was to bestow to the goddess who was considered to be the most beautiful.

Zeus was unhappy with this job, so he delegated it to Paris, the prince of Troy, who accepted the responsibility.

The goddess Aphrodite wanted to win, so she promised Paris that she would make Helen, the queen of Sparta, fall in love with him if he selected her.

After Helen’s wedding to King Menalaus, Aphrodite’s prophecy came true when Paris appeared at Helen’s wedding reception.

Odysseus Doesn’t Want to Go to War

Odysseus, despite the fact that he finally became the hero of the narrative, was adamant about not going to battle. Because his wife had only recently given birth, he desired to spend some quality time with his new child. Due to the fact that Hermes saw that Odysseus did not want to fight in the battle, he advised Odysseus to pretend that he was mentally unwell. It was a complete failure. King Menelaus compelled him to join the battle effort alongside the other military commanders. Odysseus came up with a brilliant idea after 10 years of camped outside the city walls of Troy.

He persuaded them to construct a wooden horse, which they would then deposit outside the city’s walls, claiming that it was a gift for the goddess Athena.

The Trojans were taken in by it.

When they got off the horse, they opened the doors for the remainder of the army, thereby defeating the Trojans and bringing the battle to a close.

Examples of sources include: Wikipedia – Trojan Horse Odysseus, according to Wikipedia Greek Mythology is where this story is classified. This article was posted by GreekBoston.com on their blog.

A Primer on Greek Mythology: Part IV – The Odyssey and Applying What We’ve Learned

Note from the editor: This is a guest article written by Tony Valdes. We’re back with another installment of our series on Greek mythology. As we discussed in the previous sections, mythology’s fundamental features include the gods of Olympus, the birth of mankind, mortal heroes, and the ten-year war known as the Trojan War. Our last piece will take all of the knowledge we have gained and offer some suggestions for practical applications that will assist us in our quest to become better men.

Homer’sThe Odyssey

As you may recall from the last piece, Odysseus is the ruler of Ithaca and one of the heroes of the Trojan War, and he is also the protagonist of this one. Despite the fact that Achilles is traditionally regarded as the hero of that great fight, one may argue that Odysseus is the true hero of the conflict. He is the mastermind behind the assassination of Paris and the construction of the Trojan Horse, both of which contributed to the Greek triumph. Remember that Odysseus never intended to go to battle; he only leaves his wife Penelope and newborn son Telemachus because he is compelled to do so by a pledge he has taken to the gods.

  • It takes him an extra ten years, for a total of twenty years spent away from his family and his country in this manner.
  • There is a good chance that you have read The Odyssey previously, possibly in elementary school or for a classics class in college.
  • Make a point of reading The Odyssey if you haven’t done so already.
  • If you want a more straightforward, novelized version, it is also available.
  • My experience as a high school English teacher of The Odyssey for five years has prepared me for the challenges you’ll face when (re)reading Homer’s epic.
  • Yes, there is a great deal of information on each page.
  • The Odyssey, on the other hand, is well worth it.

There are a couple of additional recommendations for using your understanding of Greek mythology that aren’t nearly as much like homework towards the conclusion of this piece, so don’t worry about that.

The Narrative Structure ofThe Odyssey

If you are not familiar with Homer’s story, the narrative framework that he employs to deliver it might be disorienting. When Homer was writing his definitive version of the narrative of Odysseus, it was likely that the story had already become well-known, so he jumps right in, fully expecting his audience to be familiar with the hero. In the same way that he did in The Illiad, he starts by evoking the Muse: Rhapsody for me, Muse. Sing to me of the guy, the man of twists and turns who has been thrown off course time and time again after plundering the venerable heights of Troy.

  • However, no matter how hard he tried, he could not save them from calamity — the recklessness of their own ways ruined them all, and the blind idiots devoured the livestock of the Sun, which the Sungod erased from sight on the day of their return.
  • Despite the fact that the incident with the Cattle of the Sun occurs at the conclusion of Odysseus’ journey abroad, it is one of the first things Homer tells us about.
  • In addition, we alternate between what is happening with Odysseus while he is away and what is happening with his wife Penelope and son Telemachus when they are back in Ithaca.
  • You may check out SparkNotes’ great explanation of the book on their website for free if you get stuck at any time throughout your reading session if that happens.

Greek Hospitality

The Greeks’ spirit of hospitality much surpasses our own in many ways. The three fundamental principles that would govern your relationships with houseguests at the time were as follows: First and foremost, everyone who showed up on your doorstep was to be welcomed into your home, regardless of his or her identity. A guest might be wealthy or impoverished, male or female, young or elderly, a well-known face or a complete unknown. Second, the visitor was to be granted the pleasure of remaining in your house, where you were to be required to provide food and shelter for the duration of their stay.

This was generally a thoughtful and – by our standards – costly present to give to someone special.

This helps us understand why Telemachus and Odysseus are lavished with attention and gifts during their different journeys.

The knowledge of the Greek concept of hospitality, on the other hand, helps to explain why the suitors, who were contending for Penelope’s love throughout Odysseus’ lengthy absence, were permitted in the palace for such a long period of time.

Most people recognized that you were not to take advantage of a host, just like we understand that we are not to grab more than one newspaper once we have placed our quarters in the newspaper dispenser.

Odysseus and Telemachus: Men Like Us

It is important for us to read the biographies of great persons so that we can learn from their achievements and failures. The stories of the Greek heroes, despite the fact that they are primarily based on fiction, are no different, and none of the powerful men of mythology are nearly as human as Odysseus and Telemachus are in their own right. Odysseus is well-known for his sage advice and cunning. Everyone who knows him admires and respects him as a friend, spouse, warrior, and king in addition to his many other roles.

  • He possesses qualities such as determination, perseverance, and courage that we can all emulate, and his proclivity for employing his intellect before his brawn is commendable.
  • In the scene where Odysseus purges his house of the suitors, we witness just how vicious a man’s rage can be when he defends his family and home from harm.
  • Despite the fact that Odysseus possesses an abundance of qualities, he is nonetheless plagued by two basic masculine vices: desire and hubris.
  • When it comes to taking a yearlong break from his grueling trip in order to spend some “quality time” with the witch Circe, Odysseus is quite content to do so.
  • Although Odysseus’ passion is somewhat to fault for the delay, it is ultimately his pride that is the most significant factor.
  • During his departure, he makes fun of the beast and calls out his name so that everyone knows who got the upper hand against the hulking brute.
  • Unlike Odysseus, who is notorious for causing troubles for himself, Telemachus is a different story.
  • As a result, he is a man-boy when we first meet him, but he has the blood of a hero coursing through his veins, and he is determined not to accept his bleak fate.

The account of every young man’s desire to have a relationship with his father and to grow into a man in his own right is told through his eyes. While Odysseus’ narrative is about a guy who must find his way back home, Telemachus’ story is about a man who must find his way ahead.

Penelope: The Woman of Our Dreams

Penelope resembles the lady depicted in Proverbs 31 of the Bible, and she serves as an example of what a perfect woman should be. She is both gorgeous and intelligent, and she has remained passionately devoted to her husband despite all obstacles. Because of Penelope’s circumstances in the novel, it may be easy to overlook this: we meet her at the end of twenty years of waiting, and she is not convinced that her husband is still alive. She has over one hundred attractive young guys asking for her attention, and she looks to be stretched to her limits at times of the year.

), she maintains her belief in Odysseus’ return.

It is in the last act of the narrative, when she converses with the “beggar” (who turns out to be Odysseus in disguise), that the real beauty of her character is most obvious, as she unwittingly plays a significant role in the fate of the suitors (though her cleverness makes me question whether or not it was truly inadvertent).

See also:  What Is Founder In A Horse? (Solution found)

Further Application of Greek Mythology

Reading The Odyssey and the study of its characters is one of the most interesting intersections of mythology and modern manhood that I can think of right now. Following your reading of it, you will begin to see its impacts in the most unexpected locations. Listen to Kansas’ “Carry On My Wayward Son,” read C.P. Cavafy’s poetry “Ithaca,” or see the filmO Brother, Where Art Thou? and you’ll discover entirely new layers of meaning in each piece. However, as compared to allusions to other legendary stories, The Odyssey contains a small number of allusions.

  • Museums of Fine Arts If you are fortunate enough to have a nearby museum of art, I advise you to visit and seek for examples of mythology’s effect on the artwork.
  • You might also keep a look out for traveling exhibits of authentic Greek art and pottery, which are frequently on show at museums.
  • Greek Mythology and LiteratureYou might be amazed at how often your study of Greek mythology will help you get a deeper comprehension of literary works.
  • Films and television are examples of media.

Others, such as James Cameron’s new filmPrometheus, are more subtle in their approach. For example, the sci-fi television seriesFirefly, created by Joss Whedon (now best known for directingThe Avengers), made extensive use of mythological themes.

Concluding Thoughts

The impact of Greek mythology may be found everywhere, even our own lives. I’ve only mentioned a few examples here, but its reverberations may be heard in practically every aspect of our daily lives. Listening for it may help you discover new levels of meaning in the things you meet and can improve your life in the process. In terms of both their virtues and shortcomings, the heroes it provides us with can be instructional in their respective situations. If mythology is of particular interest to you, I would recommend Edith Hamilton’s Mythology, Thomas Bulfinch’s Mythology, and Robin Waterfield’s The Greek Myths, to name a few excellent titles.

  1. So by all means, venture outside the confines of what I have set up for myself in this space.
  2. Along with lessons in manliness and a good dose of classical education, you may also have opportunity to share your expanded grasp of art and literature with your significant other on an out-of-the-ordinary date night with your significant other.
  3. Gods and Goddesses are celestial beings.
  4. The Odyssey and Putting What We’ve Learned into Practice

What made the Trojan Horse such a success

Detail from Domenico Tiepolo’s painting The Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy (1773), which was inspired by Virgil’s Aeneid. The Trojan Horse, such a magnificently conceived and executed work of art by the Greeks. Ancient times were a time when the belief in gods was at its zenith, which explains why the Trojan Horse was such a smashing success. It was a magnificent item that came into force after the conclusion of the ten-year battle between Priam (King of Troy) and Agamemnon (King of Greece) (king of Greece).

When Menelaus learned that his wife had joined the Trojans, he immediately turned to his brother for assistance.

For Agamemnon, power was everything, and the opportunity to seize control of Troy was an opportunity he was not going to pass up.

The Greeks had some of the best warriors, including the king of Ithaca Odysseus and his cunning mind, the Spartans, who showed no mercy or weakness, the strength of the mighty Ajax, and, of course, Achilles, the king of the Myrmidons (the most fearsome and most loyal warriors), who was said to be invulnerable due to his swift fighting style and his reputation as an invulnerable warrior.

  1. They had their great walls to defend them from any invasion, and they had Hector, the horsebreaker, who was also the prince of Troy, to guard them from any attack (son of Priam and brother to Paris).
  2. Then, one night, Odysseus put his brilliant mind to work and devised a strategy that would go down in history as one of the greatest achievements of the human race.
  3. The Trojans did not see the ships and assumed that the Greeks had returned to their homeland.
  4. Their fault was that they misjudged the Greeks, who had devised a sophisticated strategy to deceive them.
  5. With their victory (or so they thought), the Trojans returned to their city, leaving behind the horse.

The lesson that we can all take away from the Trojan War is that we should never judge a book by its cover, for there is always a deeper significance behind everything.

The Trojan Horse in Greek mytholgy

The Wooden Horse, also known as the Trojan Horse, was a significant character in the tale of the Trojan War, and it was ultimately the ploy that brought the struggle to a close, with victory for the Achaean forces over the people of Troy. The Trojan Horse concept is still alive and well today, with the word “Trojan Horse” being used to refer to computer virus, despite the fact that both the original Trojan Horse and the modern-day form are based on problems being hidden inside an apparently benign thing.

Ancient Sources for the Trojan Horse

The Iliad, written by the Greek poet Homer, is considered the primary source for the Trojan War today; however, this epic poem concludes before the events associated with the Trojan Horse, although Homer does make mention of the Wooden Horse in theOdyssey. Only two complete works from the “Epic Cycle” have survived to the present day, and the lost worksLittle Iliad(attributed to Lesches) andIliouPersis(Arctinus) are more likely to have dealt with the Trojan Horse than the surviving complete works from the “Epic Cycle.” Despite this, information about the Wooden Horse can be gleaned from other ancient sources, such as Virgil’s Aeneid, which is a work of literature.

Prelude to the Wooden Horse

Prior to the arrival of the Trojan Horse, the conflict between the Achaean armies of Agamemnon and the defenders of Troy had stretched on for 10 years, and while cities loyal to Troy had fallen to the Achaeans, the walls of Troy remained steadfast against them. Despite the fact that both sides suffered the loss of their most famous soldiers, Achilles on the Greek side and Hector on the Trojan side, neither side was able to achieve a decisive edge. Calchas and later Helenus prophesied about how Troy would be destroyed, yet even with the bow and arrows of Heracles, the son of Achilles, and the stolen Palladium from the Achaean army, Troy remained impregnably strong.

The Trojan Horse is Built

​The likes of Neoptolemus andPhilocteteswere keen to continue fighting, but both were relatively new to the battlefield, for the other battle weary Achaean heroes, it was decided that now was the time for subterfuge rather than conflict.Thus the idea of the Wooden Horse was put forward. Surviving sources give credit to either Odysseus, under the guidance of the goddess Athena, or to the seer Helenus, for the concept of the Trojan Horse. The idea being that a large wooden horse would be constructed of sufficient size that a number of heroes could hide inside it, and then some method of enticing the Trojans to take the horse inside Troy must be devised.With the idea in place, design and construction was given over to Epeius, son of Panopeus, whilstAjax the Lesserassisted. Wood was cut from Mount Ida, and for three days the Achaeans toiled to craft a horse like structure upon wheels. Then touches including hooves of bronze and a bridle of ivory and bronze were added to make the Wooden Horse more elegant.The people of Troy saw the Wooden Horse being built, but they failed to see the hidden compartment inside the horse’s belly, or the ladder inside, or indeed the holes in the horse’s mouth which allowed air into the hidden section.

The construction of the Trojan Horse by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (1727–1804) is represented by the PD-art-100.

Heroes Within the Trojan Horse

As the Trojan Horse was being built, a group of Achaean heroes slipped inside the concealed compartment and waited for their chance to strike. Traditional accounts place the number of Achaean heroes in the belly of the Wooden Horse somewhere between 23 and 50, with John Tzetes, a Byzantine poet, placing it at 23, and the Bibliotheca of Alexandria placing it at 50. Later on, it became traditional to refer to the Trojan Horse as containing 40 heroes, according to popular belief. The most well-known of these heroes were, possibly, the following:

  • Odysseus – King of Ithaca, heir to Achilles’ armor, and the most crafty of all the Achaean heroes
  • Odysseus – King of Ithaca
  • Odysseus In the mythology of Locris, Ajax the Lesser was the king of the kingdom, and he was renowned for his agility on foot and his prowess with a spear. At least until the arrival in the Greek camp of Helenus, Agamemnon depended primarily on the prophesies and counsel of Calchas, the Achaean seer, whose forecasts and counsel Agamemnon leaned greatly on throughout the battle. Following the death of Achilles, Diomedes was proclaimed the greatest of the Achaean heroes, and he even went so far as to injure the gods Ares and Aphrodite. Hector’s hero, Idomeneus, was the hero who defended Crete against Hector and killed 20 Trojan heroes. The king of Sparta, the spouse of Helen, and the brother of Agamemnon is Menelaus. According to legend, Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, was destined to battle at Troy in order for the Achaeans to emerge victorious over the Trojans. As the son of Poeas and the owner of Heracles bow and arrow, Philoctetes was a latecomer to the conflict, but he was a very adept bowman. Son of Telamon and another renowned archer in the Achaean ranks, Teucer was born in the year 480 BCE.

List of Greeks Within the Wooden Horse

Acamas Idomenus
Agapenor Iphidamas
Ajax the Lesser Leonteus
Amphidamas Machaon
Amphimachus Meges
Anticlus Menelaus
Antimachus Menetheus
Antiphates Meriones
Calchas Neoptlemus
Cyanippus Odysseus
Demophon Peneleus
Diomedes Philoctetes
Echion Podalirius
Epeius Polypoetes
Eumelus Sthenelus
Euryalus Teucer
Eurydamas Thalpius
Eurymachus Thersander
Euryplyus Thaos
Ialmenus Thrasymedes

The Intrigue Begins

With heroes hidden inside the Wooden Horse, the rest of the Achaean army now burnt their camp, boarded their ships, and set sail, giving the appearance that they were abandoning the battlefield and war. The Achaean’s of course had not sailed far, perhaps only as far as Tenedos, and were now awaiting the signal to return.The next morning, the Trojans saw that their enemies were no longer camped outside their city, and all that remained of the Achaean presence was a large Wooden Horse.

All was going according to plan for the Achaeans up to this point, but they still need the Trojans to transport the Wooden Horse into Troy in order for the scheme to be successful in its completion.

The Story of Sinon

As a result, it was determined that a Greek hero would remain behind to attempt to persuade the Trojans to withdraw the Wooden Horse from the location where it had been constructed; and this Achaean hero turned out to be Sinon, son of Aesimus. Sinon, of course, had been kidnapped by the Trojans, and he had now begun to recount his “story.” Upon learning that he was to be sacrificed to provide for favourable winds for the Achaean fleet, Sinon would recount his escape from the Achaean camp to his Trojan captors, exactly as Iphigenia had done ten years previously.

Sinon also informed the Trojans that the Wooden Horse had been constructed on such a grand scale as to ensure that it would not be able to pass through the main gate of Troy, preventing the Trojans from capturing the horse and obtaining the blessing of Athena as a result of doing so.

The majority of the Trojans who listened to Sinon’s speech believed what he was saying, but there were others who were skeptical as well. Painting by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (1727–1804), The Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy, Public Domain Art Number 100

Laocoon and Cassandra Doubt the Trojan Horse

To begin with, there was Laocoon, a priest of Apollo in Troy, whom Virgil had heard say the immortal words “I fear the Greeks, even when they bring gifts,” and the priest even went so far as to try and hit the flank of the Trojan Horse with his spear, which Virgil thought was a good idea at the time. Laocoon and his sons were killed by sea serpents before he could do any damage to the Achaeans’ plot. Poseidon, who was associated with the Greeks, intervened before Laocoon and his sons could do any harm.

As a result, the Sinon’s were believed, and the Achaean was granted his freedom by King Priam, who permitted him to roam around Troy while the Trojans plotted how to get the Wooden Horse into Troy.

Keep an eye out for Greeks bringing gifts.

Helen and the Trojan Horse

Once the Trojan Horse got safely inside Troy, the entire city joined in a tremendous celebration, but the heroes trapped inside the Wooden Horse still had one more obstacle to face. Helen, for some reason, recognized the Wooden Horse for what it was, and as she walked around it, Helen would imitate the sounds of the ladies who were married to the Achaean heroes who were housed within. Helen’s motivation for doing so has been contested throughout history, although it is widely accepted that she was demonstrating her own intelligence rather than assisting the Trojans.

HEROES EXIT The Trojan Horse

​As night fell, the celebrations in Troy continued, until the majority of the population of Troy were in a drunken stupor. Then, either Sinon from the outside, or Epeius within, unlocked the hatch to the belly of the Trojan Horse, and deployed the ladder; and one-by-one the Achaean heroes within descended Troy.​At the same time, a signal light was lit, either by Sinon or Helen, recalling the Achaean fleet from its anchorage at Tenedos.Some of the Achaean heroes made their way to the gates of Troy, and silently opened them up, before guarding them to prevent their closure again; and whilst these men awaited the return of the rest of the Achaean army.Other heroes previously hidden with the Trojan Horse, now started to kill the slumbering Trojan heroes and soldiers.

This killing soon turned into a slaughter, and eventually it was said there was but one male survivor of Troy, Aeneas; whilst many of the Trojan Women had become prizes of war.Thus the Trojan Horse had helped to achieve what ten years of fighting could not, the fall of the mighty city of Troy.

Fire at Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713-1769) – Public Domain Art No. 100

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.