According to the Roman epic poet Virgil, the Trojans were defeated after the Greeks left behind a large wooden horse and pretended to sail for home. Unbeknown to the Trojans, the wooden horse was filled with Greek warriors.
- Odysseus, hero of Homer’s The Odyssey, was first a hero of the Trojan War. In Homer’s The Iliad, Odysseus comes up with an ingenious plan that wins the Greeks the war. The Trojan Horse, at Odysseus’s command, was built, then filled with Greeks.
What was the Trojan horse in the Odyssey?
The story of the Trojan Horse is well-known. First mentioned in the Odyssey, it describes how Greek soldiers were able to take the city of Troy after a fruitless ten-year siege by hiding in a giant horse supposedly left as an offering to the goddess Athena.
What is the story of Trojan horse?
According to ancient Greek history, the Trojan horse allowed the war-weary Greeks to enter the city of Troy and finally win the Trojan war. Legend has it that the horse was built at the behest of Odysseus, who hid inside its structure along with several other soldiers to ultimately lay siege to the city.
What was the Trojan horse and how was it used?
After besieging the walls of Troy for ten years, the Greeks built a huge, hollow wooden horse, secretly filled it with armed warriors, and presented it to the Trojans as a gift for the goddess Athena, and the Trojans took the horse inside the city’s walls.
Why did Odysseus make the Trojan horse?
After ten long years of camping outside the walls of Troy, Odysseus had an idea. He was known for not only being a strong military leader, but for being clever, as well. He encouraged them to build a wooden horse to leave outside the gates of Troy and claim that it was a gift for the goddess Athena.
Where is the Trojan Horse?
A reconstructed Trojan horse is found at the entrance of the site which is an inevitable part of the Troy experience. The real Trojan Horse is what the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy and win the Trojan war.
What is Trojan Horse Mcq?
Answer:It is a rogue program which tricks users.
Why is it called Trojan horse?
Trojans take their name from the hollow wooden horse that the Greeks hid inside of during the Trojan War. The Trojans, thinking the horse was a gift, opened their walled city to accept it, allowing the Greeks to come out of hiding at night to attack the sleeping Trojans.
Was the Trojan Horse found?
No, Archaeologists Have Not Found the Trojan Horse.
When did the Trojan Horse happen?
1184 B.C.: During the Trojan War, the Greeks depart in ships, leaving behind a large wooden horse as a victory offering. It is hauled inside the walls of Troy, and Greek soldiers descend from the horse’s belly after dark to slay the guards and commence destruction of the city.
How did the Trojan Horse work?
According to Quintus Smyrnaeus, Odysseus thought of building a great wooden horse (the horse being the emblem of Troy), hiding an elite force inside, and fooling the Trojans into wheeling the horse into the city as a trophy. Under the leadership of Epeius, the Greeks built the wooden horse in three days.
How does a Trojan horse work?
How Do Trojan Horses Work? Trojan viruses work by taking advantage of a lack of security knowledge by the user and security measures on a computer, such as an antivirus and antimalware software program. Once this happens, malware or other malicious content is installed and activated on the computer or other devices.
Which of the following is an example of Trojan Horse?
Examples of govware trojans include the Swiss MiniPanzer and MegaPanzer and the German “state trojan” nicknamed R2D2. German govware works by exploiting security gaps unknown to the general public and accessing smartphone data before it becomes encrypted via other applications.
In the Trojan War, the Greeks built a massive hollowwooden horse called the Trojan Horse to gain entry into the city of Troy. Peius, a great carpenter and pugilist, was responsible for the construction of the horse. Pretending to leave the fight, the Greeks fled to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon in charge of convincing the Trojans that the horse was a sacrifice to Athena(goddess of war) that would render Troy impenetrable. Sinon was captured and executed by the Greeks. However, despite the cautions of Laocoön and Cassidra, the horse was driven through the city gates.
The story is presented in great detail in Book II of theAeneid and is briefly mentioned in theOdyssey as well.
Beginning in the late twentieth century, the term “Trojan horse” was used to refer to deceptively innocent computer codes that appear to be genuine applications, but are really created to destroy or disrupt a computer’s programming or to collect personal information from the user of the computer.
The Trojan Horse, Iliad Superweapon
Commons.wikimedia.org Generally speaking, the history of the Trojan horse is considered mythical. New evidence reveals that Homer’s epic may have featured some historical reality, despite the fact that it appears unlikely that a big wooden horse could have been used to fool an entire city into opening its gates to an invading army. Despite popular belief, the narrative of the Trojan horse is not contained in The Iliad. Even though the occurrence is mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey, Virgil’s Aeneid serves as the primary source for the account.
- The Trojan horse is mentioned in the Odyssey, although Homer does not provide a complete account of the incident.
- The Aeneid was composed between 29 BC and 19 BC, according to certain estimates.
- Aeneas is also a figure in Homer’s epic poem The Iliad, therefore he is well-known to readers.
- The narrative of the Trojan horse begins in Books 2 and 3 and continues throughout the series.
Was the Trojan Horse Real?
Like Troy’s conflict, the subject of whether or not the Trojan Horse was real is still up for dispute. Excavations on the slope known as the Hisarlik, which took place in 2014, may have uncovered additional evidence. Turkish archeologists have been digging the hills for some time now, looking for evidence of what is now known as Troy, and they have found nothing. While there is no evidence to be confident of the presence of a large wooden horse, there is no doubt that the City existed. In reality, there were a number of cities in the region that is now known as Troy at one time.
- Over the years, numerous historians and archaeologists visited the site, and it was eventually designated as a national treasure and placed under the protection of the Turkish government in 1989.
- There have been twenty-three portions of defensive walls discovered, as well as eleven gates, a paved stone ramp, and five bastions, as well as a citadel, among other things.
- During Troy’s siege, it’s probable that the people who lived in the region sought sanctuary behind the city walls.
- So, what exactly is the story of the Trojan horse all about?
- It wasn’t until lately that the unanimous reaction was no.
- Recent digs, on the other hand, may have revealed fresh information about the sack of Troy.
- On the site of the old city of Troy, archaeologists discovered a massive wooden building.
Dozens of fir boards, including beams up to 15 meters (about 45 feet) in length, have been discovered during the excavation. Despite the fact that such fir boards would normally be reserved for shipbuilding, the pieces were discovered within the city.
A Land Ship?
Commons.wikimedia.org What exactly is this weird construction that has been discovered within the walls of Troy? Ships would have been constructed closer to the coast, rather than within the city walls. Except for the explanation supplied in the Aeneid, which is the Trojan Horse, there appears to be little justification for such a construction. However, while historians have conjectured about the Horse’s true nature for years, this is the first time that physical proof of the construction has been discovered.
- Others speculated that the “horse” would have been a reference to a natural calamity or an invading troop of Greek soldiers, respectively.
- The new data, on the other hand, implies that the narrative may have had some truth to it at its core.
- There is mention of a bronze plaque inscribed with the words “For their return to Athens,” in Quintus Smyrnaeus’ epic poem Posthomerica.
- Carbon dating and other investigations have revealed that the wooden planks date back to the 12th or 11th century BC, which would position the discovery around the period of the conflict, which is believed to have taken place in the area.
- There was just one Greek soldier left behind to deliver the gift to the Trojans.
- The Greeks considered her temple’s design to be a major affront, and they thought that the gift would make up for it.
- The Trojans, having been persuaded, moved the tribute inside the gates as soon as possible, hoping to win Athena’s approval for themselves.
According to Virgil’s retelling of the story, he said the famous statement, “I fear Greeks, even those carrying presents.” His allegations were dismissed by the Trojans.
Laocoon appears to have enraged Apollo by sleeping with his wife in front of the god’s “holy figure” in the Odyssey, according to the story.
Cassandra, King Priam’s daughter, is a soothsayer who works for the royal family.
As is customary in such situations, she prophecies that the horse would be the demise of Troy but is disregarded.
She takes a stroll around the perimeter of the horse, calling out to the troops by name and even simulating the sounds of their spouses in their voices.
The ruse comes close to working, as several of the troops are tempted to scream. Odysseus intervenes by placing his palm over Anticlus’s lips just in time, keeping the man from revealing their whereabouts.
The End of the Horse and of Troy
Commons.wikimedia.org The exact moment when the Trojan Horse was opened is up to debate. Some claim that just a small number of troops were contained within the building. They emerged after all of the Trojans had retired to their mattresses in order to unlock the gates and allow the remainder of the army to enter. Other legends claim that the horse housed a huge force that was unleashed onto the city once the horse was opened.
The Odyssey Recounts the Story
The carvin horse, on which all of the chiefs of the Argives were seated, was carrying death and doom to the Trojans, and what a thing was that, too, that powerful man accomplished and suffered! Change thy topic now, and speak of the construction of Epeius’s wooden horse, which he built with Athena’s assistance, the horse which Odysseus once led up into the castle as an object of deceit, after he had loaded it with the soldiers who sacked Ilios.” Epeius was a shipbuilder who was also a well-known Greek boxer.
According to several accounts, between 30 and 40 men were confined within the horse.
The Greeks had set fire to their tents and feigned to be on their way to safety.
Under cover of darkness, the Greeks who had taken refuge inside the building slipped out into the city, unlocking the gates and allowing the rest of the troops to pass through.
What Came After?
The royal dynasty was slaughtered when the Greeks assaulted the city walls and took control of the city. Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles and brother to Hector, kills Polites, the son of King Priam and brother to Hector, as he clutches to a Zeus altar in need of safety. Following Neoptolemus’ scolding, King Priam is likewise slain on the same altar as Neoptolemus’ son. The battle results in the death of Hector’s young son, Astyanax, as well as the deaths of Hector’s wife and the majority of the royal family.
The Greeks returned to their homeland after a ten-year war had come to a conclusion.
The Odyssey is an epic poem that tells the story of his trip.
In the aftermath of his death, some traditions claim that she was deported to the Greek island of Rhodes, where she was eventually hung by a war widow, bringing an end to her reign as the “face that launched a thousand ships.”
What Is a Trojan Horse?
LANGUAGE ARTS—WRITING IN LANGUAGE
Have You Ever Wondered.
- What is a Trojan horse and how does it work? Identify which epic poetry contains the narrative of The Trojan Horse. What may the appearance of a modern-day Trojan horse be like
When we look at today’s Wonder of the Day, we are transported back in time to the time of the Trojan War. In Virgil’sAeneid, a famous epic poem, it is stated that the Greeks attempted to seize the ancient city of Troy and theTrojanpeople who had lived there for more than ten centuries. They were finally successful as a result of a creative bit of ruse. It was under Odysseus’ instruction that the Greeks created the enormous wood horses that served as symbols of Troy and stationed them at the city’s entrance gates for the rest of their lives.
- A big wooden horse, according to the Trojans, was a peace sacrifice to their gods and, as such, a sign of their victory following a longsiege They dragged the massive wooden horse through the streets of the city center.
- That night, when the Trojans had retired to their beds, the Greek troops trapped within the horse were able to break free and unlock the city’s gates, allowing the remainder of the Greek army to enter, which had returned under cover of darkness from its nighttime voyage.
- The word “Trojanhorse” is still in use today “Even today, the phrase “deception” or “trick” refers to any type of deception or trick that includes convincing a target to allow an adversary to enter a secure location.
- In this way, they are able to persuade people to install and use them without them recognizing the danger they are putting themselves in.
Wonder What’s Next?
An apple a day will not keep the Wonder of the Day away from you tomorrow!
Try It Out
Would you fall for the traditional Trojan horse ruse if it was presented to you today? Maybe not.especially if you were accompanied by a group of supportive friends and family members! Gather a group of people to assist you in participating in one or more of the following activities:
- Do you enjoy reading about the mythology of ancient Greece? It’s incredible how much of today’s popular culture, including old sayings, can be traced back to these ancient tales. Today, go online and have a good time going through various articles. Some Outstanding Greek Myths! Which ones are your personal favorites? Why? What old sayings or present pop culture allusions have you heard that have their roots in an ancient Greek myth? Can you name any? Would a Trojan horse still be effective today? What are your thoughts? Wouldn’t you feel a little skeptical if a gigantic wooden horse showed up on your porch and demanded your attention? Probably! The question is, what kind of present would you be most likely to accept? What if you opened your door and discovered.what? Are you talking about a video game console? Is it time for a new cell phone? How about a life-size replica of your favorite music star? Was there anything you needed to do in order to open your arms and welcome it into your home? Of course, such products would not be able to support an army. But who knows what they may be hiding. Is it some sort of listening device? Is there a concealed video camera here? Is it possible that a super-secret brain scanner from the future exists? Yikes! Consider what a Trojan horse may look like in today’s world and create a short tale to describe how it might function in our world. As soon as you’re finished, upload your tale to Facebook so that all of your Wonder Friends may enjoy it. We can’t wait to see what kind of ideas you come up with. Do you want to take on a challenge? To assist children of all ages in learning about cyber security, the National Science Center (NSC) has developed an entertaining game that teaches them how to spot malware and avoid being a victim of computer “trojan horses.” Do you go on the internet, send emails, or use a cell phone? Then, using NSC Cyber Security methods, you can learn how to keep safe. Put your skills to the test against the Cyber Swarm! Defenders can be used to halt them dead in their tracks! When it comes to interfering with cyber security, these people aren’t fooling around. Learn how to beat them at their own game by understanding their strategy.
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The Greek Myth of Odysseus and the Trojan Horse
It is believed that one of the earliest myths told about Odysseus had anything to do with the famous Trojan Horse. Many horses, including those from Homer’sOdyssey, have made reference to this horse. Even back in ancient Greece, oral storytelling was a part of the society, and it’s probable that the stories were recounted on a regular basis; it’s just that there aren’t many written copies of them to be found. A “Trojan Horse” is described as “someone or something that is utilized to conceal or conceal what is genuine or real in order to fool or hurt an opponent.” This interpretation is derived from the original narrative, which is based on Greek mythology.
Here’s a look at the story of Odysseus and the Trojan Horse from a different perspective:
What Literature Has to Say About the Trojan Horse
We can trace a great deal of what we know about Odysseus and the Trojan Horse back to Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey. According to this great epic poem, the following is what he had to say about this story: This was also an incredible feat accomplished by that powerful man, who rode the carven horse on which all of us Argives chiefs were seated, carrying death and destruction to the Trojans. Please alter your tune and sing about the construction of a wooden horse, which Epeius built with the assistance of Athena, and which Odysseus once led up into the citadel as a ruse after filling it with the soldiers who sacked Ilion.
This story was mentioned in Virgil’s Aeneid as well.
The Beginning of the Trojan War
Hermes, the messenger deity, spoke about three stories that had anything to do with Odysseus. Even though the earliest of these legends detailed the story of the Trojan Horse, the story began with the events of the Trojan War itself. All three stories revolve around Odysseus’ role at the conclusion of the battle, but The Trojan Horse is unquestionably the most well-known of them all. Legend has it that Zeus was presented with a golden apple, which he was to bestow to the goddess who was considered to be the most beautiful.
Zeus was unhappy with this job, so he delegated it to Paris, the prince of Troy, who accepted the responsibility.
The goddess Aphrodite wanted to win, so she promised Paris that she would make Helen, the queen of Sparta, fall in love with him if he selected her.
After Helen’s wedding to King Menalaus, Aphrodite’s prophecy came true when Paris appeared at Helen’s wedding reception.
Odysseus Doesn’t Want to Go to War
Odysseus, despite the fact that he finally became the hero of the narrative, was adamant about not going to battle. Because his wife had only recently given birth, he desired to spend some quality time with his new child. Due to the fact that Hermes saw that Odysseus did not want to fight in the battle, he advised Odysseus to pretend that he was mentally unwell. It was a complete failure. King Menelaus compelled him to join the battle effort alongside the other military commanders. Odysseus came up with a brilliant idea after 10 years of camped outside the city walls of Troy.
He persuaded them to construct a wooden horse, which they would then deposit outside the city’s walls, claiming that it was a gift for the goddess Athena.
The Trojans were taken in by it.
When they got off the horse, they opened the doors for the remainder of the army, thereby defeating the Trojans and bringing the battle to a close.
Examples of sources include: Wikipedia – Trojan Horse Odysseus, according to Wikipedia Greek Mythology is where this story is classified. This article was posted by GreekBoston.com on their blog.
The Debunker: Does The Iliad Tell the Story of the Trojan Horse?
As a ten-year-old, Ken Jennings, of Jeopardy! fame, was obsessed with trivia, and he is now the father of two trivia-crazy children of his own. This month, he introduces The Junior Genius Guides, a new line of amazing-facts books for youngsters that will be available in stores nationwide. Seeing as how the first two books in the series teach children about maps and geography as well as Greek mythology, we’ve asked him to put the record straight this month and dispel some common myths about ancient mythology, which has always seemed to us to be a purely Greek phenomenon.
We pray to Zeus for mercy on our souls.
Remembering the conclusion of the Trojan War, we still employ the saying “Beware of Greeks giving presents,” which means “Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.” Because they are unable to mount the impenetrable walls of Troy, the Greeks resort to stratagem: Odysseus constructs a massive wooden horse, and the Greeks pretend to be sailing away from Troy on a ship.
- “, the foolish Trojans thought to themselves.
- The Greek army creeps out of the hollow horse in the middle of the night and takes over Troy.
- The Iliad ends with the funeral of the Trojan prince Hector, and never reaches to the conclusion of the war, for reasons that academics are still debating today.
- In any event, it’s likely that the ancient Greeks did not consider the “Trojan horse” to be the game-changing shock ending that we have come to expect.
- In other versions, all is lost when Odysseus and Diomedes sneak into Troy and take a magical, Troy-protecting McGuffin: a statue of Athena known as thepalladium, which is a magical, Troy-protecting McGuffin in Greek mythology.
- One additional debunking point: although the legend that Homer was blind is centuries old, there is no evidence to support it.
- Perhaps he is one of those imaginary blind persons that appear in comic books and television shows, such as Daredevil.
- Quick quiz: Who is the one who initiates the Trojan War by kidnapping Helen away from her husband Menelaus in the first place?
He’s also the proud owner of an unimpressive Bag o’ Crap, which he received as a gift. For more information, visit ken-jennings.com or follow him on Twitter as @KenJennings.
Did the Trojan Horse exist? Classicist tests Greek ‘myths’
We are all familiar with the story of the Trojan Horse. First stated in Homer’s Odyssey, the Trojan Horse relates how Greek troops were able to capture the city of Troy after a failed ten-year siege by hiding in a gigantic horse that had been left as a sacrifice to the goddess Athena by the Trojans. Was it, however, a fabrication? Archaeological evidence reveals that Troy was definitely burned down; but, the wooden horse is an imaginary myth, presumably inspired by the way ancient siege-engines were coated with damp horse-hides to prevent them from being set ablaze, according to Oxford University classicist Dr Armand D’Angour.
- The Iliad and Odyssey, which are known as Homer’s epics, were created orally, without the use of written manuscripts, somewhere in the 8th Century BC, according to Dr D’Angour, following a long history of oral minstrelsy that had existed for years before that time.
- Even though the poems were produced without writing and verbally conveyed, we can be certain that they were eventually written down in Greek because that is the only way they have survived.’ According to Dr.
- The story has been read by millions of people and is among the most shared on the BBC website over the previous few days.
- D’Angour is working on a two-year project to restore the sounds of Greek music and to determine the importance of these sounds in some of the most renowned poetry from Ancient Greece.
- It was poets who produced the Iliad and Odyssey, as well as the love poems of archaic Lesbos, the victory odes of the early fifth century BC, and the choral sections of Greek tragedy and comedy, who composed the words that were to be sung and accompanied by musical instruments.
The melodic structures of ancient Greek music are given even less attention, in spite of the fact that we now have enough fragments and voluminous writings by ancient authors and musical theorists (all of which have been admirably translated and compiled by Andrew Barker in Greek Musical Writings) to exercise an informed scholarly imagination on them.
It is inevitable that readers of ancient writings will lose part of the original artistic effect of these songs if they do not pay attention to the auditory dimension of them.
Is the Trojan horse mentioned in the Odyssey?
Asked in the following category: General The most recent update was made on April 14th, 2020. According to The Odyssey, the Trojan Horse is mentioned in the seventh book, The Odyssey of the Trojan Horse.” A passage in the book of Odyssey states that the heroOdySseusanda group of Greek soldiers hid in the Trojan horse in order to launch a surprise attack on the Trojans,” Aslan explained. The Trojan Horseis a story from the Trojan War that tells of the Greeks’ use of deception to gain entry into the independent city of Troy and ultimately win the war.
- Also, do you know whether the Trojan horse appears in the Iliad or the Odyssey?
- Homer, on the other hand, saw Hector’s death, rather than the horse’s death, as the turning point in the war.
- As a hero of Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey, Odysseus was also a hero of the Trojan War.
- TheTrojan Horse was constructed under the command of Odysseus and then filled with Greeks.
- According to Homer, what is the Trojan Horse a representation of?
- They rode the massive wooden horse right through the heart of the city.
Greek & Roman Mythology – Homer
|Unit 2 :Pronunciation GuideHomer and Epic”Introduction” inOdyssey|
|Unit 3 :Odysseus in the Trojan WarTrojan War SummaryLearn a current version of XENIA|
|Unit 4 :Homeric CompositionOdysseyMapsOdysseyTimelines|
|Homer Help Pages :The Gods40 Day ChronologyFAQ 1-12FAQ 13-24|
|The Trojan War|
|Until about a 100 years ago, we were quite sure that the Trojan War was purely legend, and that asking when it happened would be like asking when Atlantis sank.But at the close of the 19th century archaeologists led by Heinrich Schliemann found the remains of a great citadel that existed on the Western shore of Asia Minor, the traditional location of Troy, and which appeared to be overrun in a great war around the year 1250 B.C.E., a time which is compatible with the traditional story of the Trojan War.In the ancient world, the legend underwent many changes and amplifications. The kernel of the story is contained in Homer’s two epics, theIliadand theOdyssey. The incidents he relates, whether narrated in depth or only touched upon, were elaborated or developed by the post-Homeric poets, partly by connecting them with other popular traditions, and partly by the addition of further details of their own.The account that follows highlights the important incidents of the war in Homer’s version, and in other versions where they are relevant for our class.|
|In Homer it is simply the rape of Helen which is the occasion of the war.A later legend traced its origin to the marriage ofPeleus and Thetis, when Eris threw down among the assembled gods a golden apple inscribed, “For the fairest.” The quarrel that ensued between Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite for the prize of beauty was decided by the Trojan prince Paris in favor of Aphrodite, who in return secured for him the possession of Helen, while Hera and Athena became, from that time onward, the implacable enemies of the whole Trojan race. According to Homer, after Paris carried off Helen, her husband Menelaus was understandably upset.He happened to be brother to Agamemnon, the greatest king among the Greeks, and the two of them visited all the Greek chieftains and convinced them to take part in a great expedition which they were preparing to avenge the wrong. Agamemnon was chosen commander-in-chief; next to him the most prominent Greek heroes are his brother Menelaus, Achilles and Patroclus, two unrelated men named Ajax, Teucer, Nestor and his son Antilochus, Odysseus, Diomedes, Idomeneus, and Philoctetes, who, however, at the very outset of the expedition had to be left behind, and does not appear on the scene of action until just before the fall of Troy. The entire host of 100,000 men and 1,186 ships assembled in the harbor of Aulis. Here, while they made sacrifices to secure the good will of the gods for the expedition, a snake darted out from under the altar, ascended a tree, devoured a brood of eight young sparrows and the mother-bird, and finally was turned into stone. This omen Calchas, the seer of the host, interpreted to mean that the war would last nine years, and terminate in the tenth with the destruction of Troy. Agamemnon had already received an oracle from Delphi that Troy would fall when the best of the Greeks quarreled.|
|In Homer the crossing to Troy follows immediately; but in the later story the Greeks at first land by mistake in Mysia, in the country of Telephus.They are dispersed by a storm and driven back to Greece, and then assemble afresh at Aulis. Once there, they learn that divine disfavor is preventing them from the crossing to Troy until Agamemnon agrees to sacrifice his own daughter Iphigenia to appease the angry gods (an incident entirely unknown to Homer). After landing, skirmishing, and pitching their camp, Odysseus and Menelaus proceed as ambassadors to Troy, to demand the surrender of Helen. But this proposal, in spite of the inclination of Helen herself and the admonition of the Trojan Antenor, never takes hold, owing to the opposition of Paris. War is declared. The number of the Trojans is scarcely one tenth that of the besiegers; and although they possess many brave heroes, such as Aeneas, Sarpedon, Glaucus, and especially Hector, in their fear of Achilles they dare not risk a general engagement, and remain holed up behind their walls. On the other hand, the Achaeans can do nothing against the well-fortified and defended town, and see themselves confined to laying ambuscades and devastating the surrounding country, and compelled by lack of provisions to have resource to foraging expeditions in the neighborhood, undertaken by sea and by land under the generalship of Achilles.|
|At last the decisive tenth year arrives. TheIliadnarrates the events of this year, confining itself to the space of fifty-one days. Over the course of the war, the Greeks have taken many war prizes from the surrounding countryside.One of these prizes happens to be Chryseis, the daughter of Chryses, a priest of Apollo.He comes in priestly garb into the camp of the Greeks to ransom his daughter from Agamemnon. He is rudely repulsed, and Apollo consequently visits the Greeks with a plague. In an assembly of the Greeks summoned by Achilles, the seer Calchas declares the only means of appeasing the god to be the surrender of the girl without ransom. Agamemnon assents to the general wish; but, by way of compensation, takes from Achilles, whom he considers to be the instigator of the whole plot, his favorite slave Briseis. Achilles withdraws in a rage to his tent, and implores his mother Thetis to obtain from Zeus a promise that the Greeks should meet with disaster in fighting the Trojans until Agamemnon returns the girl and restores Achilles’ honor. The Trojans immediately take the open field, and Agamemnon is induced by a promise of victory, conveyed in a lying dream from Zeus, to start the fight.|
|The armies are standing opposed to one another, prepared for fight, when they agree to a treaty that the whole conflict will be decided by a duel between Paris and Menelaus. Paris is overcome in the duel, and is only rescued from death by the intervention of Aphrodite. When Agamemnon presses for the fulfillment of the treaty, the Trojan Pandarus breaks the peace by shooting an arrow at Menelaus, and the agreement falls apart.The first open engagement in the war begins, in which, under the protection of Athena, Diomedes performs miracles of bravery and wounds even Aphrodite and Ares. Diomedes and the Lycian Glaucus are on the verge of fighting, when they recognize one another as hereditary guest-friends and stop their duel, a marker of how important is the concept of hospitality (XENIA, in Greek). The day ends with an indecisive duel between Hector and Ajax son of Telamon. They call a truce to bury their dead, and the Greeks, acting on the advice of Nestor, surround their camp with a wall and trench. When the fighting begins again, Zeus forbids the gods to take part in it, and ordains that the battle shall end with the defeat of the Greeks. On the following night Agamemnon already begins to think about fleeing, but Nestor advises reconciliation with Achilles. Agamemnon sends an embassy, including Odysseus, to make amends with Achilles. The efforts of ambassadors are, however, fruitless. Then Odysseus and Diomedes go out on a night-time reconnaissance mission, kill many Trojans, and capture a Trojan spy. On the succeeding day Agamemnon’s bravery drives the Trojans back to the walls of the town; but he himself, Diomedes, Odysseus, and other heroes leave the battle wounded, and the Greeks retire behind the camp walls.The Trojans advance and attack the Greek walls. The opposition of the Greeks is brave; but Hector breaks the rough gate with a rock, and the stream of enemies pours itself unimpeded into the camp. Once more the Greek heroes who are still capable of taking part in the fight, especially the two Ajaxes and Idomeneus, succeed with the help of Poseidon in repelling the Trojans, while Telamonian Ajax dashes Hector to the ground with a stone; but the latter soon reappears on the battlefield with fresh strength granted to him by Apollo at the command of Zeus. Poseidon is obliged to leave the Greeks to their fate; they retire again to the ships, which Ajax in vain defends. The Trojans advance still further to where they are able to begin torching the Greek ships.At this point, Achilles allows his friend Patroclus to borrow his armour and enter the battle with their contingent of soldiers to help the distressed Greeks. Supposing it to be Achilles himself, the Trojans in terror flee from the camp before Patroclus, who pursues them to the town, and lays low vast numbers of the enemy, including the brave Sarpedon, whose corpse is only rescued from the Greeks after a severe fight. At last Patroclus himself is slain by Hector with the help of Apollo; Achilles’ arms are lost, and even the corpse is with difficulty saved. And now Achilles repents of his anger, reconciles himself to Agamemnon, and on the following day, furnished with new and splendid armour by Hephaestus at the request of Thetis, avenges the death of his friend on countless Trojans and finally on Hector himself.|
|TheIliadconcludes with the burial of Patroclus and the funeral games established in his honor, the restoration of Hector’s corpse to Priam, and the burial of Hector, for which Achilles allows an armistice of eleven days. Immediately after the death of Hector the later legends bring the Amazons to the help of the Trojans, and their queen Penthesilea is slain by Achilles. Then appears Memnon at the head of an Ethiopian contingent. He slays Antilochus son of Nestor, but is himself slain by Achilles.And now comes the fulfillment of the oracle given to Agamemnon at Delphi; for at a sacrificial banquet a violent quarrel arises between Achilles and Odysseus, the latter declaring craft and not valour to be the only means of capturing Troy. Soon after, in an attempt to force a way into the hostile town through the Scaean gate, Achilles falls, slain by the arrow of Paris, directed by the god. After his burial, Thetis offers the arms of her son as a prize for the bravest of the Greek heroes, which provokes a fight among the Greeks for the title and the arms. Odysseus wins, and his main competition, the Telamonian Ajax, kills himself.|
|Odysseus captures Helenus, son of Priam, who advises the Greeks that Troy could not be conquered without the arrows of Heracles and the presence of someone related to Achilles.They fetch Philoctetes, the heir of Heracles, whom the Greeks had abandoned and left for dead on the island of Lemnos, and Neoptolemus, the young son of Achilles, who had been brought up on Seyros.The latter, a worthy son of his father, slays the last ally of the Trojans, Eurypylus, the brave son of Telephus; and Philoctetes, with one of the arrows of Heracles, kills Paris. Even when the last condition of the capture of Troy, the removal of a small statue of Athena, called the Palladium, from the temple of Athena on the citadel, has been successfully fulfilled by Diomedes and Odysseus, the town can only be taken by treachery. On the advice of Athena, Epeius, son of Panopeus, builds a gigantic wooden horse, in the belly of which the bravest Greek warriors conceal themselves under the direction of Odysseus. The rest of the Greeks pretend to abandon the fight. They burn their camp and embark on ship, only, however, to hide in waiting behind a nearby island. The Trojans, streaming out of the town, find the horse, and are in doubt as to what to do with it. According to the later legend, they are deceived by the treacherous Sinon, a kinsman of Odysseus, who has of his own free will remained behind. He pretends that he has escaped from an evil plan of Odysseus to use him as a human sacrifice, and that the horse has been erected to expiate the robbery of the Palladium.To destroy it would be fatal to Troy, he claims, but should it be brought into the city, the Trojans would conquer Europe. The Trojan Laocoon warns against the Greek gift and is killed by sea monsters. The Trojans take it as a sign and decide to bring the statue into the city.|
|The Trojans are overjoyed and celebrate their victory and the departure of the Greeks. Sinon in the night opens the door of the horse. The heroes descend, and light the flames that give to the Greek fleet the agreed-upon signal for its return. Thus Troy is captured; all the inhabitants are either slain or carried into slavery, and the city is destroyed. The only survivors of the royal house are Helenus, Aeneas, Hector’s wife Andromache, and Cassandra, who is taken as a war prize by Agamemnon. The Greeks run riot in the conquered city and their offenses set off divine outrage. For many of the Greeks, their sufferings are far from over.Their voyages home, in Greek NOSTOI, are fraught with troubles.Only Nestor, Diomedes, Neoptolemus, Philoctetes, and Idomeneus reach home in safety; while Menelaus and Odysseus first have to undergo wanderings for years. The Locrian Ajax is killed at sea, and Agamemnon immediately after his arrival home.|
|See Also:Odysseus in the Trojan War|
|Copyright 2000-2020 Peter T. Struck.No portion of this site may be copied or reproduced, electronically or otherwise, without the expressed, written consent of the author.|
[Ans] In Homer’s “The Odyssey,” what was hidden inside the Trojan horse?
The Trojan horse, which was first referenced in the Odyssey, was a wooden horse that was claimed to have been used by the Greeks during the Trojan War to penetrate and destroy the city of Troy. The Greeks constructed a gigantic wooden horse, which they stationed outside of the city limits. It was the Trojans who assumed the horse was a peace gift, and they paraded it through their city as a victory trophy. A troop of Greek warriors, on the other hand, was concealed within the horse. Meanwhile, as the Trojans slept, the Greeks crept off their horse, murdered the guards, and opened the city’s gates to allow the remainder of the Greek army to march in.
Step 2:Answer to the question “In Homer’s “The Odyssey,” what was hidden inside the Trojan horse?”
Trojan horse was a wooden horse that was first referenced in the Odyssey and was claimed to have been used by the Greeks during the Trojan War to penetrate the city of Troy. It was first mentioned in the Odyssey. Using giant wooden horses, the Greeks erected a fortification just beyond the city walls. Taking it as a gift of peace, the Trojans paraded the horse through their city as a triumphant victory prize. An unknown number of Greek warriors, however, were concealed within the horse.
Meanwhile, as the Trojans slept, the Greeks crept off their horse, murdered the guards, and opened the city’s gates to allow the remainder of the Greek army to march through. The Greeks marched into Troy and destroyed the city, thereby bringing the battle to a close.
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From Homer and Herodotus to Sophocles and Virgil, the account of the Trojan War—the Bronze Age struggle between the kingdoms of Troy and Mycenaean Greece—crosses the boundaries of history and legend in ancient Greece, and it has inspired some of the finest authors of antiquity, including Virgil. After re-discovering the site of Troy in what is now western Turkey in the 19th century, archaeologists have unearthed more and more evidence of a kingdom that reached its zenith and may have been destroyed around 1,180 B.C.—perhaps serving as a model for the tales recounted by Homer some 400 years later in his epic poems the “Iliad” and the “Odyssey.”
The Narrative of the Trojan War
It was the abduction (or elopement), according to ancient traditions, of Queen Helen of Sparta by the Trojan prince Paris that triggered the outbreak of battle. Her betrayed husband Menelaus persuaded his brother Agamemnon, the king of Mycenae, to launch an expedition to reclaim Helen from exile in Spartia. Among those who followed Agamemnon on his expedition were the Greek heroes Achilles, Odysseus, Nestor, and Ajax, as well as an army of more than a thousand ships from all across the Hellenic world.
- After more than a decade of fights and skirmishes, including the legendary deaths of the Trojan prince Hector and the supposedly invincible Achilles, the Greek soldiers finally withdrew from their camp, leaving a massive wooden horse outside the city’s gates.
- When night fell, the horse’s mouth opened and a party of Greek warriors, headed by Odysseus, crawled out and sacked the city of Troy from the inside out.
- Odysseus’ long and sometimes interrupted journey home to Ithaca, as recorded in Homer’s “Odyssey,” took him a total of ten years.
- Following his death, some reports claim she was deported to the Greek island of Rhodes, where she was executed by hanging by a spiteful war widow.
The Trojan War Epics
There is very little information available regarding the historical Homer. Historians believe that the “Iliad” was completed about 750 B.C., and that the “Odyssey” was completed around 725 B.C. Both have their origins in the oral tradition and were first recorded decades or centuries after they were written, respectively. Many of the most well-known episodes of the war, from the abduction of Helen to the Trojan Horse and the sack of Troy, can be traced back to the so-called “Epic Cycle,” a collection of narratives compiled in the sixth century B.C.
The “Aeneid,” the third major classical epic inspired by the Trojan War, was written in the first century B.C.
It tells the story of a group of Trojans headed by the hero Aeneas who flee their ruined homeland and go to Carthage before settling in Rome and creating the city.
It was part of Virgil’s goal to tell the narrative of Rome’s first imperial dynasty in a way that was equally as magnificent as the Greeks’.
Is the Trojan War a Real War?
Many passages of Homer’s epic of the Trojan War are difficult to comprehend historically. Helen was fathered by Zeus, who disguised himself as a swan and raped her mother Leda), and much of the action is led (or interfered with) by the many rival Greek gods. For example, according to legend, Paris won Helen’s heart after bestowing the golden apple upon the goddess Aphrodite in recognition of her beauty (“The Judgment of Paris” tells the story of how Paris was asked to choose the most beautiful goddess among Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite by bestowing the apple upon the winner).
- In 1870, under the guidance of German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, extensive excavations at the site of Troy uncovered a tiny citadel mound and layers of rubble that were 25 meters thick.
- until its eventual abandonment in A.D.
- Following recent digs, it was discovered that Troy had an occupied area ten times the size of the citadel, establishing it as a large Bronze Age metropolis.
- At the time of Homer’s writing, 400 years later, the ruins would still have been evident.
Legend of the Trojan Horse for Kids (Beware of Greeks Bearing Gifts)
Beware of Greeks who come carrying presents, according to an ancient proverb. That old proverb dates back 2,500 years to the city-state of Sparta in ancient Greece, whence it derives.
As the story goes.
Once upon a time, there was a city called Troy on the coast of Turkey, and it was a thriving trade center. Athens was located on the other side of the Aegean Sea from the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta. As soon as the king of Sparta learned that his lovely wife, Helen, had been kidnapped by a prince of Troy, he appealed to the other Greek city-states for assistance in rescuing her. His phone call was picked up. A thousand Greek ships made sail for Troy on the day of the battle. The city of Troy was guarded by a high wall that had been constructed around it.
- There were gates in the wall to let people to come and go, but the wall served as a strong defensive barrier for the inhabitants of Troy.
- For almost 10 years prior to the events of this novel, Greek troops had been attempting to break the wall around Troy.
- A technique was dreamt out by the legendary Greek general Odysseus, who saved the day when all appeared lost.
- Odysseus proposed that the Greeks construct a massive, hefty, and magnificent wooden horse and station it outside the city gates of Troy.
- However, it was a ruse.
- There would be thirty men hidden inside.
- As soon as they were finished, the Greek troops pretended to sail away, leaving the horse behind them.
They pulled the massive horse through the city gates and put it on display, which was exactly what the Greek commander had predicted they would do – gloat over their victory.
Troy was invaded by the Greek army that had been waiting.
Is this old urban tale accurate?
It is referred to as the “legend of the Trojan horse” in certain circles.
The Trojan War is a term used to describe a conflict between two opposing groups of people.
The Trojan Horse, Troy, and Helen are three tales (click on download, that means play audio stories now) Is it true that ancient Troy existed?
(An animated, brief video for children) What happened to Odysseus, the renowned Greek commander who fought in the Trojan War, after the war? Homer’sIliad Homer’sOdyssey
Why the Trojan Horse Almost Certainly Wasn’t a Horse
As part of his Dispatches from The Secret Library series, Dr Oliver Tearle investigates the historical roots of the mythological figure of the Trojan Horse. When asked to select the renowned classical antiquity work that presented the narrative of the Trojan Horse, what would you say was the work that you would choose? The Iliad, Homer’s epic poem about the last phases of the Trojan War, is the work of literature that provides the most detailed description of the Trojan War and the Greek troops’ victory over the Trojans.
- The Trojan Horse is nowhere to be found in Homer’s epic poem, and readers will be disappointed if they try to find it.
- Was the Trojan Horse, on the other hand, truly a wooden horse?
- In fact, it is not theIliad or the Odyssey, but thePosthomerica(i.e.
- As described in the Posthomerica, Odysseus comes up with the idea of making a wooden horse as a type of prize — the horse being the emblem of the city of Troy – in order to fool the Trojans into enabling Greek forces to sneak inside the city.
- The horse is said to have been given to Sinon as a gift.
- A pair of sea serpents, summoned by the god Poseidon, quickly suffocates him to death.
- The Trojans, of course, did not stop the horse from rolling in.
In contrast to Tim Severin’s theory, other theories are more logical, at least if we agree that many myths – from King Arthur’s sword in the stone to the Golden Fleece – derive from real-world activities in their ultimate roots.
It’s possible that the equipment had a horse-like appearance, which served as inspiration for the subsequent narrative.
It is possible that the Trojan Horse was not a horse at all (even if it had actually existed), but rather a battering ram, a siege engine or even a ship in the first instance.
A ship, like the Trojan Horse of Virgil and Quintus of Smyrna, is a massive wooden vessel that might have been used to sneak into the city of Troy.
Homer refers to ships as’sea-horses’ at one point in hisOdyssey, using a phrase that foreshadows later Anglo-Saxon kennings seen in poems such asBeowulf and other works of literature.
While reading David Gemmell’s masterful retelling of the myth of the Trojan War, I was struck by the fact that the term “Trojan Horse” clearly refers to something like this, and as I was reading Gemmell’s compelling trilogy, I wondered how he was going to incorporate the story of the Trojan Horse without it coming across as silly.
It’s revealed in the third and final book in the trilogy, Troy: Fall of Kings (Trojan War Trilogy): 3 (begun by Gemmell before his untimely death in 2006, and completed by his wife Stella), that the Trojan Horse was actually a highly trained elite troop of Greek soldiers disguised in Trojan armour and banners, and that the Trojans duly opened their gates to their returning platoon, only to discover that it wasn’t their platoon at all.
Ultimately, we’ll never know for sure – and it’s possible that none of these theories are right and that there was no ‘Trojan Horse’ of any type engaged in the battle between the Greeks and Trojans in the first place.
In his book The Secret Library: A Book-Lovers’ Journey Through Curiosities of History, Oliver Tearle takes readers on a journey through the history of books. It is available now through Michael O’Mara Books. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.