- One arm is wrapped behind the mare’s rear leg and the other in front. A foal starts the milk flow and is pulled away by another person, but left touching the mare’s side during the entire process. In Mongolia, the milking season for horses traditionally runs between mid-June and early October.
Is it possible to milk a horse?
As far as drinking is concerned, horse milk is consumed in central Asia, Russia, Tibet, and some parts of China. Although Europeans are less inclined to drink mare milk, some do. There is a variation of mare’s milk that is sold to drink in France.
How do you hand milk a horse?
Connect with the mare at the shoulder and move down her side to her flank. Ensure she is desensitized by maintaining contact and sliding your hand down slowly to her udder. If she resists, swishes her tail or kicks, keep your hand there until she stops, then remove it. Bend down or kneel down on one knee.
How long does it take to milk a horse?
It takes only a couple of minutes per mare per milking. One minute is spent cleaning and stimulating the mare’s udder, which is essential to begin milk flow. Once milk begins dripping from the teats, it takes less than a minute for the automatic milker to do its job.
How do you milk a horse with a syringe?
Simply cut off the tip of a 60cc syringe so that both ends are the same diameter. Then replace the plunger of the syringe through the cut end first. The mare’s nipple is placed in the uncut end and the syringe is held with pressure against the mare’s udder. Pull back on the plunger to milk out the mare.
Did humans ever drink horse milk?
Some people drink horse milk instead of cow’s milk for its health benefits. Some people in Russia and Asia have been drinking mare’s milk for more than 2,500 years. They turn it into a drink called kumis, or fermented mare’s milk.
Why don’t we drink pigs milk?
Pig milk cheese is impossible to find for a variety of reasons. The most important reason is also the reason we don’t drink pig milk: Pigs are really, really difficult to milk. Even though it contains more fat than cow’s milk, it’s more watery, and its flavor is also much gamier than cow’s milk.
How long does it take to milk a mare?
Peak milk production usually occurs at 6–12 weeks after foaling.
Can you get milk from a male cow?
CAN MALE COWS MAKE MILK? As with all mammals, it’s exclusively the female sex that is physically able to produce milk. Because male cattle are not born with udders, they cannot make milk.
Can a mare produce milk without being pregnant?
Occasionally mares that are not pregnant start producing milk. One cause for this is abnormal hormone production from one of the hormone producing glands in the body (i.e. secondary to Cushing’s Disease) and is sometimes due to a tumour forming in that gland, but not always.
Do horses stop eating before giving birth?
During the last few weeks of gestation a mare can become cranky, restless and as she enters the first stage of labour, she usually wants to be left alone. These signs are also indicative of colic, but if the mare eats, drinks, defecates and urinates frequently then the first stage of labour is probably in progress.
How do I know if my mare is producing enough milk?
A bright, active and alert foal is the best indication they’re receiving adequate milk to meet their daily energy and nutrition requirements. However, if you observe unusual suckling behaviour, or your foal seems lethargic or unwell, consult your veterinarian.
Can a mare be milked?
Some horse owners milk their mares if the baby isn’t able to nurse on its own, storing the colostrum in case it’s needed for future foals. Kathy Anderson is an extension horse specialist at the University of Nebraska. She says successfully milking a mare depends on her temperament.
Mare milk – Wikipedia
In Kyrgyzstan, a mare is milked, and in Paris, France, cosmetics produced from mare milk are sold. Mare milk is milk produced by female horses, sometimes known as mares, for the purpose of feeding their foals. The fruit is high in protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamin C, and it is a crucial ingredient in the Japanese dessert kumis. Many European countries, including Germany, use soldpowdered solder to join the pieces together. Mare milk is often preferred over cow milk because of the alleged health benefits it is said to provide.
According to peer-reviewed research, it may be effective in treating atopic dermatitis and eczema.
- Young W. Park and George F. W. Haenlein are the editors of this volume (2008). Non-Bovine Mammal Milk: A Handbook of Information. John WileySons. p. 293. ISBN978-0470999721
- s^ Susanna Forrest and Forrest (July 12, 2018). “Is Mare’s Milk Beneficial to Your Health? Horses are being looked to by Europeans as an ancient remedy “. NPR. Obtainable on August 17, 2020
- Technique for making cheese from horse and donkey milk that has been developed
- Baked, carbonated, condensed, evaporated, flavored, and filled
- Ice cream
- Jewelry, Filmjölk, Kefir, Kumis, Milkshake, Skyr, Whey, Ymer, and Yogurt are all examples of foods that fall into this category.
- The following items are available: bag-in-box, glass milk bottle, Jug, milk bag, carton, milk churn, milk crate, and milk delivery. The following items are also available: plastic milk container, square milk jug, and Tetra Brik.
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Milk Mare, Strip Milk
Procedures that you should be able to accomplish efficiently and securely on a horse are referred to as skills.
LEARN HOW TO
There are a variety of instances in which being able to milk a mare or extract a sample of milk from a mare’s udder is beneficial. The emergence of milk in a mare’s udders as she approaches foaling is a remarkably accurate indicator of approaching delivery. In my veterinary business, I sample the milk of mares who are about to give birth and find that it helps me make more accurate forecasts. On average, after 48 hours following foaling, the secretion changes color from honey-colored to white in hue.
In the majority of circumstances, your veterinarian will advise you on the best course of action.
PROCEDURE Begin by making contact with the mare’s shoulder and moving down her side until you reach her flank. Maintain touch with her and carefully slide your fingers down to her udder to ensure she becomes acclimated to the sensation. If she fights you, swishes her tail, or kicks you, keep your hand on her until she stops, then take your hand off her. Kneel down on one knee or lower yourself to the ground. Place a teat between your thumb and fingers and draw them down toward the teat tip, then repeat the process.
- The initial milk (colostrum) should be sticky and more of a brown hue than a white milk (colostrum).
- SUGGESTIONS FOR SUCCESS AND SAFETY When doing this talent, the mare must be controlled correctly by an experienced horse handler in order for it to be accomplished safely.
- The plunger is withdrawn and reinserted through the cut end in the reverse direction.
- The milk is drawn into the barrel by gentle negative pressure applied to the plunger.
Once it has reached capacity, it may be emptied into a clean container and collected. With less milk in the udder, it might be difficult to get a breast pump to work well, and manual milking may be preferred under these circumstances.
You may also be required to accomplish other abilities. Doug Thal, DVM, Dipl. ABVP is the author of this article.
Milking a Mare
Colostrum is the first milk produced by a mare after giving birth, and it is extremely nutritious and high in antibodies and antibodies. Foals require this instant nourishment to give them a boost in energy and to aid in the battle against illness. The mare’s colostrum is collected and stored by some horse owners in case the newborn isn’t able to feed on its own after the birth of the foal. Kathy Anderson works as a horse expert with the University of Nebraska Extension Service. She believes that the temperament of a mare is critical to properly milking her.
- “Normally, when we had to milk mares, we would tie them up or have someone hold them while we worked.
- Mechanical milking equipment, according to Anderson, does not perform well on horses.
- Be kind with yourself.
- “We wouldn’t wear gloves or anything like that.
- Usually, once you begin to milk them, the milk let-down is stimulated, and you may proceed to nurse them until they are completely depleted.” Anderson suggests collecting milk in a clean bucket to avoid contamination.
- You don’t want it to fall over and spill the priceless contents on the floor.
- It may also be kept in the freezer for up to a year and a half if wrapped tightly in plastic wrap.
Lactation in the Mare
In addition to being rich in nutrients and antibodies, colostrum is the first milk produced by a mare after giving birth. In order to give them an energy boost and to aid in the battle against sickness, foals require this instant feeding. The mare’s colostrum is collected and stored by some horse owners in case the newborn isn’t able to feed on its own beyond the first few months of life. In her position at the University of Nebraska, Kathy Anderson is an extension horse expert. As far as she’s concerned, the temperament of the mare is critical to properly milking her.
- “The majority of the time, when we had to milk mares, we tied them up or had someone hold them.
- Mechanical milking equipment, according to Anderson, does not function well on horses.
- Alternatively, the mare may be suffering from an udder that is painful and sensitive.
- Get your hands a little damp and wet because that’s going to be the most effective method of milking those mares, “Anderson expresses himself in this way: ” “If you know how to hand-milk a cow, you’ve mastered the art of milking a cow with care and efficiency.
- However, maintain one hold on the bucket in case the mare kicks it or pushes you down the cliff.
You certainly don’t want it to fall over and spill its priceless contents. In order to keep the colostrum fresh, it should be kept in the refrigerator until it is needed. A plastic bag containing the mixture can be kept frozen for up to one year and fifteen minutes.
Why Don’t Humans Milk Horses? (+ Interesting Facts)
This is about whether or not human milk horses exist, and if they do not, why this is so. In a nutshell, horses were not bred to be employed in the production of milk. So if you’re looking to learn everything there is to know about milking horses, you’ve come to the correct spot. Let’s get this party started!
Do Humans Milk Horses?
Who says people aren’t allowed to milk mares? (The term mare refers to a female horse.) We do, in fact, have one. Did you know that humans have been milking mares for hundreds of years and that they continue to do so? Here are a few illustrations:
- Cleopatra, the ancient Egyptian Queen, was known to bathe in donkey milk in order to maintain her youthful appearance. M mare’s and donkey milk are still believed to be beneficial for human skin, and they are frequently found in a variety of cosmetic products. Although horse milk is still consumed in Europe, it is mostly for aesthetic purposes
- Nonetheless, horse milk is still enjoyed in Central Asia, Russia, Tibet, and some regions of China as a beverage. Despite the fact that Europeans are less likely to drink mare milk, some do. In France, there is a type of mare’s milk that is offered to consumers for consumption. Donkey milk was formerly used to nourish orphan children as well as to heal a variety of skin and liver ailments in ancient times. Mongolian nomads in central Asia make and consume Kumis (fermented mare’s milk), which is a fermented mare’s milk product.
However, even though horse milk is healthy and delicious, it is not an economically feasible food alternative for people since it is expensive to manufacture, less nutritious, and difficult to obtain. Horse milk is also not widely available. Horses were not bred to be utilized in the production of dairy products. For the purpose of moving our debate on mare’s milk consumption forward, let us first explore the composition of mare’s milk, in order to answer the age-old topic of whether or not horse milk is identical to human breast milk.
What Is in Horse Milk?
Isn’t milk just that: milk? No, it is not always the case. Let’s take a look at what’s in horse milk.
Composition and Comparison With Human Breast Milk
According to a large amount of literature, the composition of mare’s milk is identical to that of human milk. The proportions of fat, lactose, and proteins, particularly the casein protein, are the most significant variances between the two products. Due to the fact that horse milk includes around 10-11 percent solid content, it is thin and contains significantly more water than human breast milk, cow’s dairy milk, goat dairy milk, or sheep (ewe’s dairy milk). It also has a significantly lower fat content.
Lactose, or the sugar found in milk, is found in almost equal concentrations to the other sugars.
|Nutrient/Mineral||Mare’s (female horse) Milk||Human Breast Milk|
|Fat (gram/kg)||12.1 gram||36.4 gram|
|Protein (gram/kg)||21.4 gram||14.2 gram|
|Lactose (gram/kg)||63 gram||67 gram|
|Casein (gram/kg)||10 gram||3.7 gram|
|Calcium (mg/100ml)||102 mg||30 mg|
|Magnesium (mg/100 ml)||9 mg||3 mg|
Not An Exact Copy, But Could It Be a Substitute for Human Breast Milk?
As demonstrated by the evidence, we cannot claim that horse milk is an identical replica of human breast milk. If this were the case, it would be utilized as a substitute for human breast milk in order to augment the process. Is it possible that it might be utilized for that purpose in any case? Please keep in mind that the variation in composition is related to the fact that animals make milk for the purpose of feeding their young. The dietary requirements of the young of each species are distinct.
If that’s the case, why isn’t it more popular or readily available at the supermarket?
Of course not, that is not the case.
It has a sweeter taste than cow’s milk and has a flavor that is similar to diluted cow’s milk with a hint of almond flavor.
I would argue that the question is not one of taste. Cow’s milk is disliked by many individuals, even some who are vegan. Then, what is the rationale for the fact that mare’s milk is not ingested in the same proportion as milk from other mammalian species?
Why Do We Not All Drink Mare’s Milk?
The solution may be found in the following elements:
As you are aware, the main goal of a breeding mare is to nurture a neonate (in this example, a horse) in order to ensure that it grows into a healthy horse in the future. Horses are currently preserved and produced for a variety of purposes, including racing, beauty contests, and aesthetic preferences. Generally speaking, milk production is a secondary, or even a tertiary quality to look for in all of these situations. In general, a mare’s milk supply ranges from 11.6-23.3 quarts per day (11-22 liters per day), which is smaller than that of the smallest cow breed.
After two months, foals begin to take more solid meals and less mare’s milk, which is beneficial for their nutritional development.
“Why aren’t we working on improving the horse breeds for milk production?” asks one of the most essential questions.
Horse milk production is improving all of the time, and the business is revitalizing itself, but the primary goal of the breeding mare is to produce healthy foals who will grow up to be fine horses.
Low Nutritional Value
Horse milk just does not compare to human breast milk, despite the numerous health advantages and well-documented history of feeding human newborns animal milk as a replacement for human breast milk. When compared to cow’s milk, mare’s milk contains far more water and, as a result, contains significantly less fat, protein, and other key components. As a result, horse milk has a nutritional content that is far lower than that of milk from cows, buffaloes, camels, sheep, goats, and even human beings.
The Purpose of a Mare Is To Produce Healthy Foals, Not Produce Milk
Would you be willing to prepare meals in your fresh new Mercedes? Without a doubt, this is not the case. That is not its intended use. Similarly, horses were never designed or utilized only for the purpose of producing milk for human use. Several methods, including artificial selection, purposeful breeding, and genetic manipulation, have been used to generate high-milk-producing dairy cows and goats. They were intentionally created by humans in order to give milk and meat for consumption. Humans, on the other hand, never meant for mares to deliver milk to be consumed by humans.
The Horse Population Is Smaller Than Cattle; Fewer Horses to Milk
Horses have a worldwide population of around 60 million individuals.
When compared to the more than 900 million dairy cow that exist across the world, this figure is extraordinarily low. As a result, the number of horses available to give milk for the human population is insufficient and will never be sufficient.
Good Alternatives Are Available
The nutritional value of horse milk, despite its therapeutic and dermatological advantages, is not comparable to that of cows, buffaloes, sheep (and even goats) or goat milk. Equine (horse) milk has a lower protein and fat content than other milks available on the market. Horse milk would not be economically possible to employ in the production of commercially available cheese and cream products for general consumption. It would be too costly to carry out such a project. The milk of cows, buffaloes, sheep, and goats has the extra advantage of people being accustomed to the flavor of these animals’ milk.
What Makes Equine Milk Expensive?
Let’s look into the reasons why horse milk would not be a suitable substitute for cow’s milk in greater depth.
Because a mare’s typical body weight is more than that of a cow’s, her dietary requirements are greater than those of a cow as well. Horses consume more feed and generate less milk per kilogram of body weight than cattle, making them more expensive to keep and less productive overall. Mares are not a good choice for milk production on a commercial basis, as the truth demonstrates.
Very Short Lactation Period
Horses have a shorter lactation period than cattle, which means that milk is accessible and secreted for a shorter period of time. The average lactation period in mares is 180 days, which is significantly less than the average lactation length in dairy cattle, which is 305 days. Furthermore, after 2 months, the milk output of mares declines considerably, as seen in the graph. As a result, a very short nursing time followed by a lengthy gestation period renders the procedure uneconomical.
Frequent Milking Is Required for Mares
When compared to cattle or goats, the milk output from a single milking is quite low in horses. This is due to the fact that the mare’s udder has two mammary glands, which is an evolutionary adaptation to suit their smaller stomach. Their stomach varies from the stomachs of many other ruminants in that it is incapable of storing large amounts of food. As a result, a mare must be milked more than 4-5 times a day in order to achieve optimal output, which is a time-consuming process in and of itself.
Religious and Cultural Considerations
Despite the fact that drinking horse milk is not banned by many faiths throughout the world, many people perceive it to be so for religious reasons. Because horse milk and meat are considered halal (permissible) in Islam, millions of Muslims living on the Indian subcontinent do not consume equine milk and consider it to be banned by their religion. As a result, it is more difficult for equine milk to be accepted on a broader scale.
Milking a Mare Is Not Easy
We are not referring to the difficulties of restraining a horse in order to milk it in this instance. In this case, we are referring to the shorter teats of the mare, which are difficult for human hands to grasp while milking. A mare has two short mammary glands on either side of her body (teats).
Despite the fact that several milking machines and manual items are commercially accessible, only a small number of individuals use them to milk horses. Furthermore, when compared to machine milking, human milking of mares resulted in less fat being generated in the milk.
Horses Are Not as Docile as Cattle
In addition to the fact that horses were domesticated 2000 years later than cattle or sheep, I’d like to share a personal observation with you on this subject. Horses, unlike cattle and other creatures whose milk we humans consume, are less tolerant of our needs. Horses were tamed so that they could be utilized for transportation and fighting. Cows were domesticated for their milk and meat production. The most basic reason for not milking horses is that they were not meant to be utilized for milk production in the first place.
Lactation in the horse: milk composition and intake by foals
Five nursing mares were sampled weekly from 10 to 54 days postpartum, with each sample containing an average of 500 mL of milk. After administering oxytocin to the foal and while the foal was nursing, samples were taken by hand milking. A larger concentration of dry matter, protein, and gross energy was found in samples collected at 10 and 17 days postpartum than in those collected during the midlactation interval of 24-54 days. Midlactation samples had an average dry matter content of 10.5 percent, a fat content of 1.29 percent, a protein content of 1.93 percent, a sugar content of 6.91 percent, and a caloric content of 50.6 kcal/100 g.
- Using deuterium oxide (D2O) turnover, the milk consumption of five foals was estimated to be 16, 15, and 18 kg/day at 11, 25, and 39 days postpartum at 11, 25, and 39 days postpartum.
- At 11 days postpartum, the mare’s milk output was comparable to 3.1 percent of her body weight, 2.9 percent at 25 days, and 3.4 percent at 39 days, according to the study.
- The nutrient intakes of foals were determined based on the content of the milk and the amount of milk consumed.
- Foals consumed 0.37 g protein and 8.3 kcal per gram of body weight growth at 11 days, 0.26 g protein and 6.7 kcal at 25 days, and 0.30 g protein and 7.8 kcal at 39 days of age for every gram of body weight gain.
- Lactation in the dog: the composition of the milk and the amount of milk consumed by the pups Oftedal OT.Oftedal OT. Oftedal OT. Milk and water intakes of foals sucking grazing mothers were measured in the Journal of Nutrition in May 1984. doi: 10.1093/jn/114.5.803J Nutr. 1984.PMID:6726450
- Dowsett KF, Martin RG, McMeniman NP, McMeniman NP RG Martin and colleagues Accessed July 22, 2012. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb02839.x. Equine Vet J 1992
- 24(4):295-9. A study conducted on suckling llamas (Lama glama) utilizing deuterium oxide dilution was published in Equine Vet J in 1992, with the PMID number 1499538. Riek A, Gerken M, Moors E.Riek A, Gerken M, Moors E.Riek A, et al. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Feb
- 90(2):867-75. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71570-9. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Feb
- 90(2):867-75. Lactation performance of rural Mesoamerindians was studied in the Journal of Dairy Science in 2007.PMID:17235163. Villalpando SF, Butte NF, Wong WW, Flores-Huerta S, Hernandez-Beltran MJ, Smith EO, Garza C. Villalpando SF, Butte NF, Wong WW, Flores-Huerta S, Hernandez-Beltran MJ, Smith EO, Garza C. Villalpando SF, et al. It is reported in Eur J Clin Nutr (May 1992
- Eur J Clin Nutr 1992
- PMID:1600932) that energy and protein needs during breastfeeding are increased. Dewey KG.Dewey KG.Dewey KG. Annual Review of Nutrition 17:19-36 (doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.17.1.19)Annu Rev Nutr 1997
- 17:19-36 (doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.17.1.19)PMID:9240917Review
Cited by 7articles
- Equine Late Pregnancy and Early Postpartum Physiological Correlation between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Leptin, UCP1, and Lipid Panel During Late Pregnancy and Early Postpartum Period The following authors contributed to this work: Arfuso F, Giannetto C, Bazzano M, Assenza A, Piccione G. Animals (Basel) 11(7):2051. Arfuso F, et al. Animals (Basel). 2021.PMID:34359179. doi: 10.3390/ani11072051.Animals (Basel). 2021. doi: 10.3390/ani11072051.Animals (Basel). 2021.PMID:34359179 Isolation, purification, and characterisation of antioxidant peptides from fresh mare’s milk are all covered by a free PMC paper. Food Sci Nutr. 2021 May 11
- 9(7):4018-4027. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.2292. eCollection 2021. Waili Y, Gahafu Y, Aobulitalifu A, Chang Z, Xie X, Kawuli G. Waili Y, et al.Food Sci Nutr. 2021 May 11
- 9(7):4018-4027. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.2 Food Science and Nutrition in 2021, July.PMID:34262755 Obtain a free copy of the PMC article Domestic Foal Weaning: Is It Time to Rethink Breeding Practices? Animals (Basel). 2020 Feb 23
- 10(2):361. doi: 10.3390/ani10020361. Henry S, Sigurjónsdóttir H, Klapper A, Joubert J, Montier G, Hausberger M.Henry S, et al.Animals (Basel). 2020.PMID:32102206. Animals (Basel). 2020.PMID:32102206. PMC article that is completely free. A review of the energy expenditure and body temperature fluctuations of llamas that live in the Peruvian High Andes is presented. Riek A, Stölzl A, Marquina Bernedo R, Ruf T, Arnold W, Hambly C, Speakman JR, Gerken M.Riek A, Stölzl A, Marquina Bernedo R, Ruf T, Arnold W, Hambly C, Speakman JR, Gerken M.Riek A, et al. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 11
- 9(1):4037. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40576-9. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 11
- 9(1):4037. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40576-9. PMID:30858417 PMC article is provided for free. Seasonal variations in llamas’ energy consumption, body temperature, and activity patterns have been observed (Lama glama). Riek A, Brinkmann L, Gauly M, Perica J, Ruf T, Arnold W, Hambly C, Speakman JR, Gerken M.Riek A, Brinkmann L, Gauly M, Perica J, Ruf T, Arnold W, Hambly C, Speakman JR, Gerken M.Riek A, et al. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 8
- 7(1):7600. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07946-7. Published online: August 8, 2017. The journal Science Reports published a paper in 2017 titled “Sci Rep.” PMID:28790450 PMC article is provided for free.
Scientists shine a spotlight on mare’s milk
Mare’s milk is consumed on a regular basis by an estimated 30 million individuals throughout the world. Image courtesy of the file Dairy products are a significant source of nutrition for people all over the globe, but milk from horses and donkeys is a very minor part of the market. According to a recently published assessment, these “small milks” and related products have long been confined to a “black” field of research due to their lack of economic value. Increasing interest in ethnic foods and alternative milk products, however, is casting a light on them, as Michele Faccia and colleagues point out in an article that was just published in the open-access journalAnimals and is available online.
- According to the study team, milk processing is one of the world’s oldest food technologies, with origins reaching back to roughly 6000 BC.
- Cattle contribute 82 percent of the world’s milk production now.
- Other animals, such as camels, horses, donkeys, and yaks, which are all classified as “minor dairy species,” account for less than one percent of total milk production.
- There has only been roughly 30 years or so of scientific research into mare and camel milk, but research into the milk of other species, such as donkeys and yaks, has risen significantly in the last 20 years.
- The review team set out to learn everything they could about the milk produced by horses, donkeys, camels, and yaks.
- Source: Faccia and colleagues ” data-image-caption=”Faccia and colleagues” data-image-caption=”Faccia and colleagues” In both cases, the data-medium-file attribute is set to 1 and the data-large-file attribute is set to 1.
- According to the scientists, the chemical and nutritional qualities of horse and donkey milk are comparable, although both differ significantly from the milk produced by the primary dairying species.
- Nonetheless, the low dry matter concentration makes gelification challenging, and the nature of the protein fraction raises further issues.
Few research have been conducted on the somatic cell content and total bacterial counts in horse milk, and these findings are accessible in the literature.” In general, the studies concur that the values are low, and in the case of somatic cell counts, they are even lower than those seen in cow milk.” A similar to the inflammatory condition of the udder observed in cows, the rise in somatic cell counts is mostly caused by an increase in somatic cell counts.
- Mares have a generally good health state for their mammary glands, and the microbiological quality of their milk is excellent because to the little volume of milk produced, great resistance to infections, and high quantities of antimicrobial substances in their milk.
- This is especially true in those countries where horses, donkeys, and mules are important components in microeconomics and where the incidence of brucella species and Rhodococcus equiis is higher.
- The majority of dairy herds are found in the former Soviet Union and Mongolia.
- Photo courtesy of Doug Swinson on Unsplash ” data-medium-file=” ssl=1 ” data-medium-file=”” data-large-file=”ssl=1″ data-large-file=”ssl=1″ loading=”lazy” The haflinger is the most common horse dairying breed in Western Europe.
- ” width: 800 pixels; height: 533 pixels srcset=” ssl=1 800w, ssl=1 300w” sizes=”(max-width: 800px) 100vw, 800px” srcset=” ssl=1 800w, ssl=1 300w” data-recalc-dims=”1″> The haflinger is the most common horse dairying breed in Western Europe.
- On the other hand, no selection has been done for donkey milk production, and there are no specific dairy breeds to choose from either.
“Horse milk, in particular, is a staple meal for nomadic pastoral tribes in Asia, and donkey milk was widely recognized in ancient popular culture as a substitute for breast milk in the case of children.” As a result of the functional features of horse milk, which are connected to its protein content, casein concentration, distribution of diglycerides and triglycerides, and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is believed to be more favorable for human nutrition than cow milk.
According to the FDA, “because of its likeness to human milk, palatability, and minimal allergenic characteristics, it is being examined as a viable alternative for cow milk for children who have an allergy to cow milk proteins.” In addition, the consumption ofEquidaemilk has been linked to a number of additional health advantages.
Because of this, there is increasing scientific and business interest in milk for human nutrition, as well as in the production of dairy products, in the United States.
Traditional lactic-alcoholic beverages have been made since before 2000 BC, although they are most known and commonly drunk in the central Asian countries, as well as in some regions of Russia and China, as well as Mongolia.
The scarcity and high cost of mare milk pose a significant barrier to its production, and methods have been developed to substitute it with cow milk once it has been modified to have a composition that is similar to that of mare’s milk (dilution, removal of fat, lactose addition, and filtration).
With a milky blueish-white appearance and a pinkish tint, the flavor of Koumiss is sharp and somewhat tangy, with a little sweet aftertaste and a distinct almond flavor.
Koumiss is available in small quantities. Donkey milk has also been used in the past to make koumiss-like items, according to tradition. As they went on to say, “Making cheese from horse milk is currently deemed unfeasible due to issues over rennet coagulation.”
Making cheese from donkey milk
The use of specific types of rennet, strong coagulating conditions, fortification with milk from other species, and the addition of transglutaminase to better crosslink the milk proteins are all examples of dedicated technological approaches that have been demonstrated in recent studies to be successful in producing cheese from donkey milk. By using camel chymosin, an Italian scientist was able to create a fresh cheese prototype in 2015. It has also been used to produce cheese, although it was fortified with goat milk or, in some cases, with cow’s milk in order to be more flavorful.
According to the report, “the fundamental difficulty remains the high cost of the product, which can only be resolved by boosting the milk output of the animals.” Following that, they went on to mention the wide variety of traditional milk products that have been developed from the minor dairy species.
- “ However, considerable effort has to be done in order to develop particular production chains; the most significant hurdles are the standardization of technological standards as well as the completion of chemical, nutritional, and microbiological data.
- Milk Products from Minor Dairy Species: A Review.
- Milk Products from Minor Dairy Species: A Review.
- The review, which was made available under a Creative Commons License, may be seen here.
Horse Milk – an overview
M.Doreau and W.Martin-Rosset, in the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, 2011).
In Europe, horse milk is utilized in the cosmetics industry. When comparing horse milk to other milks, there is no scientific evidence available on the special qualities of horse milk. Horse milk, on the other hand, has a very positive reputation. Donkey milk was used in the bathing ritual of Queen Cleopatra. A variety of horse milk-based cosmetic goods, such as creams containing around 10% horse milk, soaps, and moisturizers, are available for purchase in the marketplace. In the lack of evidence that horse milk is distinct from cow’s milk, which is less expensive, these products will stay marginal in the marketplace.
Indeed, within the first 10 hours of life, the foal must consume high-quality colostrum to survive.
Read the entire chapter. Security and the Role of Local Communities in Non-Cow Milk Production is the URL for this page.
Equine milk is commonly utilized in the beauty industry in Europe, according to Wikipedia. When comparing horse milk to other milks, there is currently no scientific evidence available on the special qualities of the latter. But horse milk has a very positive reputation in the world of dairy products. Bathing with donkey milk was a favorite pastime of Queen Cleopatra. The commercialization of a variety of horse milk-based cosmetic goods includes creams containing around 10% horse milk, soaps, and moisturizers.
An insignificant application of horse milk is the provision of frozen or lyophilized colostrum to orphan foals, newborn foals who refuse to sip their mother’s colostrum, or newborn foals whose mother’s colostrum is of insufficient quality or quantity.
Using colostrum banks of horse milk or colostrum-concentrated preparations, owners of high-priced horses may guarantee that their foals receive appropriate colostrum intake, but mother’s colostrum is always the best option.
In the case of non-cow milk production, security and the role of local communities are important.
Donkey milk is primarily produced on small-scale European farms with diversified production, while horse milk is primarily produced on farms that were formerly collectivized during the Soviet era, i.e., on relatively large-scale units that have been more or less modernized (e.g., milking machines, food supplementation) and more or less linked to traditional markets (bazaars) or modern supermarkets.
- However, since the independence of the former Soviet republics, there has been a surge in the transhumance of dairy horses.
- In order to fulfill the demands of youthful customers in major cities, modernisation ofkoumiss production on a semi-industrial scale is now underway (e.g.
- Read the entire chapter at this link: Milks |
- Surono, in the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, 2011).
Kumys (also spelled koumiss and kumis) (seeFERMENTED MILKS | Koumiss) is a fermented milk drink with a distinctive lactic acid–alcohol blend that originated in Central Asia. The name derives from the Kumanese, a tribe who lived in the central Asian steppes until 1235 and was descended from the Kumane River. Equine milk proteins differ from those seen in milk from other animals in that, after properly renneted, there is no visible curd due to the high concentration of whey protein and low concentration of casein found in horse milk.
- Because horses’ milk is in short supply these days, cow’s milk is being utilized to make kumys, which was traditionally manufactured from horses’ milk before.
- This approach allows for the adjustment of the whey protein concentration, resulting in a concentrated whey protein but not a concentrated lactose content.
- Bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts are responsible for the synthesis of acid and ethanol, as well as the generation of carbon dioxide.
- Preparation of the bulk starter is the first step in the commercial production of kumys made from horses’ milk.
- yeast culture and LAB culture are inoculated separately into pasteurized skim milk from a cow and incubated at 30°C for 15h and 37°C for 7h, respectively, until the yeast culture becomes active.
- To create the bulk starter, the incubated cultures are put to horses’ milk and incubated at 28°C for approximately 4 days.
- A second incubation period of 2 hours at 20°C is required after the fermenting milk is poured into bottles with crown-capped closures.
Kumys is made on a large scale from cow’s milk by adding 2.5 percent sugar and 10 percent starter to the milk and then freezing the result (Lb.
acidophilus, andSaccharomyces lactis).
To ensure optimal yeast development, the temperature is maintained at roughly 17°C with aeration and periodic stirring.
After that, the acidified milk is bottled.
Kumys is a milky white liquid with a grey hue that is used to make cosmetics.
It is suitable for freezing.
Milk is aerated for 20–25 minutes with vigorous stirring before being allowed to rest at room temperature for 2–3 hours.
As a result, kumys has a sourish taste and produces bubbles when shaken.
It is divided into three groups according on the degree to which fermentation has progressed.
Kumys with a strong flavor has an acidity of 1.0–1.2 percent and an alcohol content of 1.8–2.5 In kumys, bacteria and yeast have been found to have viable counts of 4.97 10 7 and 1.43 10 7cfuml -1, respectively, according to the literature.
Read the entire chapter here: URL: and Dairy Polar Lipids: Occurrence, Purification, and Nutritional and Technological Properties (Dairy Polar Lipids: Occurrence, Purification, and Nutritional and Technological Properties)
Thien Trung Le and Koen Dewettinck published a paper in Polar Lipids in 2015.
Milk from animals has a wide range of total fat content, PL content, and PL composition, among other characteristics. The average total PL levels of cow, camel, horse, and human milk were determined using P-31 NMR, an advanced and sensitive analytical technique. Garcia et al. (2013) found that the average total PL concentrations of cow, camel, horse, and human milk were 204.0, 393.4, 77.8, and 250.3 g/ml, respectively. This comparison is valid since it was derived using the same analytical procedure that was used on the same number of samples from each kind of milk over the same length of time.
Interestingly, horse milk had the greatest percentage of PLs on total fat when the percentage of PLs on total fat was considered (Garcia et al., 2013).
The surface area of FGs rises with decreasing globule sizes while maintaining the same volume.
It has been determined that the PL content and composition of milk from cows (Fong et al., 2007; Garcia et al., 2013; Rodriguez-Alcala and Fontecha, 2010; Trenerry et al., 2013), buffalo (Menard et al., 2010), humans (Benoiit et al., 2010; Garcia and Menard, 2013; Giuffrida et al., 2013; Lopez and Men Buffalo milk is second in terms of global production behind cow milk.
- 4.1 percent), and it was more expensive (Menard et al., 2010).
- 0.36 percent), but a significantly higher percentage of PLs expressed per liter of milk (as much as 26 percent).
- 0.36 percent) (Menard et al., 2010).
- In general, it has been discovered that human milk has a larger relative concentration of SM in total PLs than milk from other animals (Garcia et al., 2013;Lopez, 2011).
Furthermore, human milk contains almost double the amount of gangliosides seen in cow’s milk and goat’s milk (Iwamori et al., 2008;Pan and Izumi, 2000). Learn more about the non-cow milk and products by visiting the following URL: and Properties of Non-cow Milk and Products
Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products, edited by E.Alichanidis and A.Polychroniadou, published in 2016.
Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products, edited by E.Alichanidis and A.Polychroniadou, published in 2016