How Much Does Horse Boarding Cost4. What Roman Emperor Made His Horse A Consul? (Question)

Which Roman Emperor made his horse a Senator?

  • People Caligula, the Infamous Roman Emperor Who Made His Horse a Senator Natasha sheldon – October 23, 2018 In 37 AD, the people of Rome rejoiced when they finally gained a new emperor.

Did Caligula really make his horse a consul?

On the subject of Caligula’s horse, the ancient sources are unambiguous in their testimony: he was not made a consul. The biographer Suetonius does, however, report that the emperor lavished gifts upon Incitatus, equipping him with a marble stall, ivory manger, purple blankets, luxurious furniture, and his own slaves.

Which Roman emperor made his horse a consul?

According to the ancient historian Suetonius, the Roman emperor known as Caligula loved one of his horses, Incitatus, so much that he gave the steed a marble stall, an ivory manger, a jeweled collar and even a house.

Who was emperor after Caligula?

How did Caligula die? In January 41, four months after his return to Rome from Gaul, Caligula was murdered at the Palatine Games by Cassius Chaerea, tribune of the Praetorian Guard, Cornelius Sabinus, and others. Caligula’s wife and daughter were also put to death. He was succeeded as emperor by his uncle Claudius.

Was Caligula a successful leader?

Gaius Caesar, nicknamed Caligula or “Little Boot,” succeeded Tiberius as Roman emperor in 37 A.D., and adopted the name Gaius Caesar Germanicus. Records depict him as a cruel and unpredictable leader. He restored treason trials and put people to death.

Who made his horse consul?

Incitatus (Latin pronunciation: [ɪŋkɪˈtaːtʊs], meaning “swift” or “at full gallop”) was the favourite horse of Roman Emperor Caligula (reigned 37–41 AD). According to legend, Caligula planned to make the horse a consul.

Were there consuls in the Roman Empire?

consul, Latin Consul, plural Consules, in ancient Rome, either of the two highest of the ordinary magistracies in the ancient Roman Republic. When their terms expired, consuls generally were appointed to serve as governors of provinces.

Was Caligula a good emperor?

Caligula was a good Emperor before his illness and abolished unnecessary taxes, improved infrastructure, public transportation, and gave aid to many who had been wronged by Tiberius.

Who was the best Caesar?

Augustus Caesar – the greatest leader of all time? Why? This man forged an Empire. Despite springing from relatively modest origins, Augustus Caesar’s legacy was the foundation of an imperial system that dominated Europe for over four centuries.

Who was the most evil Roman emperor?

Nero is perhaps the best known of the worst emperors, having allowed his wife and mother to rule for him and then stepping out from their shadows and ultimately having them, and others, murdered. But his transgressions go far beyond just that; he was accused of sexual perversions and the murder of many Roman citizens.

Who was the best Roman emperor?

1) Trajan – The Best Roman Emperor and ruler (September 53 AD-8 August 117 AD) The first Roman emperor in our list is Trajan. He reigned from 98 to 117. The Senate has officially given him the title of the best ruler.

Who was worse Caligula or Nero?

Nero was worse, because Caligula was — to put it succinctly — batshit crazy. Whereas Nero was sane and malignantly evil. How does this bear upon modern U.S. politics?

Did Caligula really make his horse a consul?

Suetonius reports that the Roman emperor Caligula cherished one of his horses, Incitatus, to such an extent that he lavished lavish gifts on the steed, which included a marble stall, ivory manger, jewel-encrusted collar, and even a private residence. One of the most famous historians, Cassius Dio, subsequently claimed that servants fed the animals oatmeal sprinkled with gold flakes. According to legend, Caligula had affairs with his sisters, gave captives to wild animals, and had talks with the moon—so coddling a pet horse would seem like a minor transgression in comparison to the rest of his many crimes.

The tale of Incitatus’ consulship, like most of what we think we know about Caligula, comes from a writer who lived decades after the emperor’s four-year rule and wrote about it in his own words.

Many academics disagree with the claim that Caligula frightened Rome with his unfettered craziness, believing that his fellow legislators would very certainly have removed him from office if he had engaged in such behavior.

But what if Caligula did, in fact, plan to construct Rome’s first equine official as part of his grand scheme?

Caligula’s goal in putting a prominent public post on his horse was to demonstrate to his subordinates that their work was so useless that even an animal could perform it.

Caligula the Mad Emperor: The Horse That Almost Became a Senator and Other Strange Tales

Stories The 27th of September, 2019 In the summer of my adolescent years, I worked construction for a heinous party animal named Caligula. It was a great experience for me. He went by the name of Phil, just for fun. The majority of the work consisted of sanding and plugging bung holes (google it up, it’s a real thing). I don’t recall much about the actual work. What I do remember, though, is the day Phil told me he’d done enough cocaine in his life to fill a tool shed, which I thought was pretty cool.

  1. What do you think?
  2. No way in hell.
  3. Maybe.
  4. Gaius Caesar Germanicus, better known as the infamous emperor Caligula, was only in power at Rome for a brief period of time, from 37 AD to 41 AD.
  5. Despite this, Caligula has a chariot-load of outrageous stories to his credit, which you can read about here.
  6. In the spirit of his legacy, I’m not going to hold back: the man was a true sick f*ck who did a lot of weird sh*t during his time on this planet.

But, well, that’s pretty much how most of history has gone. Here are six (reported) reasons why Caligula was stabbed more than 30 times by conspirators and thrown in a shallow grave after governing for only four years, now that we’ve cleared up our expectations: 1

Caligula’s Best Friend was a Horse

Except for the fact that Caligula adored his horse almost as much as he despised other people, this appears to be a quite charming description (more on that later). Incitatus was Caligula’s favored racehorse, and as a result, he received preferential treatment. If you lived near his stable, your entire neighborhood was required to remain silent the day before each race in order to allow Incitatus to concentrate on his work. Count Caligula was so taken with Incitatus that he would call him to supper, toast his well-being with golden cups, and feed him oats cut with gold flakes—Oatschläger, if you will—to keep him well.

2 The most well-known narrative concerning Incitatus is that he was elevated to the position of consul in the Roman Senate by Caligula.

According to historical records, Caligula wished to nominate his equestrian friends to the Senate, but he was slain before he could complete the appointment process.


Caligula Drank Pearls and Swam in Gold

Caligula was supposed to have possessed a legendary thirst for jewels. His favorite thing to do was to swim in gold. It wasn’t molten gold, mind you, because it would have saved his assassins a lot of time and energy. Additionally, he wasn’t swimming in Oatschläger (which had been designated as Incitatus’ particular reserve). Instead, he went about it in the manner of Scrooge McDuck, spilling money on the ground and letting them soak in them for hours at a time. Furthermore, he like to go barefoot over them.

While he did consume pearls, he did not gargle them like a gumball hopper, which would have been insane in his opinion.



Caligula Decided He Was Jupiter, Talked to the Gods, and Tried to F*ck the Moon

Okay, this one will require some deciphering. For starters, Caligula didn’t care for his given name, Gaius. He also disliked his nickname, Caligula, which was given to him by troops he encountered while he was a child, during his father’s battles in Germania, and which he later came to regret. Caligula is Latin for “little boots,” and the name was a play on the adorable tiny soldier’s attire that he wore. It stayed with him throughout adulthood, and he naturally despised the s**t that happened to him.

  • As you can see, the new term didn’t stay because this page is about Caligula, not “Jupiter,” as the title suggests.
  • He attempted to make it work, though.
  • He also ordered the relocation of the huge statue of Zeus (Jupiter’s counterpart in Greece) from Olympia to Rome so that he may have his own head replaced with that of the statue.
  • Caligula also felt that he had a direct line of communication with the gods and considered himself to be one of their number.

Aside from talking to the moon at night, he’d also try to persuade her (the moon is a lady, by the way) into descending down to his bed for a little celestial-meets-terrestrial liaison. She wasn’t interested in it. 5

Caligula Once Made the Senate Watch Him Dance

It’s time to break down this one a little further. Caecilius, as Caligula called him, was not a name he preferred. Additionally, he disliked his nickname, Caligula, which was given to him by troops he encountered as a child during his father’s battles in Germania, and which he later came to despise. A play on the adorable tiny soldier’s uniform he donned, Caligula is Latin for “little boots.” That experience had stayed with him into adulthood, and he despised it. “Jupiter,” he said instead of his given name.

  1. ” In other words, you can address me as God.” For those who are unfamiliar with Roman mythology, Jupiter is known as the “King of Gods.” Given that this page is about Caligula, rather than “Jupiter,” as you can see, the new moniker didn’t catch on very well.
  2. Although he tried hard, he couldn’t get it to work.
  3. The colossal statue of Zeus (Jupiter’s counterpart in Greece) was carried from Olympia to Rome so that he might have his own head replaced with that of Zeus, which he did.
  4. As a believer in communication with the gods, Caligula considered himself to be one of their number.
  5. Aside from talking to the moon at night, he’d also try to persuade her (the moon is a lady, by the way) into coming down to his bed for a little celestial-meets-terrestrial hookup with him.
  6. 5

Caligula Passed Laws to Prevent People from Seeing His Bald Spot

Caligula was, according to legend, a hideous man. Even though he didn’t survive much past the age of 28, he was affected by some hereditary male pattern baldness, which he never fully recovered from. Rather than just adopting the role of hat guy, he enacted legislation prohibiting Romans from standing above him or otherwise staring down at him as he walked through the streets. Is there a bald spot if no one can see it? Is it actually there? And, like so many other men before and after him, he was plagued by a frustrating paradox: while his pate lost hair, his body began to grow it again.

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As a result, Caligula declared it unlawful to discuss goats in his presence, which was only natural.


Caligula Was an Asshole, Generally Speaking

Even if items one through five depict Caligula’s narcissism rather effectively, they don’t really give you a sense of how evil the man was on an emotional and psychological level. Caligula had great pleasure in seeing other people suffer for his own gain. Of course, there’s the standard interest with torturing and murdering individuals in this category. However, he was also a troubled, antisocial trickster who played with others. In order to prevent people from reading the new laws, he would have them inscribed in tiny letters and then hung them up extremely high.

On particularly hot days in the arena, he’d order the awnings to be drawn back and spectators barred from leaving, all so he could watch them sweat in front of him.

An additional favorite hobby was closing the granaries and seeing his own people starve to death in front of him. As you can see, Caligula enjoyed punching people in the face, most likely to conceal his bald area from his victims. 8

What Was Caligula’s Problem?

It’s difficult to say, although he may have lost his mind as a result of an illness. During the first six months of Caligula’s rule, everything appeared to be quite stable, or at the very least, status quo. He even released political prisoners who had been wrongfully imprisoned, which was in stark contrast to his subsequent policy. Caligula fell terminally ill after just six months in power, signaling the beginning of the end of his reign. He was on the verge of death for a month, yet he was able to recover physically.

  • It appears that he has experienced some type of brain damage as a result of his protracted illness—possibly as a result of a prolonged high temperature, but that is just a conjecture.
  • 9 That he had changed so drastically was unpleasant for Caligula, as well as for everyone else in his immediate vicinity.
  • Instead, he was insensitive to human emotion and tormented his people until they banded together to assassinate him.
  • Chaerea was a notable warrior and a member of the Praetorian guard who served under Emperor Hadrian.
  • According to the historian Suetonius, when Caligula wanted Chaerea to kiss his ring, he would move his hand about in a “obscene manner” and force him to say demeaning watch-words, such as “priapus,” which means “erection,” according to the chronicler.
  • The stabbing was carried out by Chaerea.
  • As a result, you don’t treat people any worse than you treat racehorses.


  1. (Retrieved on May 18, 2018). Caligula’s Life and Times. Lewis provided the information. (On the 17th of December, 2016). 10 Weird Things Caligula Did That You Didn’t Know About. Buffed was used to obtain this information. (3rd of June, 2017). Incitatus was Caligula’s horse, and he wanted to be a senator. Lewis provided the information. (On the 17th of December, 2016). 10 Weird Things Caligula Did That You Didn’t Know About. Lewis provided the information. (On the 17th of December, 2016). 10 Weird Things Caligula Did That You Didn’t Know About. Lewis provided the information. (On the 17th of December, 2016). 10 Weird Things Caligula Did That You Didn’t Know About. Lewis provided the information. (On the 17th of December, 2016). 10 Weird Things Caligula Did That You Didn’t Know About. Lewis provided the information. (On the 17th of December, 2016). 10 Weird Things Caligula Did That You Didn’t Know About. It was retrieved from (Accessed May 18, 2018). Caligula’s Life and Times. It was retrieved from (Accessed May 18, 2018). Cassius Chaerea is a fictional character created by author Cassius Chaerea. This information was obtained from

That time a horse was made Senator of the Roman Empire

Have you ever been so in love with your pet that you wished to see them achieve great things in their lives? Win a ribbon, place first in a competition, or run for political office? A horse holding office was one of the many weird things that happened in ancient Rome, and it was one of the most bizarre of them all.

An unfavorable history

Emperor Caligula governed the Roman Empire for nearly four years, during which time the Roman people suffered greatly. During the most of that period, he had an unfavorable image as a nasty guy with a penchant for luxury and a disconcerting manner. There are some accounts that indicate he was mad, however it is impossible to tell if this description was intended to be metaphorically or literally taken literally. Although his actions do not lend validity to the notion that he was an insane ruler, his judgments do.

The rumor that Caligula once appointed his horse, Incitatus, to the Roman Senate is more bizarre than any of his other activities, probably even stranger than any of his other actions.

Stranger than truth

According to legend, Caligula had intended to elevate Incitatus to the rank of consul, the highest elected position in the Roman Empire. The horse is said to have welcomed nobles and other notable visitors to eat with the Emperor and his horse at their home, which was equipped with entertainment and attendants, according to legend. His stables were supposed to be constructed of marble, and his manger was reported to be made of ivory, with brilliant purple blankets and a necklace of priceless stones around the neck of the baby Jesus.

Caligula is also said to have made his favorite horse a priest at one time in his reign.

All against, say “neigh”

While some accounts assert that the Emperor was insane, historical records indicate that the Emperor’s appointment of his horses to positions of authority may have been more of a jest than anything else. The tradition is most likely the result of an elaborate hoax or an effort at satire, given historical sources plainly say that there was never a horse titled consul in the Roman Empire. It is suggested that Caligula was expressing his belief that the Senate’s duty was so simple that even a horse could complete it.

There are some contradictory tales that the Emperor occasionally raised a glass to Incitatus’ health, joking that the monster should be made a priest, but these accounts are difficult to verify.

This Roman Emperor Made His Horse A Consul

The Print Collector is represented by Getty Images. Whatever your feelings about the leadership of the United States at any moment in the country’s history, let us all take a collective sigh of relief that none of us lived during the reign of Caligula, the “Mad Emperor,” in the Roman Empire from 37 to 41 CE. It has been attempted in recent years to excuse or diminish his madness, psychopathy, and sexual exploits by blaming them on conditions such as hyperthyroidism, but let’s be clear, once again: that guy is insane.

Moreover, in terms of tyranny, brutality, and matricide, Caligula raised the bar for his nephew and future emperor Nero significantly (who ruled from 54-68 CE).

His reign was marked by some typical emperor actions, such as the progress of the invasion of Gaul (modern-day France), but once there, he simply ordered the soldiers to collect some seashells as “spoils of the conquered ocean,” according to Britannica.

Oh, sure, I see what you mean. Let’s not forget about the whole “horse governor” issue, shall we?

Possibly better at government than some people, it’s true

Heritage Images courtesy of Getty Images To be fair, “horse consul” is a proper title. According to Britannica, a consul in ancient Rome was one of the most powerful magisterial posts in the empire. Presidents presided over the Senate and the courts, and they also had command of the army, among other responsibilities as leaders. If consuls were horses, they would naturally be significantly more adept at doing their duties than they are now. According to history, Caligula considered his favorite horse, Incitatus, a consul and lavished him with a marble stall, an ivory manger, a diamond collar, and even a mansion, which he referred to as “the horse’s palace.” As stated in the The Conversation, this story comes from the Roman historian Suetonius (69-122 CE), who wrote about Rome’s rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian, who are collectively known as the “Twelve Caesars.” Imperial Rome is depicted in this book as a city of unrelenting intrigue, plotting, and assassinations, which has contributed to the creation of our present perception of the period.

Suetonius also said that Caligula subjected prisoners to “wild creatures,” engaged in incest, and “conversed with the moon” during his reign.

They claim that the politicians of ancient Rome would never have tolerated such irrational behavior.

Did Caligula make his horse a consul of Rome?

During the reign of Roman emperor Caligula (37–41 AD), Incitatus was his preferred mount. His given name is derived from a Latin adjective that means “rapid” or “at full gallop.” During the time of Suetonius’ Lives of the Twelve Caesars (121 AD), Incitatus was housed in a marble stable with an ivory manger, purple bedding, and a collar of valuable stones, according to Suetonius. Dio Cassius has stated that the horse was cared for by slaves and that it was given oats mixed with gold flake, according to Dio Cassius.

Historical revisionists such as Anthony A.

According to them, later Roman chroniclers such as Suetonius and Dio Cassius may have been affected by the political climate of their own periods, when it may have been advantageous to the present emperors to denigrate the later Julio-Claudian emperors.

1788- Roman Emperor Gaius makes his horse senator

Empire of the Ancient Roman Empire, Emperor Caligula is regarded as one of the most dictatorial and power-hungry emperors to have reigned during the history of the empire. His rule began in 37 A.D., when he was 25 years old. It was reported that he had gone insane after being critically ill in October of 37 A.D., according to legend. When it was dark, he would stroll around his castle, proclaiming himself to be a living god, feeding prisoners to wild animals, and dressing in the disguise of a woman.

  1. Thrasyllus had prophesized that Caligula would have no more chance of becoming emperor than a horse would have of riding across the bay of Bauli, and he used this to demonstrate that he was wrong.
  2. Incitatus was even supposed to have been a priest at one point.
  3. Consuls were in charge of the military, served as head of state, represented Rome in foreign affairs, and exercised influence over the Senate of Rome.
  4. Purple dye was extremely uncommon in the Roman empire, and only the affluent could buy it, thus Emperor Caligula made sure that Incitatus slept in purple blankets while on the throne.
  5. On the days before races, when it was possible that Incitatus might be nervous, a full cohort of the Praetorian Guard (the emperor’s bodyguards) was dispatched to calm down the surrounding area.
  6. In addition to eating together often, Emperor Caligula and Incitatus would have a “healthy” diet of barley with gold flakes, wine, squid, mussels, mice, chicken, and many other meats in addition to their usual fare.
  7. During the month of January in the year 41 A.D., Emperor Caligula, his wife, and their daughter were stabbed to death by officers of the Praetorian Guard.

In the absence of Emperor Caligula’s assassination, Incitatus would have gone down in history as the first and last animal to serve as a member of a legislative body.

The Roman Emperor Who Tried to Make His Horse Consul

In most people’s minds when they think of Roman Emperors, they think of either the heroic generals and clever thinkers such as Caesar Augustus and Marcus Aurelius, or the mad and corrupt despots such as Nero and Commodus, or some combination of the two. The latter two are well-known for their numerous misadventures; for a video on Nero’s famous violin incident and the truth behind it all, see the link in the description section below. The Emperor Commodus, who reigned in Rome for three years and ten months before Nero, was known for acting in a weird and eventually insane way during his three years and ten months as ruler of the city.

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Born Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, he became the third person to hold the title of Roman Emperor.

The troops found great amusement in this and gave him the moniker Caligula, which translates as ‘little boot.’ At the age of seven, his father died in Syria, allegedly as a result of poisoning carried out by an agent of his great-uncle, the Emperor Tiberius, who viewed his nephew as a possible political competitor.

  • For the next many years, he resided with his Great-Grandmother Livia, who happened to be the wife of Emperor Augustus, and afterwards with his grandmother, Antonia Minor.
  • As a result, Caligula harbored a great deal of anger towards Tiberius, which was not surprising given the circumstances.
  • He was in this situation under the careful eye of his great-uncle, but he was able to avoid being banished or executed thanks to some cunning and acting ability.
  • In the end, he was awarded an honorary Quaestorship, which was a significant political position.
  • Approximately two years later, in A.D.
  • Two years later, in March of 37 A.D., Emperor Tiberius died, and it was thought that Caligula or maybe the aforementioned Macro had had a role in hastening his death, which was probably unexpected.
  • It doesn’t matter what the reality is about that; following the Emperor’s death, Caligula and Macro were successful in having Gemellus removed from Tiberius’ testament, and he became the only heir to the Principate.

According to all accounts, the first seven months of his reign were a time of great happiness.

His personal efforts included retrieving the ashes of his mother and brothers and ensuring that they were given a befitting burial in an appropriate location.

In the event that Caligula became unwell, some historians speculate that he may have been poisoned, while others maintain that he was simply suffering from a normal ailment.

A short time later, he began to execute members of his own family, including his cousin Gemellus and his in-laws, as well as his own father and brother-in-law.

As a result, Caligula proceeded to defame the memory of Emperor Augustus, claiming that his own mother was the product of an incestuous liaison between Augustus and his own daughter.

To begin with, he fought for tax changes to help an overwhelmed people, and he promoted a number of Plebeians to the more prestigious Equestrian position, which was afterwards abolished.

In addition to this, he was involved at a number of construction projects, including the enlargement of ports at the tip of Italy and in Syracuse to accommodate increased grain imports.

The building of two huge aqueducts to improve the distribution of water across the city began under his watch.

At the beginning of his reign, he also built what is arguably the most ridiculous of his construction projects: a massive pontoon bridge over the gulf of Baiae in southern Italy.

Speaking of his horse, it appears that he intended to elevate the animal to the position of consul by constructing a marble stable, an ivory manger, and lavishly furnishing the horse’s not-so-humble house with the best purple furnishings and trappings.

Unfortunately for the sake of the overall hilarity, he was unsuccessful in his attempt to make Incitatus a consul.

Caligula, according to Roman historians, went on to refer to himself as Pater exercituum, or “father of the army,” and Optimus Maximus Caesar, or “the finest and greatest Caesar” as a result of this.

As soon as she died, he ordered a period of public morning mourning over her body.

Continuing his pattern of bizarre and potentially deadly conduct, he would sell seats to Plebeians in order to ensure that when Equestrians arrived to performances, all of the seats were already taken.

This, of course, did not sit well with the audience.

On occasion, he would even close the granaries to allow the people to go hungry for a short period of time.

One man who claimed to be ill and unable to attend a public execution was greeted by Caligula’s personal litter, which was dispatched to bring him to safety.

He also fed captives to the wild creatures he kept for his games, and it didn’t seem to matter whether or not they were genuinely guilty of whatever crime they were being held accountable for.

“I hoped to the gods that Tiberius would die and that you would be appointed Emperor,” the man said cautiously, fearing for his own fate.

However, Caligula’s mistreatment of others did not stop with the poor or with his political opponents; it extended to everyone.

In one specific instance, it is also stated that the veteran gladiator with whom Caligula practiced his martial skills deliberately threw himself at the Emperor’s feet in defeat while they were training together.

Reversing his earlier efforts to ingratiate the populace, he eventually began taxing the Romans harshly, even arresting and taking the property of affluent inhabitants.

Then, once he’d gotten his gifts, he appeared to be having a good time by rolling about in a big mound of gold coins he’d gathered as a result of his haul.

His reign as Emperor was marked by the participation in only one military expedition.

He would command the army to advance with such rapidity that his Elite personal guard would have to stow their standard in order to keep up, while at other times he would order the army to move slowly enough that he could order the towns ahead to sweep the roads and water them down to settle the dust.

  • In the middle of his evening meal, he ordered a messenger to inform him that the enemy was on the march.
  • After reaching the northern coast of Gaul (modern France), he declared war on Neptune himself when he reached the city of Troy.
  • Afterwards, he gathered the best and tallest Gaulish men he could find and ordered them to color their hair blonde and adopt German names so that they might be portrayed as prisoners of war when he returned to Rome.
  • He is also described as growing a golden beard on his face, wearing women’s shoes, and dressing in the manner of Venus, among other things.
  • At one point, he even ordered that all sculptures of Greek deities be carried to the United States so that he might replace their heads with his own, which was eventually accomplished.
  • As you might expect, the governor of Syria put the order on hold for nearly a year, fearing that it would spark a revolt.
  • As you might guess from all of this, piling on virtually everyone in his empire, as well as more than a few people outside of it, couldn’t last indefinitely.
  • Three men, led by a man named Cassius Chaerea, began plotting to assassinate him shortly after his arrival.
  • The bird has been given to people for thousands of years, with the original implication appearing to represent the penis, as we’ve previously discussed the origin of giving people the bird in another article.

Gaius would give him “Priapus” or “Venus” as a watchword, and whenever Chaerea had an opportunity to thank him for anything, he would extend his hand to kiss her, forming and moving his hand in an obscene manner.” In any case, the conspirators’ plans were put into motion when Caligula announced that he intended to relocate to the Egyptian city of Alexandria in order to be worshipped as a living god there.

  1. As a result, they, together with a large number of other conspirators, were able to trap the Emperor in an underground passage beneath the palace and administer the traditional Caesarian treatment.
  2. He is believed to have made no sound when they struck.
  3. An hurriedly constructed pyre was used to partially burn the Emperor’s remains, which was then buried on the site.
  4. According to legend, the garden in which the Emperor was cremated and buried remained plagued by spiritual apparitions until Caligula’s sisters, who had returned from exile, completed the cremation and laid him to rest in a fitting grave in the nearby cemetery.
  5. What caused him to behave in such a weird manner during his reign is still up for dispute.

That he became obsessed with putting on military shows, promoting himself as the very embodiment of several deities, and the constant self-promotion through attempting to assert his image onto every statue in the empire may have been a result of his desire to be remembered in the same way that his forefathers were may have been a result of this.

If you enjoyed this article, you might also enjoy our new popular podcast, The BrainFood Show (available on iTunes, Spotify, Google Play Music, and Feed), as well as the following other articles and resources:

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  • Damnatio Memoriae is the term used to describe when the Romans purposefully erased people from history. Sections about Julius Caesar and “Caesarean” sections
  • The Truth About Julius Caesar and “Caesarean” Sections

Roman Warfare

For hundreds of years and across a wide range of areas, Roman warfare was astonishingly effective. This was the result of a number of crucial circumstances. In addition to having a large pool of military soldiers from which to draw, Italy also had a disciplined and inventive army, centralized command and supply lines, competent engineers as well as excellent diplomacy through a network of allies on its side. As a result, Rome’s allies not only provided extra warriors, but they also contributed essential commodities such as food and ships, which allowed the Romans to expand their military capabilities.

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Apart from all of this, Rome maintained a state of war or preparedness for it on a more or less constant basis, and she was fully convinced that it was necessary to protect and impose on others what she firmly considered to be her cultural supremacy.

Ready For War

In Roman society, military virtues were highly esteemed, and war served as a source of prestige for the ruling elite, with advancement in one’s career based on one’s performance in a military campaign. As a matter of fact, conflict in Roman culture can be traced all the way back to Rome’s founding and the mythological war between Romulus and Remus. This insatiable desire for war, along with what Polybius described as ‘inexhaustible resources in supplies and troops,’ resulted in Rome becoming a terrifying and dangerous adversary for the peoples of the Mediterranean and beyond afield.

These well-trained and highly disciplined battle machines were known as the Roman legions.

From Augustus forward, the choice was solely in the hands of the Emperor.

StructureCommand of theRoman Army

The Roman army left its imprint everywhere it went, constructing roads, depots, and military bases in the process. It was made up of males ranging in age from 16 to 60, and it served as a conduit for the Romanization of conquered areas as well as one of the primary conduits for the transmission of foreign cultural influence back to Rome. On the battlefield, one or both of the two consuls were in charge, although command might alternatively be in the hands of a praetor or pro-magistrate with imperium, who, if not in command of particular legions, was in command of the entire army.

During the Imperial period, the emperor had the authority to command the army.

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Reenactment of the Roman Army Hans Splinter is a writer and illustrator from the Netherlands (CC BY-ND) During the early Republican period, unit organization was modeled after the Greek phalanx; nevertheless, between the 3rd century BCE and the 1st century BCE, infantry deployment methods evolved.

  • Each division or maniple was now deployed in three lines (hastati, principes, and triarii, who were the veterans) in a checkerboard formation (quincunx).
  • As a protective screen for the heavy infantry legions, these two groups also harassed the enemy from behind, which was particularly useful if the enemies faced the legs directly in the face.
  • Specialist mercenary forces with talents that the Romans lacked, like as Cretan archers and slingers from the Rhodes, might also be called upon to assist.
  • Additionally, the introduction of lighter armament such as the short sword orgladius Hispaniensis, the pilum javelin in place of the conventional heavy spear, and the concave shield or scutum, which had a central handle, helped to increase maneuverability.
  • Individual commanders determined the time and level of training for their troops, which included instruction on how to properly employ these weapons as well as how to perform complex battle maneuvers.
  • During this same period, legions also received permanent names and identities, as well as state-provided equipment.

Augustus established the first permanent and completely professional army with a central command and logistical organization in 31 BCE, resulting in a permanent force of 300,000 soldiers and paving the way for the massive armies of subsequent centuries, when there were 25-30 legions spread around the empire.

Another of Augustus’ objectives was to maintain allegiance by strictly limiting the number of Imperial officials who might hold positions of leadership.

Motivating the Troops

Thesacramentum, or oath of allegiance, was taken by all troops and administered to the emperor personally. In addition to assuring allegiance, it also supported the discipline known as disciplina militaris, for which the Roman military forces had grown renowned since the early Republic and which was directly responsible for numerous victories on the battlefield during this period of time. A system of incentives and punishments was implemented to further guarantee that discipline was maintained.

  • However, a lack of compensation and extremely extended periods of duty without leave might lead to dissatisfaction, which could sometimes escalate into mutiny.
  • In particular, the punishment of decimation was often reserved for acts of cowardice, such as abandoning the body of a fallen leader after he had died.
  • Other punishments included the forfeiture of plunder, salary, or rank, whipping, dishonourable dismissal, being sold into slavery, or even the execution of the offender.
  • Centurion Luc Viatour |


The great commander’s attention to logistics, decisiveness, and the air of confidence, as well as their good influence on the morale of the troops, are described in detail in JuliusCaesar’sCommentaries on the Gallic Ward. He also emphasizes the significance of invention, patriotism, discipline, and good fortune in his writings. As an added bonus, obtaining military intelligence on the adversary from hostages, dissenters, and deserters before to the conflict may significantly improve a commander’s prospects of victory.

For decades to come, Roman military power would be secured by a combination of all of these variables.

When it came to subduing local populations, Roman commanders generally preferred an aggressive and full-frontal attack (albeit preceded by appropriate reconnaissance by a scouting vanguard ofexploratorestroops), while terror and revenge tactics were also employed, a strategy that was combined withclementia- accepting hostages and promises of peace from the enemy.

As a result of the fortification of towns and the deployment of smaller groups of troops (vexillationes) of between 500 and 1,000 men beginning in the third century CE, the defense of the empire’s frontiers became a priority.

The Roman general Julius Caesar was a strong supporter of sieges, which he believed had several advantages.

Reconstruction of a Roman Ballista Oren Rozen is an Israeli actor and director who is known for his role in the film The Brothers Karamazov (GNU FDL)


An example of a typical siege would be the deployment of soldiers ahead of time to surround the village that was to be assaulted and prevent anybody from leaving. This fortified camp would be located out of missile range from the city, and preferably on high terrain, to give an excellent observation position from which to see inside the town as well as to attack critical infrastructure like the water supply. Once the onslaught started, it was possible to get around the defender’s defenses by constructing a ramp up against them out of trees, soil, and rocks.

The defenders may attempt to raise the height of the wall section under attack, or they could even construct towers.

The defenders threw everything they had at the assailants, including flaming oil, burning pieces of wood, and burning pebbles.

After being captured, women and children were usually the only ones who could expect to live in order to demonstrate the hopelessness of continuing to struggle for an extended period.


It was first and foremost important that the Imperial army on the march was well-ordered. In addition to legionaries, the unit might consist of cavalry, archers, auxiliaries, artillery, rams, standard bearers, trumpeters, servants, luggage mules, blacksmiths, engineers, surveyors, and road builders, among other things. When the army arrived at its objective, it established a fortified camp, and the Romans’ logistical expertise ensured that they were able to supply themselves independently of the surrounding country, particularly in terms of food.

Cats were employed to defend food storage from their most dangerous adversary, the black rat, for the same reason that they were also used aboard ships to keep rats at bay.

This was a significant innovation during the Imperial period.

Landing of Naval Ships The Creative Assembly is a group of people who come up with new ideas (Copyright)

Naval Warfare

It was first and foremost a well-organized army that was on the march. In addition to legionaries, the unit might consist of cavalry, archers, auxiliaries, artillery, rams, standard bearers, trumpeters, servants, luggage mules, blacksmiths, engineers, surveyors, and road builders, among others. In order to provide the army once they reached their objective, the Romans built a fortified camp, and their logistical abilities allowed the army to be fed without relying on the local land, particularly in the case of food.

Kittens were employed to guard food storage against their most dangerous adversary, the black rat, and they were also utilized aboard ships for the same purpose.

This was a significant innovation during the time period. Within the walled camps, there were even army hospitals (valetudinariums). Landing of a Naval Force It is the responsibility of the Creative Assembly to develop new ideas and to bring them to fruition (Copyright)

Victor’s Spoils

Winning a battle resulted in the acquisition of new territory, the accumulation of wealth and resources, the persuasion of enemies to submit to peace negotiations, the sending of a clear message that Rome would defend her borders, that she had an insatiable desire for expansion, and the provision of irrefutable evidence of just how formidable a fighting machine the Romans could present on the battlefield.

It was legal in the Republic to burn enemy armaments as well as make sacrifices to the gods, particularly to Mars, Minerva, and Vulcan.

Prior to it, the Senate gave their approval and provided funds for the victory.

In addition to his royal purple robes (toga picta and tunica palmata) and his laurel-tipped crown, he wielded an ivory sceptre and laurel branch, and he had a slave standing behind him, who wore a gold crown over his head and whispered, “Look behind you,” to remind him of the dangers that pride and arrogance can bring upon one’s person.

Victorious leaders also utilized the riches of battle to beautify Rome, as seen by the construction of Pompey’stheatre, Augustus’ forum, and Vespasian’sColosseum, among other structures.


Rome’s military forces were the state’s most expensive single expenditure, yet the conquest of land, resources, money, and slaves, as well as the subsequent requirement of boundary defense, made war an inevitable obsession for the Romans. It was possible to enjoy great victories in war, but it was also possible for Rome to suffer crushing defeats when able opponents learned to use Rome’s successful techniques to their own advantage. As Rome’s military might grew increasingly publicly recognized, it would become increasingly difficult for the Roman troops to engage in direct combat with the enemy.

It would not be until a millennium after the fall of Rome that warfare would return to the scale and professionalism that Rome had brought to the field of battle.

Did you find this definition to be helpful? Prior to publication, this paper was checked for correctness, dependability, and conformance to academic standards by two independent reviewers.

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