Administration And Dosage Dexamethasone Powder may be administered or the parenteral dose repeated as needed. Equine – DEXAMETHASONE INJECTION 2 mg/mL – 2.5 to 5 mg intravenously or intramuscularly.
- Each ml of Dexamethasone Injection contains 2 mg dexamethasone. Dexamethasone Injection is recommended for IM or IV administration. The usual dosage for cattle is 5-20 mg. The usual dosage for horses is 2-5.5 mg. Dexamethasone. Please note that this item requires a veterinarian’s prescription.
How much dexamethasone do you give a horse with heaves?
Dexamethasone can be given IV, IM and the solution can even be given orally (it is absorbed quite well from the GI tract). In an emergency case of hives or wheals in which you cannot contact your vet, you could give 1cc per 100 lbs (of the 2mg/ml strength) by either IM or oral route.
What are the doses of dexamethasone?
Usual dosage range: Oral, IV, IM: 4 to 20 mg/day given in a single daily dose or in 2 to 4 divided doses; High dose: 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg/day (usually not to exceed 40 mg/day). Acute mountain sickness/high-altitude cerebral edema (off-label use):
How long does it take for dexamethasone to work in horses?
Dexamethasone per os was effective within 6 h with peak effect at 24 h at a dose of 0.164 mg/kg bwt prior to feeding. The duration of effect was, for all dexamethasone treatments, statistically significant for 30 h when compared to saline and tended to have a longer duration of effect when used orally.
What is dexamethasone 4 mg?
Dexamethasone is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood/hormone disorders, allergic reactions, skin diseases, eye problems, breathing problems, bowel disorders, cancer, and immune system disorders. It is also used as a test for an adrenal gland disorder (Cushing’s syndrome).
Does dexamethasone cause laminitis?
Laminitis reportedly develops when dexamethasone or triamcinolone is used to treat inflammation in horses. Substantial new data point to a role for inflammation in the development of laminitis, suggesting that glucocorticoids should inhibit its development.
What is dexamethasone used for in horses?
Dexamethasone commonly is used in horses to treat allergic reactions such as respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (heaves), hives, itching and inflammatory diseases including arthritis.
Is 8 mg of dexamethasone a lot?
Adults—At first, 0.75 to 9 milligrams (mg) per day. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed. Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor.
Is 1 mg of dexamethasone a lot?
The usual dose is 0.01-0.1 mg/kg of body weight daily. The excretion of dexamethasone is approximately equal in children and adults if dosage is adjusted to their body area. Dosage should be planned bearing in mind possible effects upon growth and development and for signs of adrenal suppression.
How do you administer dexamethasone?
You’ll usually take dexamethasone once a day. Take it in the morning with or immediately after your breakfast. Unless your doctor gives you different instructions, take your full dose in one go. For example, if your dose is 6mg, your doctor may tell you to take three 2mg tablets at the same time.
Is dexamethasone fast acting?
Dexamethasone is a long-acting, systemic corticosteroid; its potency is about 25 times greater than the short-acting products.
What are the side effects of dexamethasone?
Dexamethasone may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- upset stomach.
- stomach irritation.
How fast does dexamethasone work?
Given by injection, dexamethasone will begin working quickly. Taken by mouth as a tablet, the effects may take from one hour up to several hours.
How is dexamethasone overdose treated?
If you take too much dexamethasone, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away. If dexamethasone is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur.
Why is dexamethasone used in Covid?
In patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support.
Is dexamethasone a strong steroid?
Yes, dexamethasone is considered a strong corticosteroid. It is a long-acting corticosteroid that is about 25 times more potent (stronger) than hydrocortisone and 6 times more potent than prednisone. For reference, your body naturally makes the equivalent of about 5 mg prednisone daily.
Efficacy of oral and intravenous dexamethasone in horses with recurrent airway obstruction
Although dexamethasone has been shown to be effective in the treatment of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), the time it takes for the effects to manifest and the duration of action are unknown. It is also unclear whether dexamethasone administered orally with or without fasting is as effective as dexamethasone administered intravenously. The objectives of this study were to document the time of start of effect and the duration of action of a dexamethasone solution given intravenously or orally with and without fasting, and to compare the results.
The effects of dexamethasone i.v.
Six comparable horses were utilized in the study.
induced a considerable increase in lung function within 2 hours, with a peak effect occurring between 4 and 6 hours.
- When compared to saline, the duration of effect was statistically significant for all dexamethasone doses for 30 h.
- It was shown that feeding decreased the bioavailability of dexamethasone per os at a dosage of 0.164 mg/kg bwt given to fed horses, whereas feeding decreased the bioavailability of dexamethasone per os at a dose of 0.082 mg/kg bwt provided to fasted horses.
- Oral administration of a bioequivalent dosage of the same solution to fasting horses is equally efficacious as intravenous treatment and has the advantage of having a longer duration of action than intravenous administration.
- Potential significance:Oral administration of a dexamethasone solution meant for intravenous administration to fasting horses has been shown to be an effective therapy for RAO-affected animals.
- A narrative evaluation of the use of glucocorticoids in the management of horses with asthma. S. Mainguy-Seers and J.P. Lavoie. The Journal of Veterinary Intern Medicine (JVIM) published a paper by Mainguy-Seers et al. on June 3, 2021, in which they wrote, “JVIM: doi: 10.1111/jvim.16189.” PMID: 3485342. PMC article that is completely free. Retrospective study shows that theophylline does not enhance the effects of a low-dose steroid administered to horses with recurrent airway blockage. Cesarini C, Hamilton E, Picandet V, Lavoie JP. Cesarini C, Hamilton E, Picandet V, Lavoie JP. Cesarini, C., and colleagues In 2006, the Equine Vet Journal published an article titled Equine Vet Journal 38(6):570-3. doi: 10.2746/042516407×153048.PMID:17124849. Trial of the efficacy of oral prednisolone and dexamethasone in horses with recurrent airway obstruction in the context of continuous antigen exposure was conducted in this study. Leclere M, Lefebvre-Lavoie J, Beauchamp G, Lavoie JP, Lefebvre-Lavoie J, Leclere M, Lefebvre-Lavoie J, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M, Leclere M M. Leclere and colleagues Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2010 May
- 42(4):316-21. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2009.0022.2x. Equine Veterinary Journal, 2010. PMID:20525049 Efficacy of three corticosteroids in the treatment of heaves in a clinical trial Robinson NE, Jackson C, Jefcoat A, Berney C, Peroni D, Derksen FJ. Robinson NE, Jackson C, Jefcoat A, Berney C, Peroni D, Derksen FJ. Robinson, N.E., and colleagues Accessed January 2002
- 34(1):17-22. doi: 10.2746/042516402776181105. Equine Vet J. 2002
- 34(1):17-22. PMID: 11817547 Prednisone per os is expected to have a limited effectiveness in horses, according to a clinical trial. Peroni DL, Stanley S, Kollias-Baker C, Robinson NE. Peroni DL, Stanley S, Kollias-Baker C, Robinson NE. PMID: 12108748 for Equine Vet J, which was published in May 2002 as 34(3):283-7. doi: 10.2746/042516402776186056 for Equine Vet J, which was published in May 2002 as 34(3):283-7
Cited by 6articles
- Experiments with autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in severe equine asthma were conducted. Adami N, Prpar Mihevc S, Blagus R, Kramari P, Krape U, Majdi G, Viel L, Hoffman AM, Bienzle D, Vengust M.Adami N, et al. Adami N, Prpar Mihevc S, Blagus R, Kramari P, Krape U, Majdi G, Viel L, Hoffman AM, Bienzle D, Vengust M.Adami N, et al. Stem Cell Research and Therapy, published online January 21, 2022, at 13(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13287-022-02704-7. Molecular Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 2022.PMID:35063028 A narrative evaluation of glucocorticoid therapy in horses with asthma is available as a free PMC publication. Mainguy-Seers S, Lavoie JP.Mainguy-Seers S, et al.J Vet Intern Med. 2021 Jul
- 35(4):2045-2057. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16189. Epub 2021 Jun 3.PMID:34085342 Mainguy-Seers S, Lavoie JP.Mainguy-Seers S, et al.J Vet Intern Med. 20 PMC article that is completely free. The use of nebulized dexamethasone sodium phosphate in the management of horses with severe asthma is discussed in detail. Epub 2021 Apr 4.J Vet Intern Med. 2021 May
- 35(3):1604-1611. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16113. de Wasseige S, Picotte K, Lavoie JP.de Wasseige S, et al.,J Vet Intern Med. 2021.PMID:33817859. In a large prospective European clinical study, inhaled ciclesonide was found to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of severe horse asthma. This paper is available for free on PMC. Pirie RS, Mueller HW, Engel O, Albrecht B, von Salis-Soglio M, et al. Pirie RS, Mueller HW, Engel O, Albrecht B, von Salis-Soglio M, et al. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2021 Nov
- 53(6):1094-1104. doi:10.1111/evj.13419. 28th of January in the year 2021. Equine Veterinary Journal, 2021.PMID:33403727 PMC article is provided for free. Different dosages of inhaled ciclesonide were tested in horses with experimentally generated mild to severe airway blockage to determine their effects on lung function, clinical symptoms associated with airflow limitation, and blood cortisol levels. The authors, Lavoie JP, Bullone M, Rodrigues N, Germim P, Albrecht B, von Salis-Soglio M.Lavoie JP, Bullone M, Rodrigues N, Germim P, Albrecht B, von Salis-Soglio M. 2019 Nov
- 51(6):779-786. doi: 10.1111/evj.13093. Epub 2019 Nov 1. 5th April, 2019 (Epub). Equine Veterinary Journal, 2019.PMID:30854685 PMC article is provided for free.
Dexamethasone for Horses
Look for Dosage Forms that are currently available.
General Drug Information and Indications
When it comes to illnesses or disorders in which the immune system plays a prominent role, dexamethasone is a synthetic corticosteroid hormone that is used to regulate inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone are approximately twenty-five times more potent than those of endogenous cortisol, according to some studies. Excessive use of the corticosteroid dexamethasone in horses is usually associated with the treatment of allergic responses such as respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (heaves), hives, itching, and inflammatory illnesses, such as arthritis.
Emergency medicine and the treatment of autoimmune illnesses necessitate the use of greater dosages of corticosteroids than are typically required in other situations.
Other active chemicals, such as antibiotics, antifungals, and miticides, may be used in topical preparations for topical application.
The use of dexamethasone in animals, including horses, has been approved by the FDA. It may be necessary to have a specialist pharmacy synthesize the proper dose form if the right dosage form is not available from a veterinary pharmaceutical manufacturer.
How to Give This Medication
This medicine should be administered to your horse in the precise manner prescribed by your veterinarian. If you forget to administer a dosage of dexamethasone to your horse, administer the following dose as soon as you recall or, if it is close to the next planned dose, resume to the usual schedule of administration. Do not take a second dosage to make up for lost time. After administering this medicine to your horse, thoroughly wash your hands.
Make an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as you notice any negative effects. Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, are extremely potent medications. While they offer a variety of beneficial benefits, they also have the potential to induce undesirable side effects if they are misused or taken in an incorrect manner. Systemic adverse effects are largely depending on the dose and duration of the treatment regimen. Laminitis is a side effect that can occur when corticosteroids are administered to a horse.
When dexamethasone is used for an extended period of time, it might cause excessive urine (polyuria), increased water intake (polydypsia), and muscle atrophy.
Keep this, as well as any other medications, out of the reach of children. Dexamethasone is a prescription medication that should be administered in accordance with your veterinarian’s instructions and only to the animal for which it has been specifically prescribed. This drug should not be administered to anyone. It is recommended to avoid or use dexamethasone with great caution in any horse or pony that has other risk factors for laminitis, such as being overweight. Equine pituitary disorders, horse Cushing’s disease, and equine metabolic syndrome are examples of what is considered to be abnormal.
- Gastric ulcers can be caused or exacerbated by corticosteroids such as dexamethasone.
- Corticosteroids are drugs that reduce the immunological response.
- Horses who have received dexamethasone may not respond to immunizations as expected.
- Systemic corticosteroids can also hide indications of illness, such as an increased fever, if they are administered in large doses.
- Despite the fact that most veterinarians attempt to avoid them, there are some circumstances in which the advantages exceed the potential hazards.
Depending on whether the animal has been taking dexamethasone for a chronic ailment, the amount of dexamethasone may need to be decreased in order for the animal’s body to resume normal production of corticosteroid hormone. Before quitting this medication, be sure to talk with your veterinarian.
Make careful to discuss with your veterinarian any drugs or supplements that your horse may be getting at this time. If dexamethasone is used at the same time as other ulcer-causing medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) (phenylbutazone, flunixin, and others), the risk of stomach ulcers may be enhanced. There is an increased risk of electrolyte imbalances in animals getting the diuretic furosemide while being treated with dexamethasone, which is attributable to calcium and potassium losses.
Please notify your veterinarian or the American Society of Poison Control Center at 888.426.4435, if you feel your horse or another animal has been accidently overdosed or has taken this medicine inadvertently. Always remember to bring the prescription container with you when you take your horse to the veterinarian for a procedure. You should contact the National Capital Poison Center at 800.222.1222 if you or someone else has mistakenly consumed this drug.
Please notify your veterinarian or the American Society of Poison Control Center at 888.426.4435 if you feel your horse or another animal has been accidently overdosed or has taken this medicine by mistake. Remember to carry the prescription container when taking your horse to the vet for treatment. Please contact the National Capital Poison Center at 800.222.1222 if you or someone else has mistakenly consumed this drug.
More Information About This Medication
The adrenal gland produces corticosteroids, which are hormones that are beneficial to the body. Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone that occurs naturally in the body. Corticosteroids are required for survival and have an impact on the metabolism of animals as well as the operation of all cells and organ systems. It is believed that their anti-inflammatory properties are attributable to numerous biological mechanisms. The mineralocorticoids and the glucocorticoids are the two principal kinds of hormones generated by the adrenal gland, with the mineralocorticoids being the more common.
- As a result, there are several distinct corticosteroid medicines available, and various medical diseases are treated with a variety of different corticosteroid treatments depending on the pharmacology of each specific drug (e.g.
- Mineralocorticoids are the name given to the various types of hormones that are generated by the adrenal gland.
- It has been shown that there is considerable overlap in function between mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
- When corticosteroid medicines are administered systemically, the general practice is to provide the preparation with the shortest duration of action, at the lowest dosage level, and for the shortest amount of time feasible, unless otherwise indicated.
The use of corticosteroids for an extended period of time or in an incorrect manner might produce life-threatening hormonal and metabolic abnormalities.
A fast adrenal glucocorticoid and/or anti-inflammatory action are required in instances where dexamethasone is prescribed. Dexamethasone is a synthetic corticosteroid having an anti-inflammatory potency approximately 25 times greater than that of naturally occurring cortisol. Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, are vital in the regulation of normal protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as in the prevention and management of inflammation. Only for intravenous administration to horses.
- It is possible to replace oral dexamethasone pills for intravenous dexamethasone if a long-term corticosteroid impact is necessary.
- Prescription medications can only be supplied when an official script from a licensed veterinarian has been received and verified.
- The fax must be sent from the veterinarian’s office to be valid.
- The use of voicemail is permissible.
- Prescriptions must be updated at the end of each calendar year.
- Federal (United States of America) law restricts the use of prescription medications to those administered by or on the direction of a licensed veterinarian.
- It is not recommended for use in horses designed for food production.
- Only for use with animals.
- Azium Powder
- Dexamethasone Injection
- Dexamethasone Solution
- Dexium® Injection
- Dexium® Tablets
- Azium Powder
When used in horses with acute musculoskeletal inflammation, dexamethasone is a potent anti-inflammatory with therapeutic action that can be very effective. Supportive therapy is also provided in a wide range of cases, including those resulting from heat exhaustion, influenza, laminitis, and retained placenta, provided that the primary cause has been identified and corrected.
It is not specific to any one species, and a veterinarian should be involved in any and all dexamethasone administration. It is considered to be a more effective anti-inflammatory agent than many steroid medications.
Dexamethasone is prescribed by veterinarians for the treatment of horses suffering from bursitis, carpitis, osselets, tendonitis, myositis, and sprains. As a result, it is employed as a supportive therapy in the treatment of weariness and heat exhaustion, as well as influenza, laminitis, and retained placenta, as well as in the detection and treatment of the underlying cause.
Dosage and Administration
|Method||Dosage(click row for calculator)||Concentration||Period||Duration|
|Oral (powder)||5-10 mg1||10 mg/packet||Daily||NA|
|Intravenous or Intramuscular injection||2.5-5 mg||2 mg/ml||Daily||NA|
- Federal legislation restricts the use of this medication to licensed veterinarians or those acting on their behalf. Only licensed veterinarians are permitted to use extra-label drugs in the treatment of animals in the context of a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship. The use of drugs in the treatment of animals by the general public (except when under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian) is prohibited. 1 After the first day, give 5 mg powder every day for the rest of the week. The calculator is intended solely for educational purposes. Follow the directions provided by your veterinarian before using this, or any other medicine.
Elevated enzyme levels, weight loss, anorexia, and laminitis are all possible side effects of this medication. Some horses may show signs of tiredness or lethargy, which is normal. Most people feel better after around 24 hours of being lethargic.
Animals taking dexamethasone should be closely monitored for the remainder of their lives. It is possible that signs of infection will go unnoticed. Treatment with dexamethasone, like with any other strong corticosteroid, should be tailored to the specific needs of the patient, taking into consideration the severity of the ailment, the expected duration of steroid therapy, and the animal’s tolerance to steroid excess. Except in the case of an emergency, dexamethasone should not be used to horses suffering from nephritis or Cushing’s Syndrome, congestive heart failure, or viral infections, unless the veterinarian determines that the administration is suitable.
Federal legislation restricts the use of this medication to licensed veterinarians or those acting on their orders.
Consult with the relevant regulatory organization.
Dexamethasone should not be administered in conjunction with any other corticosteroids without the supervision of a veterinarian.
Overdosing may result in sodium retention, fluid retention, potassium loss, and weight gain, among other side effects. Drowsiness or lethargy may be more noticeable than previously stated in the list of adverse effects.
Dexamethasone Injection is a medication that is used to treat allergies. Tablets containing dexamethasone
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is the term used to describe a type of respiratory illness condition that occurs on a regular basis in horses. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and “heaves” are other names for the condition. Asthma in horses is identical to human asthma, and it is a prevalent cause of the continuous coughing that some horses experience. For the sake of this discussion, suffice it to note that a variety of words and acronyms have been used throughout the years to refer to the many inflammatory airway disorders that cause coughing and respiratory discomfort in horses.
1 When the above syndrome manifests itself in young horses, it is referred to as “inflammatory airway disease” (IAD), and it is characterized by exercise intolerance and intermittent cough in horses that appear to be in normal condition when at rest, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association.
According to the existing research, these horses can be fully recovered with therapy; on rare occasions, such horses can heal on their own without treatment.
RAO and COPD in Horses
Residual airway obstruction (RAO) in horses is often characterized by an excessive production of mucus, narrowing of the airway (bronchoconstriction), and broncho spasm. RAO is also known as broken wind, chronic airway reactivity, or chronic airway reactivity. “In contrast to horses with IAD, horses with RAO are not normal at rest and typically have an elevated respiratory rate and/or cough,” says the author. Chronic cough, nasal discharge, exercise intolerance, and respiratory trouble are the most prevalent symptoms of RAO.
- The majority of infected horses do not have a fever unless they have developed a secondary bacterial pneumonia.
- The majority of the time, COPD develops in horses who have acquired an allergic response to dust allergens in the environment.
- Typically, the horses that are impacted are having allergic responses to environmental allergens such as fungal spores or pollen, among other things.
- It is for this reason that COPD tends to be more prevalent in stabled horses, where dust and fungal spores are frequently seen.
- When a horse develops an allergic reaction to a chemical such as this, the tiny airways of the afflicted horse are the most severely harmed when the allergen is breathed.
- 1,2 These factors work together to narrow the horse’s airway’s width, making it more difficult for him to breathe.
- COPD is most commonly associated with older, stabled horses, but it can afflict horses of any age, as well as horses on pasture.
- Its development is often slow, with the first indications of the disease frequently being unnoticeable.
Eliminating the Variables
If the horse’s symptoms are not immediately apparent, the first step the owner or stable manager should do is to minimize any factors that might be a contributing factor to his or her discomfort. Essentially, this means avoiding problems in the first place, which often entails cleaning and good (or better) horse husbandry. In order to alleviate symptoms, the first step is to reduce the amount of dust present in the horse’s quarters. It doesn’t matter what the reason is; this can help you breathe better because dust is a respiratory irritant that can accumulate in the lungs and clog airways.
Equine owners should keep their animals indoors if the weather is excessively hot or cold, for obvious reasons, since severe temperatures can aggravate any respiratory ailment.
When it comes to the barn, everything that can be done to supply the horses with fresh, clean air may make a major difference in their ability to breathe comfortably.
Dexamethasone / Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate
It is available as an injectable, oral, and ocular drug. Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid steroid that may be used to treat a variety of conditions. With no mineralocorticoid action, it is 30 times more powerful than hydrocortisone and has a longer half-life than hydrocortisone. 4 Systemic fungal infections are a contraindication, and caution should be exercised when administering it to animals with active bacterial infections, corneal ulcers, hyperadrenocorticism (i.e., Cushing’s disease), diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, chronic psychotic reactions, a predisposition to thrombophlebitis, hypertension, and renal insufficiency.
It is used to treat a range of horse illnesses, including arthritis and allergic responses as well as heaves.
Most typically, it is given orally (PO), intravenously (IV), or intramuscularly (IM) (IM).
It is most commonly used in the treatment of rheumatic, dermatologic, allergy, and other disorders that are known to be susceptible to anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as psoriasis and arthritis.
Dexamethasone Adverse Effects and Warnings
In addition to a dull/dry coat, weight gain, panting, vomiting, and diarrhea (particularly when large parenteral or oral dosages are used), dexamethasone can cause hypercoagulability, hyperlipidemia, activation or aggravation of diabetes mellitus, muscle atrophy, and behavioral abnormalities (eg, depression, lethargy, aggression). 5Glucocorticoids have been shown to cause growth retardation in young animals in the past. 4 There have been no reports of major adverse events in horses treated with dexamethasone at the recommended dosage.
Dexamethasone Dosages for Horses
Dexamethasone has been classified as a CLASS 4 DRUG by the International Uniform Classification Guidelines for Foreign Substances published by the Association of Racing Commissioners. For horses with heaves, the following dexamethasone dosage is recommended, as is the following dexamethasone dosage for horses with COPD (from fromPlumb’s Veterinary Drugs): Drugs used as anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid agents include dexamethasone 2.5 – 5 mg (total dose) IV or IM; dexamethasone sodium phosphate 2.5 – 5 mg (total dose) IV; and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 2.5–5 mg (total dose) IV.
Adjunctive treatment of recurrent airway obstruction (extra-label):
A) In the case of a 500-kg horse, administer dexamethasone 40 mg (total dose; NOT mg/kg) intramuscularly once every other day for three treatments, followed by 35 mg (total dose; NOT mg/kg) IM once every other day for three treatments, followed by 30 mg (total dose; NOT mg/kg) IM once every other day for three treatments, and continue tapering until the horse is weaned off this therapy completely.
The following doses of dexamethasone sodium phosphate should be used for short-term therapy with environmental control: 0.1 mg/kg IM once daily for 4 days, 0.075 mg/kg IM once daily for 4 days, and 0.05 mg/kg IM once daily for 4 days Except for the findings of bronchoalveolar lavage cytology, PO prednisolone (1 mg/kg PO for 4 days, 0.75 mg/kg PO for 4 days, and 0.5 mg/kg PO for 4 days) was shown to be equally effective as IM dexamethasone, with the exception of the results of bronchoalveolar lavage cytology.
When it comes to lowering clinical symptoms, airway inflammatory cells, and the bronchoprovocative histamine response, dexamethasone 0.05 mg/kg intramuscularly every 24 hours is equally effective as inhaled fluticasone.
The following medications are used: d) Dexamethasone 0.05 mg/kg PO once daily for 7 days or prednisolone 2 mg/kg PO once daily for 7 days Both medications are effective, however dexamethasone was shown to be the most effective.
Dexamethasone suppression test to diagnose pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (extra-label):
A) 20 mg intramuscularly (total dosage; NOT mg/kg). Normal values: Cortisol levels should decline by 50% in 2 hours, 70% in 4 hours, and 80% in 6 hours, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. At 24 hours, cortisol levels should have remained down by around 30% of the presuppression level. 44 Seasonal fluctuation may have an impact on the outcomes. Dexamethasone 0.04 mg/kg IM can be delivered when baseline cortisol (serum or plasma) is taken, and a second cortisol sample can be collected 18 to 20 hours later.
Testing undertaken in the autumn is more likely to provide false-positive findings than testing performed in the spring.
Where to buy Dexamethasone powder for horses
There are various pharmaceutical manufacturers and veterinary custom compounding firms that sell dexamethasone in the United States, as well as online pharmacies. NEXGEN Pharmaceuticals’ DEXAMETHASONE 10 MG/SCOOP is approved for the treatment of acute musculoskeletal inflammations such as bursitis, osselets, carpitis, myositis, tendonitis, and sprains, among other things. If bone alterations are present in any of these diseases, joints, or accessory structures, it is not possible to predict whether or not dexamethasone will be effective.
- 4 APPLICABLE ONLY TO RX: The dispensing of this drug is subject to the availability of a valid prescription from a certified veterinarian.
- House’s Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO) in the Horse is a rare condition.
- 2Robinson, N.E., “The Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Horses,” Journal of Equine Research, vol.
- 3 The Administration Routes of Dexamethasone in Horses are Compared by C.
- Published in The Horse on June 26, 2012.
- 5 Notari, L., and Mills, D., “Possible behavioral effects of exogenous corticosteroids on dog behavior: a preliminary experiment,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol.
Dexamethasone Administration Routes in Horses Compared – The Horse
Several studies have lately investigated and compared the absorption rate of the common horse anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressing corticosteroid medication dexamethasone (DXM), and they have discovered that the medicine functions identically regardless of how it is introduced into the equine body. Equine problems such as arthritis, allergic responses, and heaves can be treated with dexamethasone, which is administered for a variety of reasons. The medicine is usually delivered orally (PO), intravenously (IV), or intramuscularly (IM), and the absorption rates of the drug have been investigated using each of these administration techniques.
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine led by Lawrence Soma, VMD, Dipl.
As with other corticosteroids, DXM and other corticosteroids work by inhibiting the body’s natural production of hydrocortisone.
“Continuous treatment of corticosteroids will eventually result in the cessation of endogenous HYD production,” Soma explained.
The knee, fetlock, and stifle were among the joints that received injections. Horses, for the sake of comparison, were also granted the dru
Create a free account with TheHorse.com to view this content.
On TheHorse.com, you’ll find hundreds of free articles on everything from horse health to horse training. You must be logged into TheHorse.com in order to have access to some of our special free content. Create your free account right now! Become a member Already have a login and password?
Horse Medicine Drug Dexamethasone, Horse Drugs
|Horse Medicine Drug DexamethasoneIndications: Dexamethasone Horse Medicine powder is indicated for those conditions known to respond to steroid therapy such as inflammatory, allergic or dermatologic states.Horse Medicine Drug Directions for Use: CattleHorses:|
- Daily administration of 5 – 10 mg of Dexamethasone Base, either as a sprinkle on the feed or mixed with a little amount of water and delivered as a drench
- 10 milligrams of dexamethasone is included in each 15 gram container.
Precautions When Using Horse Medicine: Unit for Horse Medicine and Drugs Dimensions: 15 grams (3 teaspoons) There are 72 pouches in a carton. DEXAMETHASONE POWDER IN COMPARISON TO THE REST
|Dexamethasone powder (DVL)||Each 15g Packet contains 10 mg Dexamethasone||15g|
|Dexone (Jaapharm)||Each 15g Packet contains 10 mg Dexamethasone||15g|
|Azium Powder (Schering-Plough)||Each 15g Packet contains 10 mg Dexamethasone||15g|
How Much Dex To Give Horse?
How Much Dexterity Should I Give My Horse? DEXAMETHASONE INJECTION IN THE EQUINE 2 mg/mL – 2.5 to 5 mg intravenously or intramuscularly, depending on the dosage. Dexamethasone Powder may be delivered, or the parenteral dosage may be repeated as needed, depending on the situation. How much Dex do I give a horse who has hives? What is the recommended dose? In an emergency situation involving hives or wheals in which you are unable to reach your veterinarian, you might provide 1cc per 100 pounds (of the 2mg/ml strength) either intravenously or orally.
- Is it possible to administer dexamethasone to a horse orally?
- The medicine is usually delivered orally (PO), intravenously (IV), or intramuscularly (IM), and the absorption rates of the drug have been investigated using each of these administration techniques.
- At a dosage of 0.164 mg/kg bwt before to feeding, dexamethasone per os was effective within 6 hours, with maximal impact occurring at 24 hours.
- When administered orally, the duration of impact was statistically significant for a longer period of time.
How Much Dex To Give Horse – Related Questions
Excessive use of the corticosteroid dexamethasone in horses is usually associated with the treatment of allergic responses such as respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (heaves), hives, itching, and inflammatory illnesses, such as arthritis.
Why is my horse covered in bumps?
The most frequent reason for horses to acquire several little pimples on their skin is allergic hives (urticaria), but there are a variety of additional factors to take into account. True hives are most likely to be diagnosed if the lumps emerge all at once and are scattered over the body.
What can I give my horse for allergies?
It is most often due to allergic hives (urticaria) that horses acquire a large number of little bumps on their skin, but there are other factors to consider as well. True hives are more likely to be diagnosed if the lumps occur all at once and are scattered over the body.
What happens if you give a horse too much dexamethasone?
The most common reason for horses to acquire several little bumps on their skin is allergic hives (urticaria), but there are a variety of other factors to take into consideration as well.
True hives are most likely present if the lumps arise all at once and are scattered across the body.
How much dexamethasone do you give a horse with heaves?
The bioavailability of dexamethasone in oral form suggests that daily oral dosages of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg should also be useful in restoring the respiratory function of RAO-afflicted horses. Another successful treatment option is the administration of isoflupredone at a dosage of 0.03 mg/kg once a day, in a once-daily regimen.
Can Dex be given orally?
Based on the bioavailability of oral dexamethasone, daily oral dosages of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg should also be beneficial in improving the respiratory function of RAO-affected horses’ respiratory functions. Isoflupredone, at a dosage of 0.03 mg/kg delivered once a day, is another good alternative to consider.
What do they inject horses joints with?
Hyaluronic acid, a chemical that aids in the lubrication of the joint, can be administered at the same time as steroids. Several measures must be completed before your veterinarian may order an injection into your horse’s joints, so that they are prepared for the treatment. First and foremost, appropriate restraint is essential for a successful and safe joint injection procedure.
Is dexamethasone fast acting?
When compared to hydrocortisone, the steroids prednisone and methylprednisolone, which are intermediate-acting compounds, are four to five times more effective. Dexamethasone is a systemic corticosteroid with a lengthy duration of action; its efficacy is about 25 times larger than that of short-acting drugs.
How much prednisolone can you give a horse?
Equisolon 33 mg/g oral powder for horses is a prescription medication. For example, a single daily dose of 1 mg prednisolone per kilogram of body weight translates to approximately 3 g powder every hundred kilogram of body weight (see dosing table below). Treatment may be repeated as many times as necessary at 24-hour intervals for a total of 10 days. Mixing the exact quantity into a modest bit of food is the best method of administration.
Is dexamethasone a strong steroid?
Is dexamethasone a potent anabolic steroid? Dexamethasone is a long-acting steroid that is regarded to be a powerful, or strong, steroid because of its strength. It has a 25-fold greater potency than hydrocortisone in terms of effectiveness. The first dose of dexamethasone can range anywhere from 0.75 mg to 9 mg per day, depending on the ailment being treated and how much is needed.
Where should dexamethasone be injected?
When it comes to steroids, how effective is dextromethasone (Dex)? Despite the fact that dexamethasone has an extended duration of action, it is regarded to be an extremely effective steroid. When compared to hydrocortisone, it is 25 times more powerful. In the beginning, the dosage of dexamethasone may range from 0.75 to 9 mg per day, depending on the ailment being treated and how much is needed.
What is the best time of the day to take dexamethasone?
Is dexamethasone a powerful anabolic steroid? In addition to being a long-acting steroid, dexamethasone is also regarded to be a potent, or powerful, steroid. It has a 25-fold greater potency than hydrocortisone. Based on the disease being treated, the initial dosage of dexamethasone may range from 0.75 to 9 mg per day.
Can horses be allergic to their own sweat?
Horses have an unusually high concentration of protein in their sweat, which may help them stay cool, but it also cause significant discomfort to allergy sufferers.
Horses lather up when they sweat, and this is due to a particular protein found in their sweat that has been termed latherin (which means “latte” in English).
How do you treat sweat rash in horses?
When lumps appear on your horse’s skin, you may use cooling lotions such as calamine, but it’s better not to ride him if the lumps are in any location where he will come into touch with his equipment. “If a major section of his body is impacted, he should be granted time off,” says the doctor. With any hope, the swellings will recede as swiftly as they appeared — and will continue to be absent.
What are the crusty bumps on my horse?
Rain rot (also known as rain scald) is a skin ailment that occurs in warm, damp environments and is characterized by tiny bumps, crust-like scabs, and/or tangled tufts of hair that are readily pulled out. It is caused by a microbe that behaves in ways that are similar to both bacteria and fungus. Your veterinarian may recommend a shampoo that has a broad spectrum of antibacterial agents.
How can I help my horse with seasonal allergies?
Known as rain rot (or rain scald), this ailment occurs most frequently in warm, damp settings and manifests itself as little pimples, crusty scabs, and/or matted tufts of hair that are readily pulled out. An organism that behaves like both bacteria and fungus is responsible for the outbreak. A broad-spectrum antibacterial shampoo, as recommended by your veterinarian, may be appropriate.
What is the best antihistamine for horses?
Commercial antihistamines that contain oral pyrilamine maleate and tripelennamine can be obtained over the counter in select stores. These are normally in the form of granules or powders, and are designed to be combined with feed. The use of these products for preventative maintenance in horses with low grade allergies or allergic components of illness has been shown to be beneficial.
Is Ace safe for horses?
Ace has no negative side effects in the majority of horses. Stallions, horses in shock, and horses suffering from anemia should all be treated with caution. Ace has been shown to reduce blood pressure and hemoglobin concentration. With urethral irritation, Ace can produce penile prolapse and priapism (constant erection), which are both dangerous in stallions and geldings.
How long does it take for steroids to work in horses?
Ace has no negative side effects in the majority of horse species. Stallions, as well as horses in shock or suffering from anemia, should be treated with care. Blood pressure and hematocrit are both reduced after taking ace. With urethral irritation, Ace can produce penile prolapse and priapism (constant erection), which can be fatal in stallions and geldings.
Can Dex cause laminitis in horses?
Certain anti-inflammatory medicines, including as dexamethasone and prednisolone, have long been suspected of being responsible for the development of laminitis in horses, a painful and potentially life-threatening disease.
How long should you take dexamethasone for Covid 19?
The drug should be taken once everyday for 7-10 days at the same time and for the same length. Dexamethasone, equivalent to 160 mg of hydrocortisone (50 mg every 8 hours or 100 mg every 12 hours) should be taken once a day, along with prednisone, 40 mg of methylprednisolone, and 32 mg of methylprednisolone (8 mg every 6 hours).
Medications should be taken once day for 7-10 days, at the same time every day.
Dexamethasone, equivalent to 160 mg of hydrocortisone (50 mg every 8 hours or 100 mg every 12 hours) should be administered daily, as should 40 mg of prednisone, 32 mg of methylprednisolone, and 6 mg of dexamethasone every 12 hours (8 mg every 6 hours).
Either intravenous or intramuscular administration of dexamethasone 5 is required for its preservative properties. Treatment with Dexamethasone 5should be tailored to the patient’s specific needs, taking into consideration the severity of the ailment being treated, the anticipated duration of steroid therapy, and the patient’s tolerance for steroid excess. When treating chronic diseases, the lowest dose that would provide appropriate relief should be used as the starting point. Large dosages, on the other hand, may be required, and in this case, the patient must be continuously monitored for the emergence of any adverse effects that may arise.
- DOSAGEDOGS: 0.25 to 1.0 mg intravenously or intramuscularly It is possible to repeat the dose if necessary.
- HORSES: 2.0 to 5.0 mg intravenously or intramuscularly It is possible to repeat the dose if necessary.
- In the case of horses, dogs, and cats using Dexamethasone 5 as supportive treatment, the dosages listed above may be used as a guide.
- Treatment with dexamethasone can be switched from any other glucocorticoid to dexamethasone with the appropriate dose modification.
- To discover these potentially harmful side effects, veterinarians should closely monitor the animals who are getting the medicine.
- It is important to consider the likelihood that long-term high doses of dexamethasone will cause some decrease of adrenal corticoid activity and may even result in adrenal atrophy if administered continuously.
- In the same way that all glucocorticoids do, Dexamethasone 5 may either hide the indications of illness or trigger the emergence of a latent infection.
It is important to be aware of the possibility that dexamethasone might cause wound healing to be delayed. Some horses may experience transitory sleepiness or lethargy after receiving dexamethasone doses more than 5 mg. The lethargy normally subsides within 24 hours after onset.
Access the Compendium
The intravenous or intramuscular administration of dexamethasone 5 is required for its preservation. Excessive dexamethasone 5 treatment should be tailored to each patient’s specific needs, taking into consideration factors such as the severity of the illness being treated, the anticipated length of steroid therapy, and the patient’s tolerance for steroid excess. When treating chronic diseases, the lowest dose that would provide adequate relief should be used. Large dosages, on the other hand, may be required, in which case the patient must be continuously monitored for the development of adverse effects.
- doses for dogs range from 0.25 to 1.0 mg.
- Infusion or intramuscular administration of 0.125 to 0.5 mg CATS If necessary, the dosage can be repeated.
- 5.0 to 20.0 mg/kg CATTLE If necessary, the dosage can be repeated.
- The use of this medicine to treat the problems listed above does not eliminate the need for additional treatment to alleviate the underlying cause of the disease.
- In order to administer adrenocortical hormones, all of the warnings and contraindications must be followed, while keeping in mind that the warning signals of cortisone over-dosage such as salt retention and fluid retention as well as potassium loss and weight gain may not be present.
- When side effects emerge, it may be essential to cut the amount of the medication or to stop the medication altogether to avoid complications.
- The medicine should then be phased down gradually rather than suddenly after a lengthy period of treatment.
- Due to these considerations, it may be prudent to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment in addition to Dexamethasone 5.
- Some horses may experience transitory sleepiness or lethargy after receiving doses of dexamethasone more than 5 mg/kg.
Safety Data Sheets
Please go here to get the safety data sheets for the Vetoquinol products.
The Effect of Adding Oral Dexamethasone to Feed Alterations on the Airway Cell Inflammatory Gene Expression in Stabled Horses Affected with Recurrent Airway Obstruction
|Dexamethasone Administered before T2 Sampling (n = 6)||Dexamethasone Administered before T4 Sampling (n = 6)||PValue Rank-Sum Test|
- CXCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2
- IL, interleukin
- TLR4, Toll-like receptor 4
- CXCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2
Pretreatment, treatment consisting of substituting pellets for hay (pellets), and treatment consisting of substituting pellets for hay and administration of oral dexamethasone are depicted in box-and-whisker plots depicting the normalized gene expression of (A) interleukin-8 (IL-8), (B) chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), (C) interleukin-1 beta, and (D) (pelletsDEX). In general, the lower the CT, the higher the level of gene expression is observed. Statistically significant differences in gene expression between the two treatments are denoted by the use of different upper case letters, whereas statistically significant differences in gene expression between treatment and pretreatment values are denoted by the use of different lower case letters.
When there are statistically significant differences in gene expression between the two treatments, the differences are indicated by capital letters, whereas when there are statistically significant differences in gene expression between the treatment and the pretreatment values, the differences are indicated by lower case letters.
The results showed that the ordering of treatments had no effect on gene expression (dexamethasone,Table 2).
Treatment Effects on the Gene Expression in BALF Cells
IL-8, CXCL2, IL-1, and IL-6 normalized cycle thresholds (CT) in BALF cells from the 12 horses were measured before treatment, after feed modifications alone, and after feed adjustments with dexamethasone administration (as seen in Figure 1). As glucocorticoids were added to the therapy, the expression of IL-8, CXCL2, and IL-1 decreased 3.3-, 2.5-, and 4.7-fold, respectively, when compared to when feed modifications were only used as a treatment option alone. Furthermore, as compared to the pretreatment period, dexamethasone and feed modifications lowered IL-8, CXCL2, and IL-1 expression by 12.6-, 17.8-, and 16.1-fold, respectively, in comparison to the pretreatment phase.
When compared to the pretreatment period, neither therapy significantly affected the gene expression of IL-6 in the BALF cells.
Treatment Effects on the Gene Expression in Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Figure 2 depicts box-and-whisker plots depicting the median (25th and 75th percentiles = box limits) normalized cycle thresholds ( CT) for IL-8, CXCL2, IL-1R2, and TLR4 in bronchial epithelial cells isolated from horses before treatment, after feed alterations alone, and in combination with dexamethasone administration in bronchial epithelial cells isolated from horses before treatment, after feed alterations alone, and Both treatments were similarly efficient in lowering gene expression from the pretreatment period for the two chemokines that were tested in this experiment.
The expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) reduced 16.1-fold following feed modifications alone, and 13.8-fold after the addition of glucocorticoids (see Figure 1).
In contrast, neither therapy had an effect on the expression of the IL-1R2 or the TLR4 receptors.
Figure 2 depicts box-and-whisker plots depicting the median (25th and 75th percentiles = box limits) normalized cycle thresholds ( CT) for IL-8, CXCL2, IL-1R2, and TLR4 in bronchial epithelial cells isolated from horses before treatment, after feed alterations alone, and in combination with dexamethasone administration in bronchial epithelial cells isolated from horses before treatment, after dexamethasone Both treatments were similarly efficient in lowering gene expression from the pretreatment period for the two chemokines that were tested in this study.
The expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) reduced 16.1-fold following feed changes alone, and 13.8-fold after the addition of glucocorticoids.
The expression of the IL-1R2 and the TLR4 on the other hand, was not affected by either therapy.
Glucocorticoid-Induced Alterations in Gene Expression
A number of transcription factors42, including as nuclear factor-B (NF-B) and activator of transcription-1 (AP-1), are involved in the regulation of inflammation. Cytokines, adhesion molecules, inflammatory enzymes, and receptors are all involved in the regulation of inflammation. These transcription factors not only play a critical role in inflammation, but they also have an impact on the long-term control of cell function, growth, and differentiation throughout the body. CBP (CBEB-binding protein) and p300/CBP-activating factor are examples of big coactivator molecules that bind to particular DNA-recognition regions as well as to transcription factors.
- 43,44 Glucocorticoids are known to interfere with this mechanism.
- Following its contact with the steroid, the receptor complex relocates to the nucleus, where it binds to particular DNA sequences in the promoter regions of corticosteroid-responsive genes, resulting in their transcriptional activation.
- 28,45,46 For example, glucocorticoids induce the production of anti-inflammatory proteins such as mitogen-activated protein kinase-phosphatase (which inhibits the p38 MAPK, which is active during inflammation), IL-1R2 receptors, and alpha-2 adrenoreceptors.
- Pretreatment of humans with steroids who are then exposed to organic dusts 44 GCR is present in almost every kind of mammalian cell, although the endothelial and epithelial cells of the lungs have the greatest concentration of the protein in the tissue.
- We may have found a higher drop in epithelial chemokine expression with the steroid therapy if we had been able to collect more samples from the airway epithelium (and BALF cells) at the halfway point of the 4-week treatment procedure.
- As a result of adopting dietary modifications in stabled RAO-affected horses for 4 weeks, we have observed an improvement in their breathing pattern, an improvement in their BALF cytologies, and a reduction in the production of proinflammatory cytokines in their BALF cells.
- The opposite was true when it came to lowering epithelial chemokine expression, with both treatment regimens being equally effective.
A Equalan, Merial Ltd, Iselin, NJb Encevac TC-4 with Havlogen, Intervet Inc, Millsboro, DEc Imrab, Merial Ltdd 50 percent Trotter and 50 percent Hay Stretcher, A Equalan, Merial Ltd, Iselin, NJb Encevac TC-4 with Havlogen, Intervet Inc, Millsboro, DEc Blue Seal Feeds Inc. is based in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Bimeda MTC Animal Health Inc, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada, manufactures NHe Dexamethasone. Anased, Lloyd Laboratories, Shenandoah, Virginia The following items are available: IAg Olympus CV-100 videoendoscope, Olympus of America, Melville, NYh Lidocaine 2 percent (Bulter Co., Columbus, OHi 0.9 percent Sodium Chloride (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, ILj 0.9 percent Sodium Chloride Grand Island, GAk DMEM-F12, Invitrogen Inc, Roswell, GAk 240 cm biopsy forceps (61535), Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Roswell, GA Dithiothreitol (NYLDL), Sigma-Aldrich Co., St Louis; MOm Hema 3 stain (Fischer Diagnostics, Middletown); and a variety of other tests.
The RNeasy kit was developed by Qiagen Inc.
The DNAse was developed by Invitrogen Inc.
The ABI 7700 Sequence Detection System was developed by Applied Biosystems in Foster City, California.
The authors express their gratitude to MaryBeth Matychak, Carol Collyer, Emily Harris, Allison H. Miller, Rose Vinti, and Kevin Kirchoffer for their support with technical aspects of the study. The USDA NCRGI grants 2001-02495 and 2004-01235 provided funding for this research.