- Typical Bluebird Nest Description: Neat, cup shaped, woven nest typically 100% fine grass or pine needles. Cup may be in the back of the box. Occasionally bits of fur or a few feathers, or even some hair (e.g., from a horse).
Do horse flies have nests?
That’s why they prefer to live near aquatic places like lakes and ponds. In a residential area, horse flies can make their nests near swimming pools.
Where do horseflies lay eggs?
Female horse flies lay their eggs on leaves, twigs, and rocks. They prefer aquatic vegetation and populations are higher in wet and wooded areas. Females are attracted to movement and carbon dioxide. They will lay and wait in shaded areas for host to walk by, then inflict a painful bite and have their blood meal.
Where do horseflies nest?
Horse fly development sites are freshwater and saltwater marshes and streams, moist forest soils and even moist decomposing wood. Females usually deposit egg masses on wet soil or vegetation that overhangs water. Larvae are active in moist or wet organic matter and look similar to house fly maggots.
Why do horse flies follow you?
Besides determination to get blood, there are other reasons horseflies pursue people. For one, they are attracted to moving objects, especially dark moving objects that are warm. So if you start moving away, they follow you. And it seems horseflies enjoy hunting in warm weather more than cooler.
What will keep horse flies away?
Prevention is very basic when it comes to the home. Keeping the house clean will help you avoid a whole mess of potential bug invaders. Horse flies also hate smoke, so burning candles or incense can help keep them away. Citronella candles will also deter other biting insects.
What plants repel horse flies?
Herbs That Repel You can grow herbs like basil, spearmint, bay, lemon balm, catnip, lavender and tansy in pots; these strong smelling herbs work magic on keeping horseflies away from your garden and house.
What months are horse flies active?
Only the female horse fly drinks blood, and the flies tend to be most active during the months of July and August; this is because the females of the species need blood from a vertebrae animal to give birth.
Are horse flies attracted to certain colors?
In addition to motion, deer flies and horse flies are attracted to dark colors, specifically blue, according to instructions on how to make a deer fly trap written by Russell Mizell at the University of Florida. And they don’t appear to be as attracted to light colors or white.
How long do horse flies live in a house?
Horse fly: Lifespan 30-60 days Horse flies are similar to house flies in that they have a similar lifespan.
Are horse flies active at night?
Horse flies are active during the day; they can’t find their hosts at night.
How do I get rid of flies in my horse barn?
Remove wet shavings or straw from your horse’s stall every day to keep the fly population down.
- Moisture Control. Flies love moisture and seek out wet areas to breed.
- Biological Controls.
- Stable Management.
- Fly Sprays.
- Spray systems.
What home remedy keeps flies off horses?
Use vinegar as a natural fly spray for your horse. You can use 2 cups of vinegar with 1 cup of water and 1 cup of Avon Skin So Soft bath oil mixed with 1 tbsp. of Eucalyptus oil. You can also add a tbsp. or two of citronella oil to this mixture.
Are horse flies aggressive?
Yes, horse flies are considered to be dangerous to both people and animals. Female horse flies are aggressive and their bites are very painful because their mouthparts tear at the skin of their victim instead of simply piercing it.
Horse Fly Control: Get Rid of Horse Flies in the House
- A horse fly’s body can be anywhere between 12 and 14 inches long depending on its size. Color: They are either black or gray in appearance. Eyes: People with huge, dazzling green eyes are common. Antennes: Horse flies all have antennae that are shorter than the length of their bodies
The female horse fly, which feeds on blood, has blade-like mouthparts that cut tissues and blood arteries, causing blood to flow to the wounds they produce. Females then soaking up blood with their sponge-like mouthparts is what they are known for. Males solely eat on pollen and nectar, and their mouthparts are identical to females’, but considerably weaker.
Horse Fly vs. Deer Fly
Horse flies and deer flies are closely related, and both are members of the Tabanidae family. The two most distinguishing characteristics of them are their total size and the shape of their wings. Horse flies are often significantly bigger than other species, with a stouter body and a very massive head with extremely huge eyes. When it comes to their wings, they are often transparent or hazy, whereas deer flies have black bands or patches across their wings.
While male horse flies feed on pollen and plant nectars, female horse flies are aggressive blood feeders, whilst female horse flies do not.
When it comes to finding hosts, female horse flies employ a combination of chemical and visual signals in the same way that other blood sucking insects do, such as mosquitoes. A long-range indication provided by warm-blooded animals attracts horse flies from a distance, whereas visual cues such as motion, size, form, and dark color attract horse flies from a shorter distance, according to the National Horsefly Association.
They hardly seldom bite close to the head. In addition to animals of practically all sizes, horse flies also have a wide range of hosts that include humans and their pets, as well as cattle. If a female horse fly is interrupted while attempting to feed, she will fly away but immediately return to bite another host, or she will proceed to another host to take a whole blood meal from that host.
Horse Fly Bites vs. Deer Fly Bites
Large, non-moving creatures are frequently bitten on the legs or torso by female horse flies. Deer flies, on the other hand, attack moving hosts and tend to target high-up on the body, such as the head or neck, to feed.
When someone is bitten, they may experience the following symptoms and bite reactions:
- The bite area will swell and become itchy, then the swelling will subside. Itching and scratching of bite wounds that persists for an extended period of time and can result in subsequent bacterial infections if the bite is not cleaned and sanitized
- The fact that horse flies inject anticoagulant-containing saliva while feeding on humans increases the risk of significant responses, particularly among those who are strongly sensitive to the anticoagulant chemicals. An itchy rash all over the body, wheezing, swelling around the eyes, swelling of the lips, and dizziness or weakness are all possible symptoms.
Horse fly growth areas include freshwater and saltwater marshes and streams, wet forest soils, and even rotting wood that has soaked up moisture from the environment. In most cases, females lay their egg masses on damp soil or vegetation that overhangs bodies of water. Larvae are active in organic stuff that is damp or wet, and they have a similar appearance to house fly maggots. Depending on the species, horse flies have anywhere from 6 to 13 larval stages. The pupal stage begins in the spring after the last larval stage has completed its overwintering period.
Fertile females will deposit their eggs on the undersides of leaves, and the larvae will hatch out and drop off the leaf in around 2-3 days after the eggs have been laid.
The majority of horse fly species produce just one generation each year, but some can take up to two years to complete their life cycle, according to the CDC.
Horse Fly Larvae vs. Deer Fly Larvae
During field study, researchers discovered that horse fly larvae prey on midges, crane flies, and even other horse fly larvae. As a result of their cannibalistic tendencies, horse fly larvae are typically seen living in isolation. Deer fly larvae, on the other hand, tend to congregate in large numbers. Pupae do not consume food. When it comes to producing viable fly eggs, female horse flies require a blood meal to be successful. A female can lay anywhere between 100 and 800 eggs every year.
Horse flies are present in nearly every region of the United States, and there are more than 160 different species to be found.
However, even the most potent insect repellents are only somewhat successful in keeping insects away. A better alternative for prevention is to cover and protect exposed areas of the body in order to lessen the probability of being bitten by horse flies.
How to Keep Horse Flies Away from Your Yard
Horse flies are well-known for their painful bites, which are caused by their scissor-like jaws. Female horse flies, like female mosquitoes, are attracted to your blood because it provides them with nutrition. (Male horse flies are attracted to nectar mostly.) A horse fly bite, on the other hand, will result in a loud “ouch!” unlike a mosquito bite, which may not be recognized until it begins to itch. If you have a problem with horse flies in your yard, follow these guidelines to help protect yourself, your family, and your pets (or livestock).
What Do Horse Flies Look Like?
As one of the biggest flies on the planet, they are reasonably easy to detect, yet they can be tough to thwart due to their size. In order to establish whether or not you have horse flies, look for the following features. Horse flies have extremely huge and robust bodies that range in length from 3-4 inches to 1-14 inches. A variety of colors are available, ranging from dark brown to grey to black. Their eyes are huge and can be either green or black in color.
Maintain Your Yard
Because horse flies like moist regions and hot temperatures, they can be seen in large numbers in pasturelands near creeks throughout the summer months. They prefer weedy patches and tall grass around dwellings because they can retain moisture and help to reproduce the humid pasture habitat that they adore so much. Horse flies may also be a nuisance for folks who spend their time at the beach or at the local pool.
Horse flies, like other fly species, will concentrate their efforts on waste in search of food. The lids of outdoor garbage cans should have a tight fit. Keeping your garbage in your garage may help to reduce the number of flies that fly over your yard.
Clean Up after Pets
Horse flies, like many other insects, are drawn to the excrement of domesticated animals. The summer months will necessitate more regular yard cleanups if you have a canine companion, otherwise you may find yourself with a horse fly infestation on your hands.
If you’re hosting a backyard BBQ or other outdoor celebration, burning citronella candles and lighting torches will help keep horse flies away from your guests and prevent them from attacking them.
Horse flies are attracted to the smoke and aroma created by citronella oil, so using it can help keep them away.
Kill and Prevent Horse Flies
When it comes to flies, horse flies are the most annoying sort that you may have in your home. Horseflies are both irritating and, for want of a better phrase, potentially hazardous insects. These files do not appear on a consistent basis throughout the year. Horse flies, on the other hand, can unexpectedly emerge in homes at any time of year. So, what causes horse flies to arrive all of a sudden? When do horse flies begin to appear? And what is the root reason of this occurrence? These are the kind of queries that will be answered by this guide.
Plus, there’s a whole lot more!
What Are Horse Flies – An Introduction
The horse fly is the only fly that looks like a housefly and bites hard, yet it is also the most dangerous. Equine flies are one of the most violent kinds of fly, possessing razor-sharp mouthparts that can tear into the flesh of humans and animals. They also migrate in swarms and groups, which is unusual for them. You don’t want to get in their way, therefore avoid doing so. Horseflies are active from late spring to late summer, with the peak season occurring in late July. If you live in a barn or on a farm where there are animals and livestock, horse flies are nothing new to you.
- Horseflies are able to feed on the blood of any mammal they come into contact with.
- Horse flies strike campers and hikers who camp or station near rivers or lakes, causing them to suffer from itchy bites.
- A fully fledged adult horse fly can grow to be up to 1.25 inches in length when completely developed.
- Their eyes are likewise huge and appear to be violet in color.
- When the antennas are motionless, you may have difficulty identifying them.
Horse Fly Bite
Insects that bite humans and animals, horseflies have a sharp blade-like mouth that can rip apart the flesh of humans and animals. Horseflies are parasites that feed on the blood of animals, such as the cattle on your farm or in your barn. Horseflies track down their prey by sensing the carbon dioxide that they emit as they fly around. Horse flies are attracted to dark and bright moving objects, according to scientific evidence. Horseflies are attracted to cattle and horses by certain compounds.
- The female horse flies bite both humans and animals, which is an intriguing thing to note.
- The male horseflies do not attack humans or animals, unlike their female counterparts.
- Female horse flies require large amounts of blood in order to create eggs.
- Horsefly bites are quite unpleasant.
- If the bite area is not treated immediately, it may potentially get infected with pus.
In light of this information, it is evident that horse flies can bite you and your cattle if you reside in an area where horse flies are prevalent. But why do horse flies suddenly emerge in people’s homes? The next section provides an answer to the question.
The 3 Reasons For Sudden Appearance Of Horse Flies In Homes
The following are the three most likely causes of the unexpected emergence of horse flies in your home:
- It appears that you have cattle on your land. Your home has a strong ammonia odor that permeates the air. Horse flies are being bred on your land as a result of your actions.
Let’s take a look at each of them individually. Horseflies are not the same as house flies, which are attracted to garbage in houses and yards and feed on it. They’re flies that feed on human blood. In addition, they obtain their blood meals from humans and animals that are found in the natural environment. Horse flies, on the other hand, may make their way into your home. And this is especially true during the warmer months. Cluster flies are another variety of flies that appear unexpectedly in houses during the summer months, and they are a nuisance to homeowners.
- So, how can horse flies gain access to your home?
- One of these things is livestock.
- Horse flies are attracted to your home by the sour odor caused by the ammonia in the water.
- Horse flies can reproduce on your land, in your yard, or in your garden, among other things.
- Predatory larvae are formed when the eggs hatch.
- Horse flies will reside and reproduce on your land if there are wet circumstances and a large amount of organic waste present there.
- And what can you do to keep yourself safe from horse fly bites?
How To Get Rid Of Horse Flies In Your Home And Property?
The removal of horse flies is accomplished in three stages: examination, treatment, and prevention. Let’s take a look at each of these steps one by one. In order to complete these procedures, however, you must first put on PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). Horse flies will not be able to bite you if you wear this.
Examination or Inspecting For Horse Flies
The degree of the infestation and the location of the infestation’s source will be determined in this stage. That would need an investigation into the sources of horse flies on your land. Horse flies can be found in areas adjacent to your livestock’s housing quarters, so look for them. Check for horse flies in the areas where you store manure, where your livestock eats, compost piles, around pools, ponds, and pastures, and in the areas where your livestock grazes. This will assist you in determining the extent of their infestation as well as the precise time of day when they are most active in your area.
Additionally, you’ll find a large number of grubs around any aquatic vegetation, such as bushes and shrubs, that are developing around your swimming pool or pond. Horse flies have been spotted in the following locations: After that, you can proceed to the next step, which is treatment.
Treat Your Property To Get Rid Of Horse Flies
The following are the items that you will want in order to get rid of horse flies:
- IGR (Insect Growth Regulator)
- Disposable Flytraps
- Equine spray for animals
- Outdoor Insecticide Spray
Now, follow the six methods outlined above to utilize the supplies listed above to get rid of horse flies.
Activate The Fly Trap And Keep It In Places Where You’ve Spotted Horse Flies
Theflytrapis an excellent non-toxic method of capturing horse flies. Remove the plastic seal from the top of the trap in order to activate it. You’ll find a tab when you release the seal. Pull the tab to break it. After that, fill the trap with water until it is completely full. The flytrap will be activated as a result of this. You’d need to usemultiple fly trapsto keep in different places where you’ve noticed horse flies’ activities. These bags are disposable. When they’re full of horse flies, discard these fly traps.
Spray The Horse Fly Repellent Spray On Your Livestock
It is important to take this measure to protect your cattle from the damage and wounds that horse flies can bring to them. Make sure your cattle is clean. Take care to ensure that your cattle is free of filth and dust. Then spray the horse flies repellent spray directly onto the skin of the cattle. Caution: Do not spray the horse fly repellent spray directly into the eyes or nostrils of the cattle.
Mix Insecticide And IGR In A Spray Bottle
It’s time to go on the attack against horse flies on your property, and here’s how. In a gallon of water, combine 4 teaspoons of pesticide and 4 mL of IGR (Insect Growth Regulator) to create a solution. An amount equal to one gallon of the combination is suitable for a 1000-square-foot area. You’d need to create more of this mixture if you’re covering a huge area. Alternatively, you can use the services of a pest control specialist to do a fogging treatment. Stir the ingredients together thoroughly before pouring them into the pesticide spray container.
- Spray it on the windows, doors, mulch beds, and the area surrounding your home’s foundation to protect it from the elements.
- It is an insecticide that will kill adult horse flies, and it is known as flex 10-10.
- Horse flies may be controlled inside your home by using any indoor pesticide spray on them.
- The ammonia in the water from your appliances attracts horse flies to your home, causing them to infest your home.
Prevention Of Horse Fly Infestation In The Future
Now that you’ve done your part to rid your property of horse flies, it’s time to make certain that they don’t return. It is important to follow the preventative approach to guarantee that you and your cattle do not receive any further horse fly bites. In addition, the likelihood of horse flies suddenly appearing within you in the future is essentially negligible. And the quickest and most effective method to do so is to use granular fly bait along the perimeter of your property and around the foundation of your home.
Painting the border of your land and the perimeter of your barn, where you keep your cattle, is something you should do.
Fill a bowl halfway with water and add the granular fly bait.
Take a paintbrush and paint the barn walls, fences, and the foundation of your home with the color.
Horse flies will be discouraged from infiltrating your home and barn and attacking you and your livestock as a result of the paint. Horse flies may be controlled with a number of extremely efficient preventative techniques.
- Incorporating fine-mesh window screens into your home’s design helps keep out any insects, including horseflies. Fill up any gaps and cracks in your barn’s walls, doors, and windows, as well as those in your home. This will help prevent the horse flies from infiltrating your barn and home. Make certain that the areas where you store and prepare the manure are constantly covered with a tight-fitting lid. Don’t allow cattle waste to accumulate in one location or to be dispersed over your land for several days. Make sure that your property has suitable garbage disposal. Don’t allow organic waste build up in areas where you feed your cattle or horses
- Instead, compost it. The area where you store your animal feed should be free of clutter. Do not allow greenery and organic wastes such as decaying wood piles to accumulate on your property for days at a time. Excessive moisture in your home may be avoided by not overwatering it and not allowing it to become stagnant.
Are Horse Flies Territorial?
Horseflies have a strong sense of belonging. If you happen to stroll through one of their hiding or nesting areas, they may attack you.
Are Horse Flies Venomous?
They aren’t, at least not to a human. However, they are capable of transmitting swamp fever to horses, which can be fatal to them.
Are Horse Flies Attracted To Water?
Horse flies are drawn to water, to be sure. As a result, they like to reside in or near aquatic environments such as lakes and ponds. Horse flies have been seen to establish eggs around swimming pools in residential areas.
Are Horse Flies Attracted To Light?
Animals such as horseflies are drawn to linearly polarized light, which is light reflected back to the source. In order to detect water, they must first take up any reflected light from the water’s surface.
Is Horse Flies Aggressive And Dangerous?
Horse flies are indeed aggressive flies, and they may be deadly as well. They have the ability to cut into the skin of animals and humans in order to ingest their blood.
Can Horse Flies Bite?
Horse flies do, in fact, bite. In order to rip apart the skin of its prey, horse flies have blade-like mouthparts that are used to pierce the skin.
Do Horse Flies Sting?
Horse flies do not sting, in contrast to other types of stinging bees. They take a bite out of you.
When Do Horse Flies Go Away?
Horseflies are a nuisance throughout the warm months. By the beginning of the fall season, their numbers had begun to decline significantly.
Are Deer Flies And Horse Flies The Same Thing?
They are not, in fact. Horse flies and deer flies have considerable variances in their behavior and appearance. Horse flies are smaller in size than deer flies. Furthermore, when deer flies are immobile, their wings are spread widely apart, giving them the appearance of a moth rather than a fly. Horse flies, on the other hand, do not have brownish-yellow straps on their abdomens, which are present in deer flies. The abdomen of horse flies is dark in color. The Deer Fly However, both deer flies and horse flies bite by cutting the skin with their scissor-like mouthparts, which is similar to that of a mosquito.
Skin ulcers, a high temperature, and a headache are all indications of rabbit fever.
There are three possible explanations for the unexpected development of horse flies in homes:
- It appears that you have cattle on your land. Your home has a strong ammonia odor that permeates the air. Horse flies are able to reproduce on your land because of your actions.
Horseflies become active throughout the summer months, and their bites are harmful for both humans and animals. It has been explained in this tutorial why you get horse flies bites and how to get rid of horse flies on your property if you have them. Also included in this section is a list of preventive actions that you may do right away to avoid a horse fly infestation on your property in the near future. Keep in mind that horse flies must feed on the blood of you and your cattle in order to survive.
Our names are Mark and Jim. For nearly all of our lives, we were serial pest killers and exterminators. Through this blog, we want to provide pest-killing information to people like you who are concerned about keeping their homes pest-free.
Facts About Horse Flies
Horse flies (Tabanidae) are huge, aggressive insects that fly quite quickly. They are also highly spry flyers. Horse flies are among the biggest of all fly species, and there are around 3,000 different species of Horse flies in the globe. Females attack people and other animals (particularly horses and other livestock) in the hopes of obtaining blood meals for their young. Horse flies and Bot flies are referred to as “gadflies” in some circles. Horse flies might be a nuisance, but remember that you are not alone in feeling this way.
They were also a source of concern for the Vikings.
Continue reading for the most crucial facts about horse flies, as well as information on how to put preventative measures in place to keep you and your family safe from horse flies.
What Do Horse Flies Look Like?
Horse flies are available in a variety of colors ranging from yellowish-brown to dark grey to blackish in appearance, and they normally reach 3/4″ to 1.25″ in length. Their heads are disproportionately large in comparison to the rest of their bodies, and they are hairy all over, giving them a passing similarity to honey bees in appearance. They have just one set of wings, like all other genuine flies of theDipteraorder, which are delicately colored and covered with wispy dots, much like all other true flies of theDipteraorder.
Horse Flies vs. Deer Flies
Horse flies are frequently mistaken with Deer flies, which are also known to attack humans on a regular basis. Horse flies and Deer flies both have vividly colored eyes, however Deer flies are somewhat smaller than Horse flies. They are distinguished by the black stripes that run across their wings.
Where doHorse FliesCome From?
Aside from the polar extremes and few islands, such as Hawaii, horse flies may be found almost wherever on the planet, including the tropics. These fly prefer warm, wet environments where they may reproduce, although they can be found in a broad range of habitats, including deserts and alpine meadows, depending on the species. Horse flies are strictly outside creatures, and they do not feed or seek shelter indoors unless it is necessary. You may come across one who has mistakenly walked inside your home through an open window or door, in which case a flyswatter or a dependable indoor and outdoor fly spray will make fast work of it.
Horse Fly Habits
Most of the time, these flies may be found in valley meadows near creeks and streams, where they enjoy higher temperatures and more moisture, as well as regions where cattle and people can be located outside. Horse flies are not simply attracted to the open air (especially near pools of water, like mosquitoes). They also love bright sunshine and are most common throughout the summer months, and they seek to avoid dark, shaded regions when possible. Horse flies do not emerge from their lairs at night.
Females are the only ones who bite, as they have powerful, incisor-like mouthparts, whereas males have weak mouthparts, as shown in the photo.
Women (again, as is the case with mosquitoes) bite both animals and humans in order to collect protein in the form of a blood meal, which they use to fertilize eggs. During their development, horse fly larvae live in aquatic or semi-aquatic settings, where they prey on other smaller organisms.
What AttractsHorse Flies?
Female Horse flies can identify humans and animals by their colors and motions, and they are drawn to bright items, warmth, perspiration, and carbon dioxide emitted by humans and animals, among other things.
Can Horse Flies Bite?
Female horse fly bites are extremely painful, but what’s worse is that these insects have the ability to transmit germs and blood pollutants from one host to another. They have the potential to make animals and people severely ill, and in unsheltered cattle, they can even cause growth rates and milk supply to be lowered. If the person or animal who has been bitten has an allergy, the consequences are more severe. Blood-stained horse fly bites on people can cause rashes, dizziness, weakness, and wheezing, as well as other symptoms such as headaches and fatigue.
Likewise, scratching will exacerbate the itching and other side effects of mosquito bites.
Will Horse Flies Bite Your Dogs?
The scissor-like mouth of the female Horse fly can inflict painful bites not only on humans, but also on your dog. Even though the effects and minor irritation are only short-lived, your dog is still at risk for the same danger that comes with all biting pests: the spread of bacteria and other blood contaminants from the female Horse fly’s saliva. In addition to the belly, legs, and neck, larger dog breeds are the most prone to Horse fly attacks. The most common regions where dogs get attacked are the legs, abdomen, and neck.
TheHorse FlyLife Cycle
Female Horse flies deposit their eggs under gravel or plants in close proximity to a water source, but they do not need to be close to it. When the eggs hatch, the pale, spindly larvae crawl into a nearby body of water or moist soil, where they feed on tiny insects and even reptiles for the rest of their lives. When the horse fly larval stage is complete, it can continue up to a year, at which point the larvae burrow themselves into the earth in order to pupate. Horse flies mature after one to two weeks as pupae and another three to ten weeks as developing adults before emerging as fully fledged adults.
Helping Prevent a Horse Fly Problem Outdoors
Horse fly problems in suburban regions are less prevalent than in less-populated, rural locations, where there may be grassy, open fields and cattle in the vicinity. Ideally, pest control chemicals should not be utilized until all other options have been exhausted and the Horse fly problem has not been resolved. Citronella candles and ultraviolet bug zappers are two common cures for flies and other flying insects when used outdoors. Horse flies are not drawn to rubbish or animal corpses, but keeping your yard as clean of standing water as possible will help to keep them to a minimum (as well as mosquitoes, which are also attracted to standing water!)
Fly Killer Treatments
Products for Pest Control For spot-treatment of Horse flies, use a plant oil-based indoor fly killer such as Maggie’s Farm Home Bug Spray or Maggie’s Farm Flying Insect Killer, which are both highly effective. Plants despise flies and other insects just as much as you do, and the natural oils they create to defend themselves are incredibly powerful in killing and repelling insects of all kinds. If you want excellent personal protection against flies (and mosquitoes), use Maggie’s Farm Natural Insect Repellent, which is made from plant oils.
Always read and carefully follow the recommendations on the label of any pest control product, including those for storage and disposal.
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TryMaggie’s Farm pest control solutions for efficient fly control in your house that has been scientifically proven and is safe for your family and the environment.
In order to be the most effective, our plant and mineral-based treatments are created by scientists and experienced pest control specialists.
How to Get Rid of Horse Flies – Facts & Control Techniques
Horse flies are one of the most vicious species of insects on the planet. Horse flies, in contrast to normal house flies, have mouth parts that are capable of cutting and tearing. Horse flies (especially female horse flies) are a nuisance to livestock because they settle on the bodies of cattle and bite them in order to take their blood. In addition, unlike mosquito bites, the horse fly bite is extremely painful. They have jaws that are similar to scissor-like and are capable of tearing flesh.
In order to better understand how to get rid of horse flies, let us first examine their physical characteristics in order to recognize them more readily.
Identifying a Horse Fly:
Horse flies have a yellowish-brown or blackish coloration to their wings and bodies. It is around 20 to 25 mm long, has a large head, and has hairs all over its body. They are remarkably similar to honey bees, with the exception of the fact that they only have one set of wings. The undersides of the wings are coated with subtle smoky patches. The eyes of a Horse fly are exquisitely colored with rich metallic color tones that shimmer in the light. Females have complex eyes that are dichoptic (separated), whereas males have holloptic (continuous) eyes.
- Horse flies are most commonly found in low-lying meadows near creeks, streams, and tanks, where they breed and reproduce.
- Female species feed on the blood of animals, whilst their male counterparts are pollen gatherers.
- Take a look at this article: How Do You Attract Flies Into Your Home Or Surrounding Environment?
- Female horse flies require a blood meal before they can lay eggs because it supplies them with the appropriate levels of protein they require to reproduce successfully.
- Evolution: Eggs are placed on or under gravels or plants, generally close to a water supply, and hatch after about a month.
- Furthermore, at this period, they graze on little insects or responses.
During the larval stage, which can last up to a year, the larvae burrow into the earth and begin the process of pupation. The pupal stage can last anywhere between 6 and 12 days. Adult flies emerge from the puparium around 3-10 weeks after hatching. Damages:
- Getting bitten by a horse fly is quite unpleasant
- They are carriers of illnesses such as leucocytozoan
- They cause animals to lose weight
- And they cause livestock to die. Horse flies have also been linked to the transmission of illnesses such as anaplasmosis, hog cholera, tularemia, and anthrax, among others.
Few Interesting Facts about Horse Flies:
- The horse fly is a member of the ‘tabanidae’ family, and it is one of the biggest insects on the planet. Horse flies may be found all over the planet, with the exception of the extreme northern and southern latitudes. Horse flies are found in over 3,000 different species around the world. The female horse fly’s mouth parts have the appearance of saw blades. It makes a hole in the skin in order to feed on the blood that is drained from the wound. Male horse flies do not bite since they do not have biting mouth parts, and as a result, they feed on nectar collected from flowers. It takes a year for a horse fly larva to mature into an adult. In addition, an adult horse fly only lives for a few days. Horseflies are known by a variety of names in different parts of the world
- For example, in Canada, they are known as “bull dog flies,” while in Australia, they are known as “March flies.”
How to Get Rid of Horse Flies:
Let’s have a look at how to get rid of horse flies now that we’ve learnt so much about them. You may learn how to regulate them in this area, which includes a number of suggestions.
1. Using Disposable Fly Traps:
Horse flies are easily captured with disposable fly traps, which are one of the most effective ways available. Unlike traditional traps, these ones contain an attractant that is triggered by sunshine and water. As soon as the attractant is engaged, it attracts the horse flies to enter the trap, where they are imprisoned after the flies have entered the trap. All you have to do to use these traps is unpack them, add bait/attractant along with a little water, and hang them up. These traps are a safe and effective technique to control horseflies, including those that are pesticide resistant.
Check out this one on Amazon, which has received a lot of excellent feedback.
2. Using a homemade Fly Trap against Horse Flies:
As I previously stated, horse flies are drawn to dark moving things; thus, we will utilize this knowledge to our advantage and construct a trap that will attract horse flies and kill them. To construct this trap, we will need the following materials:
- A difficult string to work with
- A medium-sized ball with a dark color and a round shape
- A fly paper (either commercially available or handmade)
- A stool, to be precise.
To construct the trap, tie the dark colored ball to the string and secure the free end of the string to the bottom of the stool. After that, wrap the fly paper over the stool’s legs and secure it in place. Once you’ve done that, hang the stool in the area where the horse fly infestation is prevalent. Every few hours, simply press the ball to the point where it begins to sway in the breeze. The horse flies will be attracted to the dark colored ball because of its swinging action. When they approach close to the trap, they attempt to land on it and become entangled in the fly paper.
3. Coke Bottle Trap made with Rotten Meat:
This is a pretty easy trap that has worked for a large number of individuals. So, all you need is the following to do this:
- A Coca-Cola bottle that has been emptied
- To cut the bottle, you’ll need a sharp knife or a pair of scissors. Use a drill or any other sharp tool to make some holes in the ground
- Cellophane tape is a type of adhesive used to seal packages. rotting meat weighing 50-100 grams
To construct this trap, begin by slicing the coke bottle with a knife, as illustrated in the accompanying illustration. Following that, drill a 1 cm hole in the bottle cap in the manner illustrated. After that, place the decaying meat pieces in the lower portion of the bottle with a little water in it. Then, as illustrated, flip the upper section upside down. Cellophane tape is used to ensure that the edges are firmly secured. Place these traps in close proximity to the contaminated area (away from your cattle).
Moreover, once they have entered the bottle, it will be impossible for them to get out on their own.
This is supported by research.
4. Sticky Fly Paper Trap with Odour Baits:
Many individuals have had success in reducing horse flies by employing huge sticky fly traps in conjunction with an attractant or other attractant. It has also been demonstrated that when normal fly paper traps are used in conjunction with scent baits, the effectiveness of the traps rises dramatically.
To make this work, you will first need a large sticky fly paper trap, which you may use in conjunction with smell baits if you choose. You might use any of the following ingredients to make odor baits:
- The presence of carbon dioxide (CO 2) in bovine breath attracts horse flies, which are drawn to carbon dioxide in general. To attract them, you might use a CO2 cylinder or ‘dry ice’ to catch their attention. However, in order to make this function under real-world field settings, enormous volumes of CO2 gas would be required. Acrylatone (Nail Polish or Varnish Remover)– Acrylatone is also a component of cow breath, which means that many species of horse flies are drawn to this liquid to a substantial degree. One of the constituents of cattle sweat, octen-3-ol, is a fly attractant to a modest amount. It is a component of human sweat, as well as a component of cow sweat. Due to the fact that octenol is a highly expensive chemical, it is exclusively employed in laboratory research against horse flies
- However, this is changing. Ammonia (NH3 vapour)– Ammonia is a component of bovine urine, and it has been seen to attract some species of tabanids
- It is also a component of feces. It was cow urine that was discovered to attract horseflies, and it had to be matured for at least a week before it could be used. Furthermore, because it is readily available and very simple to administer, it is a popular attractant, particularly among cattle ranchers.
5. Umbrella Type Horse Fly Trap:
The use of an umbrella trap has been shown to be quite successful against horse flies. You will need the following things to complete this project:
- Sheets of plastic sheeting or plastic screening (four sheets) 5 feet in length and 4 feet in width
- A stapler or a glue stick A pole that is 5 or 6 feet in length
- A jar made of plastic
- A black plastic or rubber ball with a diameter ranging from 16 to 20 inches
The four pieces of plastic sheeting should be joined together using stitching or staples to form a pyramid shape, as indicated in the figure below. The pyramid should be around 4 feet high and 3 feet broad along each of its four bases, depending on the size of the materials used. Following that, a ring should be placed to each bottom corner of the trap in order to attach guy lines that keep the trap in place. After that, join the 6 foot pole in the center of the pyramid along with the rest of the pyramid.
- It is important that after the trap is properly assembled, the ball should rest slightly below the plastic sheets.
- Fix the jar lid upside down and use a 2 inch hole punch to make a 2 inch hole in both the lid and the cardboard plate.
- This jar will be used to collect flies, which will be placed inside.
- After that, secure the guy lines to some supporting poles so that they may act as tent ropes to hold the canopy in place.
6. Manning Trap for Horse Flies:
The four pieces of plastic sheeting should be joined together using stitches or staples to form a pyramid shape, as indicated in the figure below. The pyramid should be approximately 4 feet high and 3 feet broad along each of its four bases, with the height and width being equal. In order to secure the trap in place, a ring should be added to each bottom corner and used to attach guy lines. After that, join the 6 foot pole in the center of the pyramid together with the rest of the structure. A 5 foot long string is used to connect the ball to the pole.
- A 5 inch cardboard plate should be stapled or stitched to the top of the pyramid at its pinnacle.
- Attach the jar to the lid by gluing a plastic cone to the interior of the lid.
- Insert portion of the center pole into the ground to make it upright and capable of lifting the canopy off the ground.
- Finally, secure the guy lines to some supporting poles so that they may act as tent ropes to hold the canopy in place.
- The following items: a tripod stand or sufficient wood to construct your own stand
- A sheet of plastic or a fabric
- An opaque ball of black color
- A little funnel
- A piece of string
- A bottle of anything
First and foremost, if you don’t already have one, construct a tripod stand of 5 feet in length. After that, drill a 3 – 5 cm hole into the top of the tripod and screw the funnel into place over the hole. Afterwards, attach the bottle to this in the manner depicted in the figure above. To attach the bottle to the funnel, you can use cellophane tape if necessary; however, make sure the bottle is securely fastened to the funnel before proceeding. The dark colored ball should be connected to the string, which should be tied to the bottom of the tripod so that it hangs at least 2 feet over the tripod legs.
Plastic sheet or fabric should be used to cover the top three feet of the stand. As a result of this, you should maintain the trap close to the contaminated region and you should soon see that the bottle is full with dead horseflies. Check out this H – Trap that is available on Amazon.
7. Homemade Repellents for Horse Flies:
Several natural oils have been shown to repel horseflies, and you might use them to make a repellant for yourself or your pets if you know what you’re doing. Repellent number one: To produce this repellant, combine the ingredients in the following order and keep them in a container.
- 1-1/2-cup Avon Skin So Soft (Bath oil)
- 1/2-cup water
- 1/2-tablespoon eucalyptus oil
- 1 cup white vinegar
You may apply the repellant straight to the skin of your dogs if you so desired. Please with your veterinarian before using this product. Repellent number two: To produce this repellant, combine the ingredients in the following order and keep them in a container.
- Light mineral oil, 1/4 cup lemon juice, 1 teaspoon citronella oil, 1 teaspoon eucalyptus essential oil, and 1 teaspoon lemon dish soap are all you need.
You may apply the repellant straight to the skin of your dogs if you so desired. Please with your veterinarian before using this product. Repellent number three: To produce this repellant, combine the ingredients in the following order and keep them in a container.
- 3 components: 1 part lavender oil, 2 parts water, 2 parts rubbing alcohol
You may apply the repellant straight to the skin of your dogs if you so desired. Please with your veterinarian before using this product. Read this article for more information: Natural oils to repel flies.
8. Using Insecticides:
Although it is theoretically feasible to kill horse fly larvae using pesticides, doing so would result in the water being harmful or contaminated due to the fact that they reside near streams or rivers. As a result, treating them when they are in the larval stage is very impossible. Field experiments, on the other hand, have demonstrated that daily treatment of cattle with a naturally occurring pesticide known as’synergized pyrethrins’reduces the bite rates by horse flies while having no negative effects on the cattle themselves.
Concentrated pyrethrins pesticide may be purchased from any farm supply or agricultural chemical company.
For example, if you want to treat horses, you should choose a formulation that has been labeled particularly for this kind of animal.
However, by spraying it on every other day, it is possible to attain some kind of control.
9. Using Dish Soap and Vinegar Spray to kill Horse Flies:
When it comes to flies, dish soap is extremely effective against most breeds, including horse flies. It is beneficial to use a dish soap that contains borax, which is an insecticide; the best part about using a dish soap that contains borax is that it has no negative effects on you or your animals. For a dish soap spray, take an empty spray bottle and fill it with 4 tablespoons dish soap, 2 cups white vinegar, and 1 cup warm water, shaking the entire time. Your dish soap spray is now complete.
10. Commercially available Horse Fly Repellents:
I’ve seen numerous products that claim to be effective against horse flies, but the most of them are ineffective.
However, there are a few products that are very effective in combating them. These are the products:
- Rtu Equisect Botanical Fly Repellent Rtu Spray– This is a natural fly spray that repels 5 different types of flies, including horse flies. It is available in a variety of scents. Check out the book on Amazon
- Pyranha Wipe N Spray– This insect repellent includes pyrethrin (which is believed to be the safest pesticide available) and is effective against horse flies and other biting insects. Check out the book on Amazon
Please remember to consult your veterinarian before using any of these items. Read this article for more information: Natural oils to repel flies.
Prevention Tips against Horse Flies:
- Maintain the cleanliness of your animals. Maintain a clean barn at least twice a week by cleaning out the waste and spilt feed. Aside from that, you might apply pesticides on the dung heaps, which would prevent the larvae from forming. Ensure that there is no standing water in the shed and that you have a sufficient drainage system in place so that there is no stagnant water where the horse flies may lay their eggs. It is necessary to trim the grass and weeds in order to make the environment unsuitable for horse flies. The use of a strong fan in animal sheds can greatly reduce the number of horse flies that enter the facility. Use ear nets, face masks, and repellant tags on your animals to protect them from predators. On Amazon, you may get face masks with ear nets
- They are reasonably priced.
Recommended Reading: How to Get Rid of House Flies
Horse Fly Bite Symptoms:
Horse fly bites are quite uncomfortable. The following is a list of signs and symptoms that might help you determine if a wound is caused by a horsefly bite or not:
- A horsefly bite results in thick, red skin that is difficult to remove. Itchy skin accompanied with pain
- Early signs and symptoms of bacterial infections
- Sometimes the skin remains red and inflamed for several days after the incident. Some people may develop a skin rash, hives, or wheezing as a result of the allergy
- Others may not. Swelling around the eyes and lips is another symptom that some people encounter.
How to Treat a Horse Fly Bite:
It is extremely vital to treat a horsefly bite as soon as possible. To cure a bite, follow the instructions outlined below: Disinfect the area: To begin, thoroughly wash the area with soap and water to remove any remaining contaminants. You might also use a disinfectant that is based on alcohol or vinegar. If you are outside and unable to sterilize the area at that moment, cover the wound with saliva until you can disinfect the region. Saliva includes the protein Histatin, which has healing properties, and this will help you to heal the bite until you can get indoors and properly treat the situation.
- Medications for Allergies: If the itch is becoming intolerable, you might try using a hydrocortisone cream directly to the wound.
- Monitor the Wound: Keep an eye on the wound since there is a potential that it can get infected with germs.
- So that was the end of it.
- Also, I’d be interested in knowing if you have any other top-secret strategies for getting rid of horse flies.
How to Get Rid of Horse Flies and Avoid Their Bite (DIY Trap Instructions)
It should be noted that this content may contain affiliate links. This means that if you make an eligible purchase, we may receive a small commission at no additional cost to you. The most recent revision was made on February 8, 2022. While some people may think I overreact when it comes to flies, I don’t think anybody could accuse me of doing so when it comes to the horse fly. Despite the fact that they are related to common houseflies, these bugs live up to the moniker “vicious bloodsuckers.” Unfortunately, because these pests provide some environmental value and frequently nest in protected locations, it is impossible to entirely eliminate horse flies from the ecosystem.
Get a free quotation from the most reputable pest control businesses in your neighborhood.
Because the phrase “horse fly” is frequently abused, it’s always a good idea to double-check that your target is, in fact, a horse fly before investing in control tactics that may or may not be effective against other fly or insect species.
Know Your Enemy
Horse flies are a pestilence that, fortunately, only manifests itself in large numbers during a few months of the calendar year. However, although huge house flies and horse flies are sometimes referred to as one species, the latter is in fact a distinct species that is far worse than a simple insect that vomits all over your food.
Females are so infamous during mating season that they are referred to as “maddening gadflies” in Shakespeare’s play Hamlet. Once you’ve determined that you’re dealing with a horse fly, it’s rather simple to get rid of them because of their hunting tactics.
What Does a Horse Fly Look Like?
The horse fly, which has been given the moniker “dun-fly” because of its subdued hues, has dull yellow patterns that mimic those of the abee. These insects have extremely big eyes, extremely short antennae, and extremely pointed mouthparts. These flies have bodies that are broader than the usual fly, and they may grow to be as long as an inch long.
Where do Horse Flies Come From?
“From the deepest, darkest depths,” says someone who has recently been bitten in response to your question. It is believed by some scientists to be true that the horse fly likes to reproduce on wet soil near huge bodies of water, but that it is capable of traveling up to 30 kilometers. While they favor woodland areas, they can be found in practically any land-based location on the planet, with the exception of the polar regions.
What do Horse Flies Eat?
Contrary to common belief, only females consume blood, which they utilize to help in the reproduction of their young. Overall, adult horseflies prefer nectar and are really necessary for the survival of particular plants because of their nectar preference. The larvae are carnivorous and might be cannibalistic in their behavior. Even though male horse flies offer no hazard, the possibility of coming across a hungry female is sufficient justification for eliminating horse flies.
Horse Fly vs Deer Fly
Deer flies and horse flies are often confused, albeit there are several distinguishing characteristics between the two. Unlike horse flies, deer flies (which have no resemblance to deer) have black stripes across their wings as compared to the transparent wings of the horse fly. Furthermore, their bodies have a tendency to be leaner and smaller.
Horse Fly vs House Fly
Despite the fact that the horse fly and the house fly are diametrically opposed in appearance, the latter is occasionally referred to as a “horse fly” due to common nicknames. The source of this misunderstanding is from tales of some house flies as being “as large as a horse.” Despite the fact that house flies do not feed on blood, they can carry a significant quantity of germs, which can infect any food or property they come into touch with. For further information, see How to Get Rid of Cluster Flies in the House.
How to Get Rid of Horse Flies
I would normally advise against exterminating a creature, but there are no constraints and no significant environmental consequences to exterminating every horse fly you encounter. Because they frequently establish breeding grounds in protected areas, any possible environmental consequences of eradicating those who trespass into public or private land are kept to a bare minimum. The methods listed here are only a handful of the various options available for getting rid of these pests.
The Humble Horse Fly Trap
There are a variety of horse fly traps available to assist you in getting rid of horse flies. The following are some of the most effective: Do you want to leave it in the hands of the professionals? Get a free quotation from the most reputable pest control businesses in your neighborhood.
- A bug zapper is one of the most gratifying kill traps that can be found anywhere in the globe. An unwanted insect is drawn to the light and electrocuted with a pleasing sound as a result of the attraction. The carcasses can subsequently be fed to pets or carnivorous plants as a source of nutrition. Make certain that the slats are large enough to allow a horse fly to get through. Flies-Be-Gone: A plastic bag and bait are used in this fly trap. In this case, the flies enter through a funnel and are baffled as to how to exit
- The traditional fly paper used in houses for decades will trap horse flies as readily as normal house flies and fruit flies
- It is inexpensive and easy to find in most grocery stores. Horse PalorH-Trap: Another commercial trap that might bring satisfaction is the Horse PalorH-Trap. Because it is designed to attract visual hunters, the horse fly will approach something that appears to be a tasty meal only to become imprisoned in a metal container that uses ordinary sunlight to slowly fry the pest to death.
Chemical sprays that are quite safe and contain natural insecticides are available for purchase. One method is to use a regular soap spray, which may be used to suffocate most insect pests and is inexpensive. It is made up of 4 tablespoons dish soap (I like Dawn for added safety around birds, squirrels, and other garden creatures), 2 cups vinegar, and 1 cup warm water in the following proportions: Simply shake the can to combine the ingredients and spray. One advantage of using this mixture is that it is completely safe to spray plants with it.
It is derived from Chrysanthemum flowers and may be purchased in concentrated form at agricultural supply stores or on the internet, among other places.
It is non-toxic and has been shown to significantly minimize biting incidences. Make certain to get a combination that is especially designed for the animal on which you intend to spray, as various concentrations are required for different species.
DIY Corner: Two Types of Homemade Horse Fly Trap
Construction of your own traps is possible, and the results are nearly identical to those of professional ones. Container traps and sticky traps are the two basic types of traps available: both are effective.
With these traps, there are several variants on a subject, which is understandable. By adding some decaying meat or acetone to the inverted soda bottle traps used for house flies, you may make them work for you as well. The Manning trap, or a version of it, is the most frequently seen. The following is an example of one variant of this trap:
- Build a tripod stand (or utilize an existing one) that is five feet in height or higher. You may also construct a four-legged structure. Place a piece of fabric or plastic on top of the stand to protect it. A small hole should be cut in the centre of the top surface and should be covered with a little funnel. Place an upside-down plastic bottle over the mouth of the funnel and attach it with tape
- Attach a strong thread or twine to the underside of the tripod and a dark, medium-sized ball to the dangling end of the rope or twine. Maintain an adequate two-foot space between your cover and the ground, while yet allowing for unobstructed visibility of the ball
Image courtesy of
These are fly paper traps, as opposed to bottle traps, because they employ fly paper instead of a bottle. One simple solution is to place fly paper near a light source that is attracting flies, as seen below. One other simple sticky trap to create is a variant of the Manning trap, which makes use of a stool that is hanging from the ceiling or another sturdy surface. A black ball is hanging underneath the stool, and the legs of the stool have been loosely wrapped in fly paper in the hopes that leaving flies may become entangled.
Despite the fact that it has a limited range, getting rid of horse flies in this manner may be a lot of fun.
How to Keep Horse Flies Away
As is true in most situations, the greatest defense against horse flies is a well-planned offensive. Horse flies are not commonly seen in the home, but they like congregating near your swimming pool and other moist parts in your home. Despite the fact that you may not be able to completely eradicate horse flies’ breeding sites, you may still get rid of them by making your own area less inviting to these pests.
Defending the Home
When it comes to the house, prevention is really essential. Maintaining a clean environment can assist you in avoiding a whole slew of potential insect invaders. Horse flies are also attracted to smoke, so using candles or incense to keep them away can be effective. Citronella candles will help discourage other biting insects in addition to mosquitoes.
Defending the Pool
Unless you have cattle, your backyard pool or pond will most likely be the source of the most trouble. It will be extremely beneficial to cover these during the height of horse fly season. You should also construct light traps around the pool area to distract and kill any intruders who chose to linger around in the vicinity. Also see: How to Get Rid of Biting Midges (Part 1).
Defending Your Livestock
A brief application of pyrethrin-based insecticides on your animals once or twice every one or two days can significantly minimize the quantity of bites. Some of the most sensitive regions of the body can be protected from bites using protective covers such as ear nets and face masks. In addition, creating a protected refuge where horses and cattle may seek shelter will assist to prevent bites, provided that the doors and windows are properly screen-ed and secured.
General Outdoor Prevention
The use of general insecticides such as Off! can be effective in the control of horse flies. Wearing bright hues might also help to minimize the level of attraction you draw.
Horse flies (as well as other pests) are drawn to tall grass and rubbish, so try to keep your yard tidy and free of debris at all times. Finally, you may put up some bird feeders or suet cages to attract birds, who will also consume insects, which will help to keep the area clean.
Health Risks of Horse Flies
Females, who must extract blood in order to breed, are responsible for the vast majority of health problems. These bites are frequently associated with the transmission of pathogens and the development of allergic responses. The experience of being approached by a hungry female may be excruciatingly uncomfortable, even in the best circumstances.
Do Horse Flies Bite?
In fact, only females bite, and even then, it’s only when they’re getting ready to spawn. These bites are more painful than other types of bites, and they can result in allergic reactions as well as the transmission of bloodborne illnesses and parasites to humans and animals. Anaphylaxis in humans has been documented to occur in a few severe cases as a result of the bite in the past.
What Does a Horse Fly Bite Look Like?
Because of the way horse flies cut into the skin, the bites and symptoms of horse flies might differ from victim to victim. The bite itself will become inflamed, painful, and itchy, and it will either welt or develop into a rash as a result of the inflammation. Other symptoms, such as dizziness or wheezing, may also manifest themselves. Do you want to leave it in the hands of the professionals? Get a free quotation from the most reputable pest control businesses in your neighborhood.
You’ll want to clean and disinfect the bite as soon as possible to avoid the possibility of infection. Additionally, you can utilize first aid sprays and salves to reduce symptoms, such as After-Bite, in addition to taking any allergy drugs that may be necessary.
Effects of Horsefly Bites on Animals
Horseflies may cause a wide range of problems in animals, both because of the toxins they carry and because of the impact of the bite itself. When a large number of horse flies are feeding on a horse or cow, it can result in the transmission of anthrax, a reduction in milk supply, and even enough blood loss to cause the death of a horse or cow.