What does a horse fly look like?
- Horse flies are easy to spot because they look just like a house fly – only they are much bigger. Horse flies have brown to black bodies and can have clear or colored wings with bright green or black eyes. They can be anywhere from 3/4 of an inch to 1 1/4 inches long.
What happens when a horse fly bites you?
After using small hooks to lock in, the horse fly sucks blood from the skin. Thus, the saliva injected while biting causes a sharp burning sensation. The saliva in the skin may also cause inflammation, itchiness, or bruise, around the site.
What attracts horse flies in a home?
Horse flies are attracted towards dark moving objects and carbon-di-oxide, and this is how they locate a prey. Horse flies are also attracted to Acetone a component found in Nail Polish or Varnish Remover. Acetone is also found in cattle breath so many species of horse flies are significantly attracted to it.
How do I know if I have horse flies?
The horse fly is easily identified by its dark grey body and large green-metallic eyes. The horse fly can also be spotted by the dark black markings on its transparent wings. Horse flies are very strong fliers, persistent in attacking livestock and equine with a severe bite.
Can a horse fly sting you?
Are horsefly bites dangerous? Aside from the momentary pain they cause, horsefly bites are not generally harmful to humans. These bites are usually only a problem for horses. This is because horseflies carry equine infectious anemia, also known as swamp fever.
What is the difference between a house fly and a horse fly?
A Horsefly is a group of similar flies considerably larger than a housefly. These flies can often reach 1-inch in length and are agile fliers. It’s found worldwide except in Hawaii, Greenland, Iceland, and the polar regions. Some species have noisy wings while others, including the common green horsefly, are silent.
What does a horse fly Sting look like?
The bite in the skin itself is usually red and surrounded by a raised area of skin, called a weal or hive. The pain, redness, and weal help to identify horsefly bites. People should watch out for spreading redness of the skin, as well as the presence of pus or other discharge coming from the wound.
What time of day do horse flies come out?
The flies are most active just before sunrise and three hours after sunrise. Another peak in activity is two hours before sunset and just after sunset. Timing your activities around those active periods may provide a little relief, but those are also the coolest times of the day when most people enjoy being outside.
Where are all these horse flies coming from?
Horse fly development sites are freshwater and saltwater marshes and streams, moist forest soils and even moist decomposing wood. Females usually deposit egg masses on wet soil or vegetation that overhangs water. Larvae are active in moist or wet organic matter and look similar to house fly maggots.
How long can a horse fly live in a house?
Horse fly: Lifespan 30-60 days Horse flies are similar to house flies in that they have a similar lifespan.
How big is a horse fly compared to a regular fly?
Horse flies can be easily identified by their large size compared to other common fly pests such as stable flies or horn flies. Most species are approximately ½ of an inch to 1 ¼ inches in length. Horse flies have a robust body that is usually covered with small hairs.
What is the difference between a black fly and a horse fly?
Some are entirely black. Others, known as “greenheads,” are light brown with shiny green eyes. Horse flies are strong, fast fliers that feed on the blood of livestock and other animals. Adult black flies are small, no more than 1/8-inch long with broad wings and a humpbacked appearance.
Why do horseflies chase you?
Horseflies bite to ingest blood which is rich in protein. The protein is needed to develop their fertilized eggs. And yes, horseflies will chase you down to get their meal.
What is a Clegg?
British.: a horsefly or gadfly.
Can horse flies bite through clothes?
‘Horsefly females have such strong, powerful mouthparts that they can sometimes bite you through your clothes,’ he says. ‘But obviously they are more likely to go for bare skin. ‘ It’s probably best to opt for loose-fitting clothing.
Horse Fly Control: Get Rid of Horse Flies in the House
- A horse fly’s body can be anywhere between 12 and 14 inches long depending on its size. Color: They are either black or gray in appearance. Eyes: People with huge, dazzling green eyes are common. Antennes: Horse flies all have antennae that are shorter than the length of their bodies
The female horse fly, which feeds on blood, has blade-like mouthparts that cut tissues and blood arteries, causing blood to flow to the wounds they produce. Females then soaking up blood with their sponge-like mouthparts is what they are known for. Males solely eat on pollen and nectar, and their mouthparts are identical to females’, but considerably weaker.
Horse Fly vs. Deer Fly
Horse flies and deer flies are closely related, and both are members of the Tabanidae family. The two most distinguishing characteristics of them are their total size and the shape of their wings. Horse flies are often significantly bigger than other species, with a stouter body and a very massive head with extremely huge eyes. When it comes to their wings, they are often transparent or hazy, whereas deer flies have black bands or patches across their wings.
While male horse flies feed on pollen and plant nectars, female horse flies are aggressive blood feeders, whilst female horse flies do not.
When it comes to finding hosts, female horse flies employ a combination of chemical and visual signals in the same way that other blood sucking insects do, such as mosquitoes. A long-range indication provided by warm-blooded animals attracts horse flies from a distance, whereas visual cues such as motion, size, form, and dark color attract horse flies from a shorter distance, according to the National Horsefly Association.
They hardly seldom bite close to the head. In addition to animals of practically all sizes, horse flies also have a wide range of hosts that include humans and their pets, as well as cattle. If a female horse fly is interrupted while attempting to feed, she will fly away but immediately return to bite another host, or she will proceed to another host to take a whole blood meal from that host.
Horse Fly Bites vs. Deer Fly Bites
Large, non-moving creatures are frequently bitten on the legs or torso by female horse flies. Deer flies, on the other hand, attack moving hosts and tend to target high-up on the body, such as the head or neck, to feed.
When someone is bitten, they may experience the following symptoms and bite reactions:
- The bite area will swell and become itchy, then the swelling will subside. Itching and scratching of bite wounds that persists for an extended period of time and can result in subsequent bacterial infections if the bite is not cleaned and sanitized
- The fact that horse flies inject anticoagulant-containing saliva while feeding on humans increases the risk of significant responses, particularly among those who are strongly sensitive to the anticoagulant chemicals. An itchy rash all over the body, wheezing, swelling around the eyes, swelling of the lips, and dizziness or weakness are all possible symptoms.
Horse fly growth areas include freshwater and saltwater marshes and streams, wet forest soils, and even rotting wood that has soaked up moisture from the environment. In most cases, females lay their egg masses on damp soil or vegetation that overhangs bodies of water. Larvae are active in organic stuff that is damp or wet, and they have a similar appearance to house fly maggots. Depending on the species, horse flies have anywhere from 6 to 13 larval stages. The pupal stage begins in the spring after the last larval stage has completed its overwintering period.
Fertile females will deposit their eggs on the undersides of leaves, and the larvae will hatch out and drop off the leaf in around 2-3 days after the eggs have been laid.
The majority of horse fly species produce just one generation each year, but some can take up to two years to complete their life cycle, according to the CDC.
Horse Fly Larvae vs. Deer Fly Larvae
During field study, researchers discovered that horse fly larvae prey on midges, crane flies, and even other horse fly larvae. As a result of their cannibalistic tendencies, horse fly larvae are typically seen living in isolation. Deer fly larvae, on the other hand, tend to congregate in large numbers. Pupae do not consume food. When it comes to producing viable fly eggs, female horse flies require a blood meal to be successful. A female can lay anywhere between 100 and 800 eggs every year.
Horse flies are present in nearly every region of the United States, and there are more than 160 different species to be found.
However, even the most potent insect repellents are only somewhat successful in keeping insects away. A better alternative for prevention is to cover and protect exposed areas of the body in order to lessen the probability of being bitten by horse flies.
How to Keep Horse Flies Away from Your Yard
Horse flies are well-known for their painful bites, which are caused by their scissor-like jaws. Female horse flies, like female mosquitoes, are attracted to your blood because it provides them with nutrition. (Male horse flies are attracted to nectar mostly.) A horse fly bite, on the other hand, will result in a loud “ouch!” unlike a mosquito bite, which may not be recognized until it begins to itch. If you have a problem with horse flies in your yard, follow these guidelines to help protect yourself, your family, and your pets (or livestock).
What Do Horse Flies Look Like?
As one of the biggest flies on the planet, they are reasonably easy to detect, yet they can be tough to thwart due to their size. In order to establish whether or not you have horse flies, look for the following features. Horse flies have extremely huge and robust bodies that range in length from 3-4 inches to 1-14 inches. A variety of colors are available, ranging from dark brown to grey to black. Their eyes are huge and can be either green or black in color.
Maintain Your Yard
Because horse flies like moist regions and hot temperatures, they can be seen in large numbers in pasturelands near creeks throughout the summer months. They prefer weedy patches and tall grass around dwellings because they can retain moisture and help to reproduce the humid pasture habitat that they adore so much. Horse flies may also be a nuisance for folks who spend their time at the beach or at the local pool.
Horse flies, like other fly species, will concentrate their efforts on waste in search of food. The lids of outdoor garbage cans should have a tight fit. Keeping your garbage in your garage may help to reduce the number of flies that fly over your yard.
Clean Up after Pets
Horse flies, like many other insects, are drawn to the excrement of domesticated animals. The summer months will necessitate more regular yard cleanups if you have a canine companion, otherwise you may find yourself with a horse fly infestation on your hands.
If you’re hosting a backyard BBQ or other outdoor celebration, burning citronella candles and lighting torches will help keep horse flies away from your guests and prevent them from attacking them.
Horse flies are attracted to the smoke and aroma created by citronella oil, so using it can help keep them away.
Kill and Prevent Horse Flies
|Download the PDF version of ENTFACT-511: Horse Flies and Deer Flies.
by Lee Townsend, Extension EntomologistUniversity of Kentucky College of Agriculture
Horse Fly and Deer Fly are two types of flies. Horse flies and deer flies are both bloodsucking insects that may be a major annoyance to cattle, horses, and people. Horse flies and deer flies are both considered to be a serious pest to humans. Horse flies are around 3/4 to 1-1/4 inches in length and have transparent or strongly colored wings, as well as brilliantly colored eyes, in most cases. Deer flies, which are smaller than horse flies and regularly bite humans, have dark bands across their wings and colored eyes that are similar to those of horse flies.
- The quantity of flies and the severity of their onslaught varies from one year to the next, depending on the season.
- It is possible that animals will harm themselves when fleeing from the insects.
- For their meal, Webb and Wells projected that horse flies would drink 1 cc of blood and that 20 to 30 flies dining for 6 hours would consume 20 tablespoons of blood, according to a USDA Bulletin 1218.
- Flies such as horse flies and deer flies are more active during the daytime hours.
- Once they have taken up residence on a host, they slit the skin with their knife-like mouthparts and feed on the blood pool that has formed.
- The soreness and swelling caused by bites normally subside within a few days.
- Bites may be painful, and general first aid-type skin lotions can assist to alleviate the discomfort.
- In terms of animal pests, male flies are of no significance because they feed on nectar.
- The fly’s painful bites usually provoke a response from the victim, and the fly is compelled to move on to another host as a result.
It is the muck around the borders of ponds and streams, as well as marshes and seepage sites, where horse fly and deer fly larvae grow and mature. Some are aquatic, while others grow in soil that is rather dry. Females lay batches of 25 to 1,000 eggs on vegetation that grows over water or in moist areas, depending on the species. They descend to the ground and feed on decaying organic debris as well as tiny creatures in the soil or water, which they acquire via this process.
The larval stage, which can last anywhere from one to three years depending on the species, is the most common. In order to pupate and eventually emerge as adults, mature larvae must crawl to drier locations.
During the summer, deer flies are generally only active for brief periods of time at a time. Repellents such as Deet and Off (N-diethyl-metatoluamide) can give up to several hours of protection when used outside. Follow the directions on the label since some people might develop allergies after using a product for a long period of time. Also, check for age limitations. Permethrin-based repellents are intended for use on clothes alone, however they often give a longer duration of protection than other repellents.
Even after a remedy has been administered, these flies will continue to swarm and annoy you.
Hats with mesh face and neck veils, as well as neckerchiefs, may provide some protection under severe circumstances.
Horse flies and deer flies can be a real nuisance when they congregate near swimming pools. They may be drawn to the water by the gleaming surface or by the movement of the swimmers in the water. There are currently no effective recommendations for addressing this issue. Permethrin-based sprays are approved for use on livestock and horses, according to the label. Because these insecticides are extremely irritating to the flies, they are forced to leave almost immediately after landing on the surface.
- These flies will swarm persistently around animals and feed in areas where the spray coverage was not complete (underbelly or legs) or where the spray has worn off (such as on the face).
- Check the label to see if there are any minimum retreatment intervals.
- Horse flies and deer flies prefer sunny environments and will not typically enter barns or areas of deep shade.
- They are able to graze at night because the flies are not active at that time.
It is extremely difficult to detect and/or destroy the breeding sites of horse flies and deer flies, and it is nearly impossible to do so. The fact that they spawn in environmentally sensitive wetlands raises concerns about the implications of drainage or pesticide treatment on non-target creatures or water supplies. Furthermore, these insects are excellent flyers and have the ability to move in from a distance. Breeding sites may be quite large or located a long distance distant from the location where the issues are occurring.
Some changes in behavior or the use of repellents may be necessary to allow for enjoyment of the outdoors.
Some goods may not be legal to use in your state or nation, depending on where you live.
As a reminder, ALWAYS READ AND COMPLY WITH LABELED INSTRUCTIONS FOR SAFE USE OF ANY PESTICIDE! Images courtesy of the University of Kentucky Entomology Department
Black Horse-Fly: 19 Facts You Won’t Believe!
The black horse-fly (Tabanus atratus) is a species of biting fly belonging to the order Diptera and phylum Arthropoda, and it is found throughout North America. Horse flies are considered a biting pest when they are seen near livestock or cattle. Aside from that, they pose a serious hazard to the cattle. Despite their size, they have a high rate of flight. The males do not bite or seek blood meals, preferring to subsist only on nectar instead. They are most active during the day and eat viciously on the flesh of their hosts.
When the temperature lowers or the wind kicks up, the population of lies in a given region decreases.
What class of animal does a black horse-fly belong to?
The black horse-fly (Tabanus atratus) is a kind of insect that belongs to the class Insecta.
How many black horse-flies are there in the world?
It is not known how many black horse-flies (Tabanus atratus) there are in the world. The fly population is a big success story in the world of insects. The Tabanus genus has over 1,300 species that are found all over the world.
Where does a black horse-fly live?
The black horse-fly has a wide range of habitats in the eastern United States, and it is an endemic species to North America.
What is a black horse-fly’s habitat?
The black horse-range fly’s of habitat encompasses a diverse range of geographical locations. They, on the other hand, are unable to survive in harsh environments such as the desert or mountain top. If you’re looking for them, look for them in areas where they may feed on and lay eggs on animals.
Who does black horse-fly live with?
The black horse-fly is a solitary creature.
How long does a black horse-fly live?
It takes this fly a year to complete its life cycle, which involves transformations from aquatic larvae to pupae to adults. The mature horse-fly has a short lifespan of 30-60 days.
How do they reproduce?
The black horse-fly requires an aquatic habitat for reproduction, the development of eggs, and the development of water larvae. When the adults emerge, the process of reproduction begins. The male horse-flies then eat on nectar, while the female horse-flies look for a blood meal to consume. The female lays three to four masses of 100-1,000 eggs on the edge of a water surface or near a water surface, with each mass containing 100-1,000 eggs. The female is on the lookout for a wet habitat in which she may successfully lay her eggs.
The life cycle of this insect includes eggs, horse-fly larvae, pupae, and adults, among other stages of development.
They develop through six to nine instars before reaching the end of their population cycle.
For one to three weeks, they are at the pupal stage of development.
What is their conservation status?
The conservation status of horse-flies or deer flies has not been determined.
Black Horse-Fly Fun Facts
The adult horse-flies have a body that is either entirely black, blackish-purple, or dark brown in color. Male horse-flies have continuous or holoptic eyes, whilst female horse-flies have separated or dichoptic eyes. The adult horse-fly has big and compound eyes that are continuous or holoptic in men and separated or dichoptic in females. The antennae are small and horn-shaped, and they are attached to the body. The different mouthparts are connected by a fascicle, which has six organs. They have two mandibles that are blade-like and flattened, with tooth-like serrations, which they employ to cut food and defend themselves.
These two maxillae are referred to as the median labrum epipharynx and the median hypopharynx, respectively.
They have prominent venation on their wings, and their bodies are coated with short, thick hair.
The thin and cylindrical larvae are white to tan in color, depending on the species.
The larvae have two sharp mandibles on the retractable head of the larvae, which can produce severe bites if they come into contact with them. The wings of some of them are translucent, whereas those of others are black.
How cute are they?
Horse flies, like deer flies, are not seen to be particularly endearing.
How do they communicate?
They communicate in the same way as all other fly, including vocalization, imagery, and the production of pheromones.
How big is a black horse-fly?
The mature horse-fly has a length range of 1 inch in length (26 mm). In terms of length, the horse-flies can be as huge as a bumblebee or as little as a housefly, depending on the species. In addition, they are smaller than deer flies.
How fast can a black horse-fly fly?
They have a remarkable ability to fly considering their size. This fly has achieved the fastest recorded flying speed of 90 miles per hour (145 kph).
How much does a black horse-fly weigh?
It is not known what the actual weight of these horse-flies is. The average weight of a horse-fly is 0.00002 lb, which is extremely little (12 mg)
What are the male and female names of the species?
The black horse-fly, both male and female, is not known by any specific name.
What would you call a baby?
The baby horse-fly does not have a special name because it is so young. Horse-fly larvae are the common name for the aquatic larvae of this species.
What do they eat?
Male insects solely eat on plant liquids and nectar, but mature female insects feed on the blood of animals and other insects. The eggs are developed by the females while they are feeding on blood. Male mosquitoes are vegetarian, much like their female cousins. There are six piercing organs on the mouthparts: two maxillae, two mandibles, a labryn epipharynx, and a hypopharynx. The maxillae and mandibles are the only piercing organs on the mouthparts. When a female is on the prowl for food, she is frequently drawn to CO2 as well as huge, dark moving things.
Are they poisonous?
Adult insects are not venomous, and their bites do not pose a health risk to people. Horses are the only ones that are affected by the bite.
Would they make a good pet?
No. These insects would not make for a pleasant companion. These pest species have a short life cycle and can cause significant damage to cattle. They are not hazardous to humans, and their bite does not cause death in most cases. If a horse-fly bites you, you will experience some discomfort for a short period of time, but you will not become infected. Advisory from Kidadl: Only reliable sources should be used to obtain any pets. It is important that you conduct your own study as a prospective pet owner before making your final decision on which animal to adopt.
Inspect your state and/or country’s legislation to ensure that the pet you choose is legal in your area.
Please ensure that the pet you are contemplating purchasing is not an endangered species or one that is listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) list, and that it has not been removed from the wild for the pet trade.
Did you know.
The Tabanidae fly or pest family, which includes flies and pests, can transmit disease to the victims that they bite, who are primarily animals. When animals are utilized in the beef and milk production industries, as well as for grazing, they confront a number of major problems. Various types of birds, including warbler birds such as the palm warbler and the pine warbler, as well as wasps such as the horse guard wasp, prey on these insects.
Horse flies and deer flies are both persistent pests that bite and are quite powerful bugs. They are also capable of transmitting anthrax, trypanosomes, and worms. Horse-flies have been observed doing Immelman maneuvers in a manner similar to that of fighter planes.
What is a giant black fly?
A huge black fly is a large black horse-fly that bites and stings its victims, causing them to suffer from severe bites and blisters. Its hosts include animals, cattle, and people, and it is regarded as a nuisance in these areas.
Why are horse-flies so aggressive?
Horse-flies are hostile because they are hungry, or their offspring are hungry, according to the experts. The female bites and swallows blood in order to obtain protein from the blood and to aid in the development of their eggs. They also require a greater amount of blood than mosquitoes. Our team at Kidadl has worked hard to compile a large number of intriguing animal facts that are suitable for the whole family to enjoy. Learn more about some more arthropods by visiting our tan jumping spider facts and pirate spider facts sites, which provide further information.
|Common Name||Horse Fly|
|Scientific Name||Tabanus sp.(Diptera: Tabanidae)|
|Size||2/3 inches long|
|Colour||Yellow-white to pinkish thick, tough skin|
- Unlike honey bees, adult flies are dark and hairy, strong, and approximately 2/3-inch long, visually resembling them except for the fact that they have only one pair of wings instead of two. The horse bot fly’s wings have slight smoky patches on them, similar to those of a bat. Fully-grown larvae (maggots) are up to 2/3 inch long and have thick, tough skin that ranges from yellow-white to pinkish in color. A pair of powerful, hook-like mouthparts are present on one end (the rear) and a blunt end (the front) on the other (the front). A ring of strongspines surrounds each segment of the body. Several additional species of bot flies are seen on horses, including the chin flyorthroat bot fly, Gasterophilus nasalis(Linnaeus), and the lipornose bot fly, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis(Linnaeus) and the lipornose bot fly, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis(Linnaeus). Horse flies are distinguished in part by the form of their eggs
- They eat by sucking blood and may produce a painful and severe bite if they bite the victim. These flying pests are closely related to Deer flies in both appearance and behavior. Horse flies are similar in appearance to Deer flies, but are slightly bigger in size. A dark pattern can be seen on the wings of this fly, and its body can be either brown or black in color. The female of the species feeds on animal blood, while the male of the species is a pollen collector. Horse flies lay their eggs in marshy places near bays, lakes, ponds, and swamps, where they hatch into adult flies. These flies have larvae that feed on insects and may be seen growing in wetlands
- The female of the species feeds on animal blood, while the male of the species is a pollen collector. Horse flies lay their eggs in marshy places near bays, lakes, ponds, and swamps, where they hatch into adult flies. Insect-eating larvae of this fly can be seen growing in wetlands where they feed on insects.
- The majority of horse flies and deer flies may be found in brushy or low-lying pasture regions near creeks, streams, or tanks that offer enough moisture for the development of the juvenile stages. Magnagogues have mouth hooks that tear tissue in the digestive systems
- Adults do not have mouthparts that are capable of tearing tissue. Horses, mules, and donkeys are the most common hosts. In their attempt to lay eggs on hostanimals, adult female flies force horses to run and defend themselves against fly “attacks” (hovering, buzzing, and hitting), which can result in harm in some cases. Larvae dwell in the digestive tract, where they cause damage to the tongue, lips, stomach lining, and intestines, among other things. Apparently, they get their energy from the inflammatory chemicals released by the host in response to their presence. Infestations result in mechanical harm to the host animal as well as an infected ulcerous condition that causes the host animal to starve.
- This species’ larvae grow in the digestive systems of host animals throughout the winter months. Host excrement is contaminated with full-grown larvae that are discovered in the late winter and early spring months. Once they have reached this stage (instar), they burrow into the earth and construct a puparium out of the larval skin from their previous stage. It takes 3 to 10 weeks for them to develop into adult flies within the puparium
- Adults are active from mid-summer until the end of the summer season. Female horses glue eggs to their coats, notably the coats of their front legs, but also the coats of their belly, shoulders, and rear legs, according to adult females. Depending on the appropriate stimulation (moisture, heat, and friction) provided by the horse licking or chewing egg-infested hair, eggs can hatch in 10 to 140 days. The larvae of the first stage (instar) enter the mouth and burrow into the tongue for around 28 days before molting and traveling to the stomach, where they remain for 9 to 10 months, growing into the third stage after approximately 5 weeks of development. Every year, there is a new generation.
- In addition, they are major vectors of illnesses such as leucocytozoa and turkey sickness.
- Adult horse fly and deer fly larvae are very ferocious biters. They cause animals to lose weight and have the potential to spread illnesses such as anaplasmosis, anthrax, and others.
- Because of the nature of this fly, it is hard to completely remove it by spraying operations. The Advantage Fly Trap is the only trap that has had any success with biting flies (such as the Horse fly and the Stable fly). However, the success has been limited in the past. In certain circumstances, the revolutionary technology of this product allows us to attract and trap blood-sucking flies for the first time, which is a first in the industry. Yet, the results vary depending on the species and location
- However, this trap may capture a wide variety of flies. If Horse Flies are discovered within a building, make sure that all probable access routes have been removed. They will not be discovered reproducing indoors in the same way that a house fly would be. The most effective method of controlling flies is to eliminate all available breeding grounds and food sources. As evidenced by the horse fly’s biology, this form of fly control is nearly impossible with this particular species.
Facts About Horse Flies
Horse flies (Tabanidae) are huge, aggressive insects that fly quite quickly. They are also highly spry flyers. Horse flies are among the biggest of all fly species, and there are around 3,000 different species of Horse flies in the globe. Females attack people and other animals (particularly horses and other livestock) in the hopes of obtaining blood meals for their young. Horse flies and Bot flies are referred to as “gadflies” in some circles. Horse flies might be a nuisance, but remember that you are not alone in feeling this way.
They were also a source of concern for the Vikings.
Continue reading for the most crucial facts about horse flies, as well as information on how to put preventative measures in place to keep you and your family safe from horse flies.
What Do Horse Flies Look Like?
Horse flies are available in a variety of colors ranging from yellowish-brown to dark grey to blackish in appearance, and they normally reach 3/4″ to 1.25″ in length. Their heads are disproportionately large in comparison to the rest of their bodies, and they are hairy all over, giving them a passing similarity to honey bees in appearance. They have just one set of wings, like all other genuine flies of theDipteraorder, which are delicately colored and covered with wispy dots, much like all other true flies of theDipteraorder.
Horse Flies vs. Deer Flies
Horse flies are frequently mistaken with Deer flies, which are also known to attack humans on a regular basis. Horse flies and Deer flies both have vividly colored eyes, however Deer flies are somewhat smaller than Horse flies. They are distinguished by the black stripes that run across their wings.
Where doHorse FliesCome From?
Aside from the polar extremes and few islands, such as Hawaii, horse flies may be found almost wherever on the planet, including the tropics. These fly prefer warm, wet environments where they may reproduce, although they can be found in a broad range of habitats, including deserts and alpine meadows, depending on the species. Horse flies are strictly outside creatures, and they do not feed or seek shelter indoors unless it is necessary.
You may come across one who has mistakenly walked inside your home through an open window or door, in which case a flyswatter or a dependable indoor and outdoor fly spray will make fast work of it.
Horse Fly Habits
Most of the time, these flies may be found in valley meadows near creeks and streams, where they enjoy higher temperatures and more moisture, as well as regions where cattle and people can be located outside. Horse flies are not simply attracted to the open air (especially near pools of water, like mosquitoes). They also love bright sunshine and are most common throughout the summer months, and they seek to avoid dark, shaded regions when possible. Horse flies do not emerge from their lairs at night.
Females are the only ones who bite, as they have powerful, incisor-like mouthparts, whereas males have weak mouthparts, as shown in the photo.
During their development, horse fly larvae live in aquatic or semi-aquatic settings, where they prey on other smaller organisms.
What AttractsHorse Flies?
Female Horse flies can identify humans and animals by their colors and motions, and they are drawn to bright items, warmth, perspiration, and carbon dioxide emitted by humans and animals, among other things.
Can Horse Flies Bite?
Female horse fly bites are extremely painful, but what’s worse is that these insects have the ability to transmit germs and blood pollutants from one host to another. They have the potential to make animals and people severely ill, and in unsheltered cattle, they can even cause growth rates and milk supply to be lowered. If the person or animal who has been bitten has an allergy, the consequences are more severe. Blood-stained horse fly bites on people can cause rashes, dizziness, weakness, and wheezing, as well as other symptoms such as headaches and fatigue.
Likewise, scratching will exacerbate the itching and other side effects of mosquito bites.
Will Horse Flies Bite Your Dogs?
The scissor-like mouth of the female Horse fly can inflict painful bites not only on humans, but also on your dog. Even though the effects and minor irritation are only short-lived, your dog is still at risk for the same danger that comes with all biting pests: the spread of bacteria and other blood contaminants from the female Horse fly’s saliva. In addition to the belly, legs, and neck, larger dog breeds are the most prone to Horse fly attacks. The most common regions where dogs get attacked are the legs, abdomen, and neck.
TheHorse FlyLife Cycle
Female Horse flies deposit their eggs under gravel or plants in close proximity to a water source, but they do not need to be close to it. When the eggs hatch, the pale, spindly larvae crawl into a nearby body of water or moist soil, where they feed on tiny insects and even reptiles for the rest of their lives. When the horse fly larval stage is complete, it can continue up to a year, at which point the larvae burrow themselves into the earth in order to pupate.
Horse flies mature after one to two weeks as pupae and another three to ten weeks as developing adults before emerging as fully fledged adults. Adults have a lifespan ranging from 30 to 60 days.
Helping Prevent a Horse Fly Problem Outdoors
Horse fly problems in suburban regions are less prevalent than in less-populated, rural locations, where there may be grassy, open fields and cattle in the vicinity. Ideally, pest control chemicals should not be utilized until all other options have been exhausted and the Horse fly problem has not been resolved. Citronella candles and ultraviolet bug zappers are two common cures for flies and other flying insects when used outdoors. Horse flies are not drawn to rubbish or animal corpses, but keeping your yard as clean of standing water as possible will help to keep them to a minimum (as well as mosquitoes, which are also attracted to standing water!)
Fly Killer Treatments
Products for Pest Control For spot-treatment of Horse flies, use a plant oil-based indoor fly killer such as Maggie’s Farm Home Bug Spray or Maggie’s Farm Flying Insect Killer, which are both highly effective. Plants despise flies and other insects just as much as you do, and the natural oils they create to defend themselves are incredibly powerful in killing and repelling insects of all kinds. If you want excellent personal protection against flies (and mosquitoes), use Maggie’s Farm Natural Insect Repellent, which is made from plant oils.
Always read and carefully follow the recommendations on the label of any pest control product, including those for storage and disposal.
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How to Identify a Horsefly Bite and What to Do Next
There’s a good chance you’ve been bitten by a horsefly more than once in your life. If you’re not familiar with this venomous bug, it’s a huge, black fly that may be rather annoying. Generally speaking, you can tell it apart by its size. In comparison to the typical fly, a horsefly may grow to be as long as 1 inch (2.54 cm), making it significantly bigger than the usual fly. Continue reading to learn what you should do if you get bitten by a horsefly. If you’ve ever been bitten by a horsefly, you understand how painful it can be.
The mandible is the insect’s jaw in its most basic form.
The horsefly’s mandible is additionally equipped with tiny hooks that aid in the horsefly’s ability to latch in and feed more effectively. Once the horsefly has been trapped, it begins to feed on the blood that has leaked from the skin. This bite has the potential to cause:
- The biting location may be bruised in certain circumstances, and there may be an itching and inflammation surrounding the bite region.
Aside from the temporary discomfort they cause, horsefly bites are not considered to be hazardous to people in general. Horses are generally the only ones who suffer from these bites. This is due to the fact that horseflies are known to transmit equine infectious anemia, often known as swamp fever. When they bite an equestrian animal, they have the potential to spread this potentially fatal illness. If a horse becomes infected with the virus, it may endure fever, hemorrhaging, and overall sickness.
- Horseflies may be found all across North America, including Alaska.
- Some localities, particularly during the summer months, are plagued with horseflies, which are virtually inescapable in some areas.
- They prey on big creatures such as people, dogs, and, of course, horses, among other things.
- They’re also drawn to carbon dioxide, which makes sense.
- If you’ve ever had the impression that a horsefly was out for vengeance, you could be correct.
- If their first bite does not provide them with the gratifying feast they were looking for, they have been known to pursue after their prey for a brief period of time.
- The upper half of a horsefly is white, and it is usually distinguished by a few vertical black lines running vertically across it.
Using over-the-counter antiseptic spray or ointment, wipe the bite site and apply it to help keep the wound clean while also decreasing inflammation and itching The majority of the time, a horsefly bite will heal on its own within a few days.
Consult your doctor if you have any unexpected symptoms.
If you are having trouble breathing, have a rash that is spreading, or are experiencing increased discomfort, get medical treatment.
In the majority of cases, you will not suffer any negative side effects.
They will be able to analyze your bite and identify any necessary future actions.
Apply insect repellent before stepping outside to avoid being bitten by horseflies in the future. Wearing light-colored clothes is preferable if at all feasible. Horseflies are drawn to darker hues, therefore using a darker color may help keep them away from your home.
Horsefly bites: How to tell if you’ve been bitten and how to treat bites
Sandra Standbridge is a woman who works as a standbridge. Stock Photographs in the Gallery Equine flies, which are often large and agile in flight, are known to be a nuisance to horses and other mammals. The bloodsucking insects, which can be found in large numbers in the countryside near livestock, can bite both animals and humans. What does a horsefly look like, you may be wondering. Everything you need to know about horsefly bites, from how they appear to what you should do if you are bitten, is covered in this comprehensive guide.
What does a horsefly bite look like?
A horsefly bite may be extremely painful, with the skin typically becoming red, itchy, and elevated as a result of the bite. It is possible to develop a raised rash (also known as hives or urticaria) and, in some circumstances, disorientation as a result of the bite. If you’ve been bitten by a horsefly, you’ll notice the bite very immediately since horsefly bites can grow into huge, red, itchy, and swollen lumps within minutes. ANGHIGetty Images ANGHIGetty Images
How do you treat a horsefly bite?
If you have been bitten by a horsefly, you should wipe the bite as soon as possible using an antiseptic spray to reduce inflammation and itching. However, if the bite becomes worse, you should visit your local doctor. If the bite becomes worse, you should seek medical attention immediately. “Keep an eye out for symptoms of infection, such as abundant pus or a bad odor emanating from the wound site. If you are experiencing any unexpected symptoms, you should visit your doctor right away “tell me about healthline “Certain bug bites have the potential to produce more serious complications.
What time of year do horse flies bite?
Horse flies are attracted to moist places and hot weather. During the summer months, you’ll most often find them in pasturelands near creeks, moist forests, and tall grasses, among other locations. In accordance with the Northumberland Wildlife Trust, the horsefly season is most active between the months of May and September. Peter Swan is a well-known figure in the world of sports. Photographs courtesy of Getty Images
Why are horsefly bites so painful?
Horseflies, also known as clegs, have razor-sharp fangs that cut into the skin rather than penetrating it, which makes them a serious nuisance. Horseflies, in contrast to mosquitoes, do not emit a moderate anaesthetic when they bite, which is one of the reasons their bites are so painful. Once the horsefly has secured itself to your skin, it will begin sucking your blood, resulting in a strong burning sensation on your skin. This will, in the majority of cases, result in itching, irritation, and swelling in the vicinity of the bite.
Can you be allergic to horsefly bites?
Although it’s rare to develop a severe allergy to horsefly bites, there are some additional symptoms to look out for, including dizziness, wheezing, and swollen skin around the eyes and mouth. If you are unsure about anything, always seek medical advice. Like what you’ve read so far?
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Horsefly bites: Identification and treatment
Horseflies are a species of flying insect, and their bites may be quite painful if they are not treated immediately. Horsefly bites can cause severe allergic reactions in some persons in rare instances. Horseflies can be tough to avoid when outside in the summer, but dealing with their bites is typically straightforward. Horsefly bites can be more painful than bites from other insects because of the way horseflies cause damage to the skin. This page discusses the most successful method of treating horsefly bites, how to detect them, and how to avoid being bitten by them in the first place.
The most important precaution to take when treating horsefly bites is to be on the lookout for infection.
If a horsefly bite becomes infected, it is recommended that you see a doctor.
If you have a horsefly bite, you should take the following steps at home:
- The wound should not be scratched because doing so would likely make it worse and raise the risk of infection
- Soap and simple warm water are used to clean the bitten flesh, and a clean cloth or cotton wool is used to do so. Using a cold compress or ice pack applied to the bite for 10 minutes to relieve pain and reduce swelling
- Refraining from using any additional therapies other than simple water and soap
Both vinegar and baking soda are unlikely to be of assistance. When a horsefly bites a person, no mouthpart or stinger will be left behind by the insect.
When to call a doctor
Unless an infection develops in the wound, the individual will not require medical treatment. A medical emergency should be called in the uncommon occurrence of a severe allergy that occurs shortly after a bite. When compared to other bug bites, horsefly bites are exceptionally painful and take a long time to recover. As a result of the technique through which the flies bite, they produce irritation. Horsefly bites are characterized by the following symptoms:
- A cut, rather than a little puncture hole, has been made. When the horsefly bites, its mouthparts cut a wound in the skin in a scissor-like motion. After cutting through the skin, the fly “mops up” the blood with its mouthparts. The fly uses little hooks along its mouthparts to fix itself to the skin while it is sucking blood from the victim
- This is how it survives.
The bite in the skin itself is generally red and surrounded by a raised region of skin, known as a weal or hive, which is a sign of an infection. Horsefly bites can be distinguished by their discomfort, redness, and swelling. People should be on the lookout for signs of spreading redness of the skin, as well as the appearance of pus or other discharge emanating from the wound site. Pain and swelling that worsen over time might potentially be signs of an infection.
If a bite becomes infected, it normally does not happen right away, but rather takes at least a day or two to develop. Horseflies are not often considered to be dangerous to people. With the exception of swampfever, which may be lethal in horses, they do not transmit any diseases.
Symptoms of serious horsefly reactions
Although a severe allergy to horsefly bites is uncommon, it might manifest itself in the form of other symptoms such as:
- Momentarily enlarged skin, particularly around the eyes and lips
- And other symptoms.
Anaphylaxis, a more severe allergic response, is an uncommon but life-threatening emergency. People should call for an ambulance if they see any of the following symptoms of anaphylaxis:
- Swelling of the tongue and neck
- Swelling of the cheeks, lips, hands, or feet distant from the location of the bite
- Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
- And other symptoms. suffering from severe nausea and vomiting
- Having trouble eating or breathing
People who have a severe allergy to horseflies have almost always been bitten by a horsefly at some point in their lives. The immune system then adjusts to protect the individual from future bites, but the individual becomes oversensitive to future bites as a result of the adaptation. People with severe allergies may need to carry an emergency epinephrine injection with them at all times in case they experience a biting response in the future. A horsefly is a flying insect that is most commonly seen in rural and farming environments, where it preys on big animals such as cattle.
- Additionally, they may be found in metropolitan areas near breeding places with plenty of water, such as a lake.
- Horseflies are need to bite large animals, such as horses, cattle, dogs, and people, as part of their life cycle in order to reproduce.
- Females must consume blood in order to maintain egg production.
- They are capable of sucking in around 200 milligrams (mg) of blood in a matter of minutes.
- The horsefly has been specifically bred to drink as much blood as possible in order to survive.
- Historically, horseflies have been employed in traditional Chinese medicine for their anti-clotting properties.
- When hot weather is accompanied by thunder, they can become much more of a nuisance.
What do horseflies look like?
Horseflies have the following physical characteristics:
- They are substantial in size. Their colour is dark, and they have striped chests and black bellies to distinguish them from other animals. Their eyes are huge and complex in shape.
Horseflies are tough to avoid during the summer months due to the large number of habitats they have. There are certain practical precautions that a person may take, however, to lessen the likelihood of being bitten by a horsefly:
- Shoes, long trousers, and long-sleeved blouses of a light hue should be worn to keep skin protected. Avoid going across tall grass. Use caution while using fragrant cosmetic items since they may attract insects. Keeping away from bodies of water during the summer months, where horseflies breed
- Horsefly bites are unlikely to be prevented by using insect repellent, while it may be beneficial against mosquitoes, which may be present in the same places as the horseflies. Diethyltoluamide (DEET) is found in high concentrations in the most efficient repellents.
Horse Fly, Deer Fly
Tabanus sp. (Diptera: Tabanidae), an adult female horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae). Drees captured this image. Horse fly and deer fly are two common names for this insect. Variables in terms of scientific name Order:Diptera Description: Horse and deer flies are among the more than 100 species of insects that have been identified in Texas. The eyes of living specimens are frequently decorated with iridescent and metallic color patterns that are quite stunning. There are 33 species of deer flies (Chrysopsspp.) that range in length from 1/4 to 1/12 inch and are black to brown in appearance, with yellowish patterns on their wings.
- Horse flies (Tabanus, 52 species, and other genera) range in length from 3/8 to just over 1 inch and are distinguished by their colour, which varies from species to species.
- Horse and deer flies are among the insects that can be mistaken with a few others.
- While the stable fly,Stomoxys calcitrans(Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), appears to be very similar to the house fly in appearance, its mouthparts (proboscis) extend bayonet-like forward from behind the head, making it another frequent biting fly.
- (Diptera: Tabanidae), mature female.
- The Life Cycle of a Product: Winter is spent as half developed larvae that pupate in the spring and emerge as adults in the late spring and summer, depending on the species and the time of year.
- Eggs are placed in large clusters that color to brown or black before the larvae hatch and fall to the ground or into water, indicating that the eggs are fertilized.
- For the majority of organisms, one generation occurs each year.
Adult female mouthparts are adapted for piercing and sucking blood, whilst larval mouthparts are designed for eating or ripping.
Males are nectar feeders, and they tend to hang about during various times of the day, probably in an effort to attract females and establish a territorial claim on the flowers.
Larvae live in environments that are peculiar to each species, while the majority of them are aquatic, semi-aquatic, or terrestrial in nature.
It is possible to gather adult horse and deer flies by hanging an insect net over one’s head while strolling through an infested location, such as a forest route, near marshy areas, on the beach or other bodies of water at the appropriate time of year.
Larvae can be gathered near water’s edge by sifting dirt and washing plant roots in a screen-bottomed pail or box, which can then be placed in a warm, dark place.
You may also contact your local Texas A M AgriLife Extension Service agent or look for other state Extension offices for further information. GoodwinDrees 1996; JamesHarwood 1969 are examples of literature.
deer flies, yellow flies and horse flies
Pests of cattle, horses, and people are found in the Tabanidae family, which includes horse flies and deer flies amongst other names. There are 35 Tabanidae species in Florida, all of which are regarded to be economically significant. Horse flies are classified as belonging to the genusTabanus, whereas deer flies are classified as belonging to the genusChrysops. The yellow fly, Diachlorus ferrugatus(Fabricius), is a vicious biter in Florida, and it is recognized as such. It is the female fly, just as it is with mosquitoes, that is responsible for delivering a bite.
During the hot summer and early fall months, tabanids are most likely to be encountered.
Figure 1 shows an example of a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formal An adult female deer fly, Chrysopscincticornis, is shown laying eggs on a deer carcass.
Jerry Butler of the University of Florida took this photograph.
Distribution(Back to Top)
Horse flies and deer flies are found all throughout the planet, including Antarctica. They have not been recorded in Hawaii, Greenland, or Iceland, on the other hand. Because of the abundance of appropriate habitat in Florida, the state of Florida is home to a huge population of tabanids in the United States. Florida’s moderate temperature, as well as its extensive perennially wet and undeveloped regions, make it an excellent breeding ground.
Description(Back to Top)
Eggs:Eggs are deposited in large groups ranging from 100 to 1000 eggs per group. Overhanging foliage, protruding rocks, sticks, and aquatic vegetation are all good places to lay eggs since they provide a vertical surface for them to nestle in. It is preferable to have aquatic vegetation. Eggs are frequently covered with a glossy or chalky secretion that assists in water protection. The vertical surfaces on which the eggs are placed are always immediately above water or moist ground, which is ideal for the larvae’s growth and development.
- Eggs are originally a creamy white tint, but they quickly darken to gray and even black as they mature.
- Eggs hatch in five to seven days, depending on the meteorological conditions at the time, and the larvae fall to the wet soil and water beneath the surface of the ground.
- Jerry Butler of the University of Florida took this photograph.
- Typical egg-laying environment for biting flies, as seen in Figure 3.
- Larvae: Larvae utilize a hatching spine to break out from the egg casing and begin their life.
- In addition, Tabanusspp.
Many species have black bands around each segment of their bodies, and this is true for most of them.
The larva has a tiny head and 11 to 12 extra segments in addition to its main body.
When in the larval stage, the length of time can range from a few months to more than a year.
Tabanus species eat on insect larvae, crustaceans, and earthworms, among other things.
are known to be carnivorous, and there have been reports of as many as 120 larvae per square yard, despite the fact that they are considered cannibalistic.
The pupal stage is attained within two days after the creature’s arrival to the surface.
Pupae: The pupae are brown in color, rounded on the anterior side and tapering on the posterior side, and contain leg and wing casings that are linked to their bodies.
This structure is composed of six pointed projections at the apex of the abdomen, which is referred to as a pupal “aster.” It is common for the pupal stage to endure between two and three weeks.
Adult: The adult fly emerges from the pupal case through a slit that runs down the thorax of the case, allowing it to feed on its prey.
The flies mate once both sexes have emerged from their eggs.
The mating process begins in the air and is finished on the ground.
Tabanidae are huge flies with wide bodies and protruding eyes that are seen in vast numbers in the wild.
The antennas are divided into three sections.
Horse flies are between 10 and 25 mm in length, whereas deer flies are between 7 and 10 mm in length.
Yellow flies are yellowish in color with the same body form as deer flies, but they have dark purple to black eyes that are characterized with fluorescent green lines.
Horse flies have emerald or black eyes and are black to dark brown in color.
The adult female deer fly, Chrysops pikeiWhitney, is seen in Figure 6.
Jerry Butler of the University of Florida took this photograph. The adult horse fly (Tabanussp.) is seen in Figure 8. James Castner of the University of Florida took this photograph.
Life Cycle(Back to Top)
It is during the months of May and September that adult tabanids are most commonly observed in Florida. The majority of species overwinter in the larval stage and pupate in the spring and early summer months. It has been discovered as early as May 5th and as late as October 13th with an egg mass. The majority of species have a one-year life cycle, however some bigger species can live for two or three years. Adults have a life expectancy of 30 to 60 days.
Damage(Back to Top)
Tabanids lurk in wait in shaded regions behind shrubs and trees, hoping that a passing host may come along. The most important technique for locating hosts is sight, but carbon dioxide and odor are also important. Moving objects, especially those that are dark in color, are the most vulnerable to assault. During daytime hours, attacks are more common, with the peak occurring around dawn and lasting three hours. It reaches its highest point two hours before sunset and begins immediately afterward.
- Animals are bitten in the belly, legs, and neck, among other places.
- It seems as though the mandibles and maxillae are cutting the skin with a scissor-like movement.
- Disease-carrying flies that are disturbed while feeding on one animal and then move on to another can spread pathogens.
- The assault of flies on livestock animals results in decreased gains and decreased milk output.
- Tabanids caused significant weight loss on one cow ranch in Kentucky, with each animal losing an average of 100 lbs.
- A group of twenty to thirty flies that have been feeding for six hours are capable of sucking up 100 cc.
Biological Control(Back to Top)
There are no efficient biological control initiatives for tabanids in place at the present time. There are natural beneficial insects that are attracted to tabanids and prey on them. Trichogrammatidae, Scelionidae, and Chalcididae are only a few of the Hymenoptera families that prey on egg parasites. The parasitic families Diapriidae and Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Bombyliidae and Tachinidae (Diptera) prey on the larvae and pupa of these insects. Tabanid adults are utilized as food by wasps that are constructing nests in their colonies.
Management(Back to Top)
At the moment, there are no effective tools for regulating population growth. Traps can be successful in limited areas, such as yards, camping grounds, and swimming pools, when used properly. The trapping of nuisanceflies on the Atlantic coast of the United States has resulted in a reduction in their population. Traps have shown to be efficient when utilized around cattle that are kept in controllable enclosures or locations. Some of the traps are made of black and glossy balls. The flies are drawn to these things because the wind is blowing them around.
The majority of the time, these traps are beneficial for sampling.
Pour-on pyrethroid repellents for animals have a restricted range of effectiveness.
Control has been achieved with the use of ear tags and head collars treated with pesticides.
For further details, please seeTrollingDeer Fly Trap.
Jason Squitier of the University of Florida took this photograph.
Photograph by Andy Rasmussen in the state of Florida A MUniversity is a master’s level institution.
Jason Squitier of the University of Florida took this photograph.
Photograph courtesy of R.F.Mizell, University of Florida Photographic Collection Some large-scale strategies, such as the modification of the environment, have been proposed as solutions.
There is a broad consensus that the usage of pesticides is not economically feasible.
Spraying for the grownups is equally useless in this situation. Use of a repellent on exposed skin and clothes before being exposed to adults can provide individual protection from adult bites. Biting flies are included in the Florida Insect Management Guide.
Selected References(Back to Top)
- J.F. Anderson, 1973. The behavior of saltmarsh deer flies when they bite (Diptera: Tabanidae). Burnet A.M. and Hays K.L. 1974, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 66: 21-23
- Burnet A.M. and Hays K.L. 1974. Some of the effects of meteorological conditions on the flying activity of female horse flies have been observed (Diptera: Tabanidae). Borror DJ, Triplehorn CA, Johnson NF.1992. Environmental Entomology3: 515-521
- Borror DJ, Triplehorn CA, Johnson NF.1992. Insects: An Introduction to the Study of Insects Sanders College Publishing is based in Fort Worth, Texas. Catts EP, Olkowski W. 1972
- 512 pages
- Catts EP, Olkowski W. Chrysops fulginosus exhibits mating and feeding behavior typical of the Tabanide (Diptera) family. The Journal of Environmental Entomology1: 448-453
- Curran, CH 1934. The Diptera of North America are classified into families and genera. Essig EO.1958, American Museum of Natural History, New York, pp. 148-149
- American Museum of Natural History, New York, pages. 148-149. Western North American Insects and Mites is a book on insects and mites. It was published by The Macmillan Company in New York in 1973 and has 1050 pages
- Fairchild GB and Weems JrHV wrote the foreword. Doachlorus ferrugatus (Fabricius) is a vicious biting fly with a venomous bite (Diptera: Tabanidae). In 1973, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Division of Plant Industry Entomology published Circular 139
- Foster CA, Renuad GD, and Hays KL published a paper on the subject. Environmental influences on Chrysops oviposition have been observed (Diptera: Tabanidae). English translation: Environmental Entomology2: 1048-1050
- French FE, Kline DL, 1989. 1-octen-3-ol, a trap attractant for the Tabanidae that is highly successful (Diptera). French FE, Hagan DL. 1995. Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 459-461. Two-tier box trap catches Chrysops atlanticus and Chrysops fuliginosus (Diptera: Tabanidae) in a salt marsh near Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Hansens EJ, Robinson JW. 1973. Journal of Medical Entomology 32: 197-200
- Hansens EJ, Robinson JW. 1973. The emergence and migration of saltmarsh deer flies are observed. Chrysops fluginosus and Chrysops atlanticus are two species of Chrysops. Harwood RF, James MT.1979. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 66, no. 12, pages 1215-1218. The Application of Entomology in Human and Animal Health 548 pages
- Herms WB.1961. New York: Macmillian Publishing Company
- Herms WB.1961. Medical Entomology is a branch of science that studies insects in their natural environment. The Macmillian Company is based in New York. Jones, C.M., and Anthony, D.W., 1964, 582 pages. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Florida are a family of insects. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 1295: 1-85
- Logothetis C, Schwardt HH.1948. The horse flies of New York have been the subject of biological investigations. Mckeever S, French FE. 1997. Journal of Economic Entomology 41: 335-336
- Mckeever S, French FE. Blood suckers that are fascinating and lovely. 217-225
- Mizell RF, American Entomologist 43: 217-225. (December 1998). The trolling deer fly trap is a type of deer fly trap that is used to attract deer. Pest Alert from the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS)
- Pechuman LL.1973. Horse flies and deer flies are prevalent throughout Virginia (Diptera: Tabanidae). Riley WA, Johannsen OA. 1938. Virginia Research Division Bulletin 81: 1-9. Riley WA, Johannsen OA. 1938. Medical Entomology is a branch of science that studies insects in their natural environment. Tashiro, H., and Schwart, H.H. (1949). Biology of the primary species of horse flies in central New York. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 483 pages. Tashiro, H., and Schwart, H. (1949). s
- Wall R, Shearer D. 1997. Journal of Economic Entomology 42: 269-272. s
- Wall R, Shearer D. 1997. Veterinary Entomology is the study of insects in animals. 439 pages
- Chapman & Hall, New York
- Wilson, B.H. 1968. The use of sticky traps baited with dry ice to control Tabanid populations on cattle has been successful. Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 827-829.