The typical dose of penicillin for a horse is 3cc (3mL) of Penicillin (300,000 IU/mL) per pound, injected into the muscle 2 times a day for 7 days. A 1000lb horse would get 30cc twice a day. It is very important to give this medication in the MUSCLE ONLY.
When do you give a horse penicillin?
Penicillin Injectable is indicated for treatment of bacterial pneumonia (shipping fever) caused by Pasteurella multocida in cattle and sheep, erysipelas caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in swine, and strangles caused by Streptococcus equi in horses.
What does penicillin treat in horses?
Penicillin is the drug of choice for treatment of streptococcal infections in horses.
Can you give penicillin to a horse orally?
Penicillin V given orally was thus shown to be an acceptable alternative to parenteral administration of penicillin in the horse.
How much penicillin do you give a 1000 pound horse?
The typical dose of penicillin for a horse is 3cc (3mL) of Penicillin (300,000 IU/mL) per pound, injected into the muscle 2 times a day for 7 days. A 1000lb horse would get 30cc twice a day. It is very important to give this medication in the MUSCLE ONLY.
How many days should penicillin be taken?
To help clear up your infection completely, keep taking this medicine for the full time of treatment, even if you begin to feel better after a few days. If you have a ”strep” infection, you should keep taking this medicine for at least 10 days. This is especially important in ”strep” infections.
Where do you inject penicillin?
Penicillin G benzathine must be injected slowly and deeply into a muscle of the buttock or hip. Do not inject this medicine near or into an artery, vein, or nerve. Dangerous or fatal side effects could occur. Prepare an injection only when you are ready to give it.
Will penicillin help with strangles in horses?
The bacteria that cause strangles can be killed by certain antibiotics including penicillin but there is considerable disagreement as to, if or when antibiotic treatment should be given.
What is the best antibiotic for horses?
Antibiotics Used for Horses Oral antibiotics routinely used in adult horses (except for some EPM drugs that only kill protozoa) are doxycycline and combinations of trimethoprim and a sulfa drug. Other types of oral antibiotics carry a higher risk of causing colic, severe diarrhea, and even death.
Where is the best place to give a horse an injection?
Keeping near the base of neck helps prevent muscular soreness. To locate the appropriate injection area, put the heel of your hand on the base of the horse’s neck where it joins the shoulder, about midway between the crest and the bottom of the neck. The area covered by your palm is the injection site.
What gauge needle is used for penicillin?
Appropriate size of syringe and needle. A 20 gauge 1.5 inch needle is standard for thinner drugs, an 18 gauge needle is needed for thicker drugs such as penicillin.
What happens if you inject penicillin into a vein?
IMPORTANT WARNING: has been expanded. Penicillin G benzathine injection should never be given intravenously (into a vein) because this may cause serious or life-threatening side effects or death.
Can you give injectable penicillin orally?
Penicillin G is available in crystalline, procaine, and benzathine forms. Because it is unstable at low pH, oral administration is not possible, so the agent is administered by injection.
How long does it take for antibiotics to work in horses?
This can take about 48 hours, but it’s time well spent if it helps us choose the most effective antibiotic. Not only will your horse recover more quickly, but we won’t be contributing to resistance with a half-hearted treatment that leaves stronger organisms behind.
What can I give my horse for infection?
Metronidazole is an antibiotic that is used in horses to treat bacterial infections caused by anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that do not live in the presence of oxygen).
How Much Penicillin Can You Give a Horse?
Have you ever used Penicillin as an anti-infection agent on a cut or wound? What if I told you that you can use Penicillin to treat your horse as well? Always defer to your veterinarian’s judgment when it comes to veterinary problems, however it is safe to use Penicillin on horses as long as it is done in the proper manner and in the proper dosages! What dosage of penicillin should be given to a horse? Penicillin may be used on a wide variety of animals to treat a wide variety of ailments. What Penicillin works, who may use it, how to provide Penicillin to a horse, and most importantly, how much Penicillin is safe to administer to a horse will all be covered in this article.
What is the Purpose of Penicillin?
Perhaps you’ve heard the term “Penicillin” before, and perhaps you even have a bottle of the antibiotic in your medical cabinet at home. But do you know what Penicillin is or what it does? Do you know what it is called? Penicillin is a bactericide that is employed in the treatment of infectious diseases. Essentially, its major role is to penetrate affected regions of the skin andflesh in order to destroy bacteria that has accumulated there. Before using Penicillin, a veterinarian should examine the affected regions, however it is common for veterinarians to recommend that it be used.|
Who is Penicillin for?
Penicillin is a medication that may be used on any animal, including humans. Penicillin, on the other hand, is available in a variety of forms to treat different types of organisms. Penicillin G Procaine is intended for use in the treatment of horses, cows, pigs, and sheep in this particular instance. There are also several different types of Penicillin, each of which can be administered in a variety of ways, that are suitable for use in humans, cats, dogs, and various other animals. All of the many sorts of illnesses that penicillin may treat are found in all of the diverse branches of life that it can reach.
In a similar vein, various kinds of Penicillin require distinct methods of administration.
Penicillin is available in an injectable form for horses, which is administered with a syringe.
The incorrect use of a syringe might result in serious injury to you or your horse.
How Do You Give A Horse Penicillin?
The syringe should have a needle with a gauge of 16 or 18 and be approximately 1.5 inches in length. It should be disinfected and cleaned thoroughly before usage in order to prevent the spread of illness. In addition, they should be sterilized before usage. Using the syringe, inject the horse’s muscles at his hips, hind end, upper legs, and neck, depending on the type of injection. A syringe should never be used to inject medication into a blood vessel or within a few inches of a major nerve or nerve region.
It is important to remember that while administering Penicillin to your horse over a period of several days, each injection should be given in a different part of his body, and that no two injections should be given in exactly the same spot within the same injection period.
As a precaution, if you are unclear of how your horse will respond to injections, or you know for a fact that your horse misbehaves when injected, you should have someone there to assist keep him from moving and injuring himself and anyone around him.
How Much Penicillin Should You Give a Horse?
Finally, what is the safest amount of Penicillin to administer to your horse? Assume your veterinarian has prescribed Penicillin for your horse to treat an infected region, and you are confident in your ability to administer an injection using a syringe. So, what do you do now? Horses can get one milliliter of Penicillin for every 100 pounds of body weight, administered once per day. To put it another way, if your horse weighs around 1,000 pounds, he might receive 10.0mL of Penicillin once per day.
If your veterinarian recommends using the 1.0mL for every 100 pounds technique to get the right dosage, the dosage will, of course, be determined by the size and weight of your horse.
The weight of your horse should be able to be determined by your veterinarian just by looking at him, but it never hurts to have your horse properly weighed from time to time, just in case something like this happens.
Penicillin For Horse
Depending on the condition, horses may only require one Penicillin injection, or they may require several injections over a period of several days, a week, or even a month. Your veterinarian will be able to advise you on the appropriate length of time for your horse’s therapy. In certain circumstances, a recommended time will be followed by a return; the revisit will determine whether the prescribed duration should be extended or whether the horse has recovered sufficiently to be weaned off the Penicillin.
Penicillin offers a wide range of applications for a wide range of animals, both human and animal! The use of this medication on horses is particularly beneficial in the treatment of bacterial illnesses, albeit one must exercise caution and obtain veterinarian guidance before doing so. Penicillin can be administered to horses at a rate of up to 1.0mL per 100 pounds of body weight per horse. All of this will be determined by the size and density of each individual horse. Before administering or utilizing Penicillin on your horse, be certain that you are familiar with the procedure.
If so, please spread the word about this article and share your experiences with using Penicillin on horses with us!
PENICILLIN- penicillin g procaine injection, suspension
Directions for administration: The suspension should be supplied by deep intramuscular injection into the fleshy muscles of the hip, rump, round or thigh, or into the neck, with each injection being provided in a different location. Do not administer an injection subcutaneously, into a blood vessel, or in close proximity to a major nerve. Use a needle with a gauge of 16 or 18 and a length of 1.5 inches. Before using the needle and syringe, make sure they are completely clean. After that, the needle and syringe should be disinfected by immersing them in hot water for 15 to 20 minutes, depending on their size.
- The injection site should be cleaned with soap and water and then coated with a germicide such as tincture of iodine or 70 percent alcohol to protect it against contamination.
- Bring the vial to room temperature and thoroughly shake it to achieve uniform suspension.
- Using a piece of absorbent cotton soaked in 70 percent alcohol, wipe the rubber stopper on top of the vial.
- Inject air into the vial to make the extraction process simpler.
- After that, remove the needle from the syringe.
- Insert the needle deeply into the muscle, attach the syringe, and pull the plunger only a small distance.
- Removing the needle and inserting it into a different site is necessary if blood develops.
- Inject the dosage carefully and steadily.
- Even when the fever has returned to normal and all other indicators of infection have faded, the daily medication should be continued for at least another 48 hours.
- INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE: The recommended daily dose for cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses is 3000 units per pound of body weight, or 1 mL for every 100 pounds of body weight, administered once daily.
It is recommended that non-lactating dairy and beef cattle, sheep, and pigs be treated for no more than 7 days, and lactating dairy cattle be treated for no more than 5 days. Veterinary attention should be sought if no improvement is evident within 48 hours.
Penicillin Injectable for Animal Use
Durvet is a company. For use in cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses, the FDA approved NADA065-010 (penicillin G procaine injectable suspension) under the NADA065-010 code. This product contains an antibiotic for intramuscular injection only and contains 300,000 units per milliliter.PLEASE READ THE WHOLE BROCHURE BEFORE USING THIS PRODUCT.
Penicillin Injectable is a suspension of penicillin G procaine that is available in multiple dosage vials of 100, 250, and 500 mL. It is intended to give 300,000 units of penicillin G as procaine in a stable suspension in each milliliter of solution. In addition to being an antibacterial agent, penicillin G procaine has action against a wide range of pathogenic organisms, namely those belonging to the Gram-positive bacteria group.
Penicillin Injectable Indications
For the treatment of bacterial pneumonia (shipping fever) in cattle and sheep caused by Pasteurella multocida, for the treatment of erysipelas produced by Erythrothrix rhusiophathiain pigs, and for the treatment of strangles caused by Streptococcus equi in horses.
Directions For Use
Each injection should be administered using a needle and syringe that have been completely cleaned and sterile (needles and syringes may be sterilized in boiling water for 15 minutes). Remove the rubber cap top from the bottle and clean it with 70 percent alcohol before removing the solution from the container. The injection site should be cleansed with alcohol in a similar manner. Intramuscular injections can be performed using needles that are 16 to 18 gauge and 1 to 1.5 inches in length. A needle of appropriate gauge and length should be used in the rump, hip, or thigh region of cattle to provide intramuscular injections.
- Pulling back on the plunger gently prior to injecting the fluid is recommended.
- Penicillin Injectable is injected intramuscularly, and the recommended dosage is 1 milliliter.
- The daily dose of penicillin is 3,000 units per pound of body weight, with the maximum dose being 6,000 units (1 mL per 100 lbs body weight).
- It is recommended that treatment be limited to no more than four consecutive days.
- For each subsequent treatment, alternate the injection locations.
- When administered appropriately in the treatment of infections caused by penicillin-susceptible organisms, most animals treated with Penicillin Injectable exhibit a significant improvement within 24 to 48 hours after receiving the medication.
- It is suggested that a veterinarian be consulted for the diagnosis and treatment of any animal ailments that may arise.
It is critical to provide healthy animals with enough shelter, sanitation, and nourishment in order to keep them healthy and to treat them when they are sick.
|Residue Warnings:Exceeding the daily dosage of 3,000 units per pound of body weight, administering for more than four consecutive days, or exceeding the maximum injection site volume per injection site may result in antibiotic residues beyond the withdrawal time. Milk taken from treated dairy animals within 48 hours after the last treatment must not be used for food. Discontinue use of this drug for the following time period before treated animals are slaughtered for food:Cattle – 14 days, Sheep – 9 days, Swine – 7 days.A withdrawal period has not been established for this product in pre-ruminating calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal.|
Intramuscular injection in cattle, sheep, and swine may result in a local tissue response that lasts longer than the withdrawal time of 14 days (cattle), 9 days (sheep), or 7 days (swine), depending on the species (swine). At the time of slaughter, this may result in significant loss of edible tissue. Animals that are hypersensitive to penicillin and procaine have been known to experience allergic or anaphylactic responses, which can be life-threatening. Reactions of this nature might occur unexpectedly and with different severity.
- If an allergic or anaphylactic response occurs, cease usage of the product and contact a veterinarian immediately for assistance.
- The administration of this medication, like with all antibiotic formulations, may result in an overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, particularly fungus, as a side effect.
- In such cases, you should consult with your veterinarian.
- Call 1-866-591-5777 if you feel an unpleasant reaction has occurred.
- California has a drug that is restricted.
- BEFORE USING, MAKE SURE TO SHAKE WELL.
- Northern Ireland-based Norbrook Laboratories Limited is based in Newry.
|100 mL||30798-236-10||ISS19XB11 106215L03|
|250 mL||30798-236-13||ISS19XB11 018215L03|
|500 mL||30798-236-17||ISS19XB11 109215L04|
DURVET, INC.100 S.E. MAGELLAN DRIVE, BLUE SPRINGS, MO, 64014 (CPN: 1084312.3) DURVET, INC. Animalytix LLC retains ownership of the copyright. The most recent update was made on December 2, 2021.
McKee-Pownall Equine Services
Horses can be treated with a variety of drugs that are injected directly into their muscles. Injections offer the benefit of providing more consistent dose and absorption than oral drugs, without the greater danger and complexity associated with the intravenous route of administration. The following medications are the most often administered intravenously:
- Anti-inflammatories, tranquilizers, antibiotics, vitamins, and arthritis medications such as Adequan are all available.
There are numerous medications that are not suited for intramuscular administration owing to severe tissue irritation; thus, only provide an injection under the supervision of a veterinarian. Always follow the manufacturer’s storage guidelines and properly shake up any suspensions that may have settled out.
You will require the following supplies:
- Prescription drugs, as well as the appropriate size syringe and needle The normal needle size for thinner medications is a 20 gauge 1.5 inch needle, but an 18 gauge needle is required for thicker drugs such as penicillin. The larger needle should be used if in doubt. a person to assist in restraining the horse
Connect the needle to the syringe and pull out the appropriate amount of medication. It is possible that you may need to inject an equivalent volume of air to alleviate the vacuum created in glass bottles while using heavier medications. On a horse, there are various different regions that may be explored. The triangle of the neck right in front of the shoulder blade (Figure 1), the gluteals (rump; Figure 2), semitendinosis (hamstrings; Figure 3), pectorals (chest; Figure 4) and the triceps muscle are among the most commonly injured muscles in the body.
Beginners should begin with the neck, but should be prepared to move around to other areas if a series of injections is necessary.
Make sure the area is reasonably clean, and you may possibly wipe it with alcohol if necessary. The handler should be on the same side of the room as the person who will be injecting.
|Detach the needle from the syringe and grip the hub in your thumb and first two fingersOn the neck, firmly pinch a skin fold (Figure 5), and with the needle perpendicular to the skin, push it in straight to the hub. Practice on an orange first if you need to, it is more comfortable to the horse if you are quick and decisive when inserting the needle.On thick-skinned areas such as the rump, bump the area a few times with your fist, then “punch” the needle through to the hub (Figure 6). Attempting to insert the needle slowly usually results in a bent needle and an angry horse. If injecting the hamstrings, stand by the hip and reach across to inject the opposite side, as most horses will kick out on the needle side. Continue with the regular injection technique.|
Attach the syringe and slightly pull the plunger from the syringe. Any redness at the tip of the needle should be removed and the needle should be reinserted a few millimeters further away. When it comes to penicillin, this is especially crucial since horses might have a strong reaction if the medication gets into their system. A few drops of most other pharmaceuticals will not create a problem if they go into a tiny vessel, although you may notice a bulge at the injection site. If everything is in order, inject the medicine at a pace of around 5mls(cc) per second.
- Alternatively, if you are administering a bigger dose, provide 15 mL, draw the needle out until it is nearly out of the skin, put it back in at a different angle, check for blood, and then finish the injection.
- When you’re finished, remove the needle out of the wound and massage the area with your palm quickly.
- Horses who get several injections may have significant muscular soreness.
- If you notice a crunchy “rice crispies” feeling at the location of a prior injection, contact your veterinarian immediately.
- It is really procaine that is responsible for the great majority of “penicillin responses,” which serves as a carrier and anesthetic agent for the antibiotic.
- The presence of procaine in a blood artery results in a significant panic response.
- There is no evidence of an allergic response.
- Make sure to notify the veterinarian about the occurrence and refrain from administering any other shots.
Penicillin – HeartlandVetSupply.com
100ml Regular – Injectable – Injectable Regular – 100ml. -on backorder from the manufacturer; expected delivery in early 2022*Must ship overnight The 250ml Regular – Injectable Regular – 250ml is currently backordered from the manufacturer and will be available in early 2022. SKU: 3520. Category: Clothing. There is no need for a veterinarian’s prescription (Rx) Required Free shipping on cooler orders of $500 or more. Guaranteed Lowest Price Matching
We will ship all cooler items Next Day Air. No refunds/guarantees will be honored for orders with Express Delivery chosen.
Brands may differ from one another.
This item not available for sale or shipment to California residents.
Among the most potent bactericides available, penicillin G is used in the treatment of infections caused mostly by penicillin-sensitive organisms such as Streptococcus equiandErysipelothrix insidiosa.
It is also effective against the gram negative organismPasteurella multocida. Penicillin G Procaine is approved for the treatment of the following conditions:
- Cattle and sheep are susceptible to bacterial pneumonia (shipping fever), which is caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. The erysipelas infection in pigs is caused by the bacteriumErysipelothrix insidiousa. Strangles in horses are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus equi.
Restricted Drug (California) – Only use as directed by your doctor. It is recommended that the suspension be provided by deep intramuscular injection into the fleshy muscles of the hip, rump, round or thigh, or into the neck, with each injection being administered in a different location. Do not administer an injection subcutaneously, into a blood vessel, or in close proximity to a major nerve. Use a needle with a gauge of 16 or 18 and a length of 1.5 inches. Before using the needle and syringe, make sure they are completely clean.
- Even when the fever has returned to normal and all other indicators of infection have faded, the daily medication should be continued for at least another 48 hours.
- The recommended dose for cattle, sheep, swine, and horses is 3000 units per pound of body weight, or 1.0 mL for every 100 pounds of body weight, given once daily to the animals.
- Veterinary attention should be sought if no improvement is evident within 48 hours.
- INDICATIONS: This product is intended for the treatment of the following bacterial illnesses in beef cattle caused by penicillin-resistant microorganisms that are sensitive to the serum levels often found in this specific dosage form, including but not limited to:
- Bacterial Pneumonia (shipping fever complex) (Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus)
- Bacterial Pneumonia (shipping fever complex)
- Bacterial Pneumonia (shipping fever complex). Infections of the upper respiratory tract, such as Rhinitis or Pharyngitis (Corynebacterium pyogenes)
- Blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei)
- And other infections
- IMMEDIATE ACTION: A noticeable improvement can be observed within 24 to 48 hours. LONG-LASTING: When compared to penicillin G procaine alone, the duration of action is significantly longer. SQ ADMINISTRATION: Followed the recommendations of Beef Quality Assurance
- Authorized by the FDA.
Penicillin does not require a prescription. Because this is a cooler item, it must be shipped by EXPRESS Delivery to ensure that the product’s integrity is maintained. On Mondays through Thursdays, this item will be sent in a styrofoam cooler with ice packs (on orders placed before 2:00p.m.) Please see our Vaccine Shipping Schedule by clicking here. (Only registered customers have the ability to rate.)
Yes, I am the wife of a horse trainer, but there are a handful of things about working at the barn that I despise. One of them is in the process of connecting a trailer. The second step involves administering a penicillin injection. Penicillin is a powerful antibiotic that is frequently used in horses to treat a wide range of pathogenic organisms. I believe the reason for my aversion to these sometimes required activities is that any mistake I make while doing either of them would almost certainly result in the death of an animal.
- If I give my horse a penicillin shot that doesn’t work, it might be possibly and instantly lethal.
- Using a large-diameter needle (18 gauge) for thick solutions such as penicillin is preferable, whereas a smaller-diameter needle (20 to 21 gauge) is preferable for thin, watery solutions.
- Foals are often injected intramuscularly (IM) using a 1-inch needle.
- Procaine is a local anesthetic that is linked to other anesthetics such as lidocaine, novacaine, and cocaine, believe it or not.
- However, it is necessary to take precautions to guarantee that procaine penicillin is always given intramuscularly.
- As a result of an unintentional injection into the horse’s bloodstream, procaine travels directly to the horse’s brain, causing the animal to quiver uncontrollably and fling itself over backwards.
- In order to avoid this, after you have put the needle into the specified injection site, you must gently draw back on the syringe plunger to ensure that there is no blood in the syringe.
If there is blood on the needle, remove it and start over from the beginning.
You may safely inject the penicillin into your horse when you can draw back on the plunger without any blood oozing out of the needle.
In the event that this occurs, cease usage of the penicillin and contact a veterinarian immediately.
Sometimes it can also result in a huge restriction of the airways and the death of a person suddenly.
This is something we only utilize if our cattle require it around here.
Nonetheless, if it is, keep in mind that procaine penicillin G is a highly effective antibiotic in the treatment of wound infections, secondary bacterial infections in respiratory disorders, and a variety of other injuries or diseases.
Whenever possible, speak with your veterinarian before beginning a penicillin regimen to ensure that you understand the recommended doses, frequency of administration, and withdrawal times associated with this medication.
- Penicillin Injectable
- Penicillin Injectable
Medicinally, penicillin is used as a bactericidal to kill bacteria that cause illnesses. It is manufactured by a type of mold and is used as an antibiotic. Penicillin is one of the most regularly used antibiotics in veterinary medicine, and it is available in a variety of forms. Penicillin belongs to several distinct classes, each of which is effective against a particular type of bacterium. Bacteria are frequently divided into two groups that have been catalogued based on their reaction to staining, a process developed by a Danish physician, Hans Christian Gram, that reveals differences in biochemical and structural properties.
- Put another way, when bacteria are stained according to study protocol, Gram-positive bacteria retain their purple color because they have a strong cell wall, but Gram-negative bacteria lose their color because they have a thin cell wall, as previously stated.
- Gram-negative bacteria, often known as proteobacteria, include bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella.
- Aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin, have a broader spectrum of activity.
- Penicillins are rapidly and widely dispersed throughout the body’s organs and tissues following intramuscular or intravenous injection.
- When taken orally, they are not well absorbed by the body.
When administered in various forms, penicillin can be effective in treating an extremely broad spectrum of infectious diseases caused by a vast variety of bacterial strains. Given the number of penicillin formulations available and the range of applications for which they are used, consulting with a trained veterinarian at the first indication of infection or sickness is essential.
Dosage and Administration
|Penicillin G, procaine|
|Intramuscular injection 1||6600-16000 IU/kg||300000 IU/ml||Daily||Up to 7 days|
|Penicillin G, sodium or potassium|
|Intravenous or Intramuscular 1injection||20000 IU/kg||5000000 IU/ml||Every 6 to 8 hours||Up to 7 days|
- 1 The suspension should be supplied by deep intramuscular injection into the fleshy muscles of the hip, rump, round or thigh, or into the neck, with each injection being provided in a different location. Do not administer an injection subcutaneously, into a blood vessel, or in close proximity to a major nerve. Use a needle with a gauge of 16 or 18 and a length of 1.5 inches. Before using the needle and syringe, make sure they are completely clean. After that, the needle and syringe should be disinfected by immersing them in hot water for 15 to 20 minutes, depending on their size. The injection site should be cleaned with soap and water and then coated with a germicide such as tincture of iodine or 70 percent alcohol to protect it against contamination. Following that, the product should be given according to the following procedure: Even when the fever has returned to normal and all other indicators of infection have faded, the daily medication should be continued for at least another 48 hours. Animals treated with Penicillin Injectable Suspension should detect a significant improvement within 36 to 48 hours of receiving the medication.
- Make sure the vial is at room temperature before shaking it thoroughly to achieve a consistent suspension. Remove the rubber stopper from the top of the vial and wipe it clean with a piece of absorbent cotton soaked in 70% alcohol
- Inject air into the vial to make the extraction process simpler. Make sure that once you’ve filled the syringe with liquid, the needle is empty by pushing back the plunger of the syringe until you see a little air bubble appearing. After that, remove the needle from the syringe. To inject into the muscle, insert the needle deeply into the muscle, attach the syringe, and gently withdraw the plunger. Removing the needle and inserting it into a different site if blood occurs is recommended. Slowly inject the medication. Do not massage the area where the injection was given. It is recommended that no more than 10 mL be injected in a single site.
- Extra-label use of drugs in treating animals is allowable only by licensed veterinarians within the context of a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship, and does not include drug use in treating animals by the layman (except under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian)
- The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your equine appears to feel better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse
- This medication may be available in forms and concentrations not noted in the above table. Always check the label and literature provided with the medication about the form and concentration and DO NOT USE the calculator if the information differs
There are several formulas available. When it comes to dose and administration, consulting with a veterinarian is quite crucial.
In animals, side effects associated with penicillin use are quite infrequent.
Because of the likelihood of cross-reactivity, penicillins should not be administered to animals who have had an adverse reaction to any antibiotics in this category or to cephalosporin antibiotics, according to the manufacturer. Advice and prescription from a trained veterinarian are always valuable in deciding the best course of action for each particular animal’s circumstances. There are several types of penicillin that have been authorized by the FDA for use with horses.
Penicillins are prescription medications, and federal law in the United States restricts their usage to licensed veterinarians or those who have obtained a legitimate written or oral order from a licensed veterinarian.
The use of penicillin antibiotics in conjunction with bacteriostatic antibiotics such as erythromycin, tetracycline, or neomycin is not recommended. Rifampin’s action may be inhibited by the antibiotic ampicillin. Certain penicillins have been linked to bleeding in people after taking high dosages of the antibiotics When administered to horses, these penicillins should be continuously watched, especially if the horses are receiving oral anticoagulants or heparin.
Penicillin used in extremely high dosages or as an overdose may produce neurological symptoms. Horses with impaired renal function may be more susceptible to experiencing negative consequences than other horses.
Agri-Cillin Penicillin Injection is a penicillin antibiotic injection. Penicillin Aqueous Injection (Penicillin Aqueous Injection)
|Horses||For susceptible infections (Sodium penicillin G, potassium penicillin G)||22,000-44,000 IU/kg IV q6h, given slowly|
|For susceptible infections (Procaine penicillin G)||22,000 IU/kg IM q12h|
Penicillin G (sodium penicillin G, potassium penicillin G, procaine penicillin G); penicillin V (potassium penicillin G); penicillin V (potassium penicillin G).
A bactericidal, time-dependent -lactam antibiotic with good efficacy against numerous Gram-positive pathogens, penicillin G is ineffective against -lactamase producing Staphylococcus spp., -Streptococcus spp., or Rhodococcus equi, however. It has only a limited efficiency against bacteria belonging to the Gram-negative group. Penicillin G is broadly distributed in the plasma, however it has a low lipid solubility and does not penetrate effectively into abscesses or regions of tissue necrosis because of this.
- Streptococcus equi (strangles) and Streptococcus zooepidemicus (upper and lower respiratory infections) are among the streptococcal infections that should be treated first. Treatment of clostridial infections, such as clostridial myositis, botulism, and tetanus
- Prevention of clostridial infections. Treatment of urinary tract infections in vulnerable individuals
- As a first-line treatment for broad-spectrum infections (such as peritonitis, pleuropneumonia, cholangiohepatitis, sepsis, or endocarditis), it is effective when combined with gentamicin. If the presence of -lactamase-producing Staphylococcusspp. or Enterobacteraceae has been ruled out by culture, treatment of orthopedic infections (osteomyelitis, septic arthritis) is indicated.
- It is used to treat infections caused by the Enterobacteraceaeither suspected or proven by culture. Abscesses, for example, are inactivated when they are in contact with purulent or necrotic material. Treatment of suspected staphylococcal infections based on empirical evidence
- The efficiency of a bacteriostatic antibacterial is reduced when used in conjunction with it.
Formulations Available within the OSU Pharmacy
- Penicillin gel 5ml/syringe
- Penicillin gel 10ml/syringe
- Penicillin G Potassium 20mmu injectable suspension
- Penicillin G Procaine injectable suspension (1 ml, 30 ml, 100 ml, 250 ml)
- Penicillin gel 5ml/syringe
- Excitation, seizure-like behavior, and mortality have been reported following intravascular injection of procaine penicillin G. Procaine penicillin G should be administered intravenously exclusively. Potassium penicillin given intravenously quickly might produce head shaking/lip smacking, salivation, lacrimation, increased borborygmi, colic, agitation, and soft to liquid feces. Potassium penicillin should be administered for at least 5 minutes.
The Penicillin Predicament
Despite the fact that it is the oldest antibiotic currently in use, Penicillin has a wide range of applications today. Although antibiotic resistance is increasing, it continues to be effective against a wide range of bacteria species. To ensure that it retains its potency, we must use it with caution, just as we would with any antibiotic. It is also available in a few other veterinary formulations that have been approved for use in horses, the most common of which are the two that are most frequently used.
- Although it is safe when administered properly, it is not commonly utilized outside of a hospital or clinic environment since it has be administered straight into the vein and must be administered every 6 hours, causing one treatment to occur in the middle of the night on a single occasion.
- In addition, it is almost always used in conjunction with a second IV antibiotic in order to provide coverage for a broader range of bacteria.
- The second most often seen formulation is procaine penicillin G.
- While the ability to administer procaine penicillin G directly into the muscle is far more convenient for on-farm use, it has fallen out of favor with equine veterinarians, and it would be regarded below the standard of care if used alone to treat the vast majority of infections in the horse.
- When comparing the suggested dose on the bottle, it is possible that it is inaccurate by nearly a factor of ten each day!
- In the course of medical advancements, medications are not always relabeled with the most up-to-date dosages or recommendations for usage.
- veterinarians face less difficulties since it is permissible for them to administer medications off label in some cases, and they are able to keep up with the most recent dose guidelines and make changes as a result of new research.
Procaine penicillin G has a number of undesirable side effects, which add to the complexity of the situation.
This medicine is associated with a higher incidence of anaphylaxis or an allergic reaction than other medications, but a more significant risk is unintentional injection into a vein rather than a muscle.
In one research, five horses died as a result of an adverse response to procaine penicillin G (Aust Vet J.
Adverse reaction to procaine penicillin G in horses.
The horse’s muscles become swollen and irritated as a result of the injections, and blood vessels in the area may become dilated or enlarged as a result of the repeated injections over several days.
Horses administered procaine penicillin G should be examined for half an hour after injection as a precaution, and if any odd behavior is noted, the medicine should be stopped and a veterinarian should be contacted.
If a veterinarian had been involved in the development of Penicillin from the beginning, many of the issues I have witnessed might have been avoided.
Despite the fact that it may be tempting to cure that runny nose or wound on your own, a phone call to your local horse veterinarian is always a good idea. Do you have any more questions? Call Great Lakes Equine at 920-779-4444 to schedule a consultation.
Penicillin G Potassium – an overview
In Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, published in 2019, Douglas P.Zipes, M.D.
Viridans Group Streptococci and Streptococcus Gallolyticus
Treatment regimens differ based on the kind of valve used (native or prosthetic) and whether the streptococcal strain is penicillin sensitive or resistant to penicillin. 6 Regarding the latter issue, as previously stated, the definition of susceptibility to penicillin is based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) that are specific to the treatment of the syndrome of IE; highly penicillin-susceptiblestatus is defined as that of an isolate with a MIC of 0.12 g/mL to penicillin; and highly penicillin-resistantstatus is defined as that of an isolate with a MIC of 0.12 g/mL to penicillin.
- Patients with native valve IE who complete 4 weeks of therapy with either aqueous crystalline penicillin G sodium or ceftriaxone sodium should be microbiologically cured in 98 percent or greater of those who get the recommended treatment (Table 73.7).
- The once-day administration of ceftriaxone sodium has shown to be critical in some circumstances, allowing patients to avoid placement in nursing homes due to the need to provide many doses of antibiotics on a daily basis.
- If a patient has a history of immunoglobulin E (IgE)–mediated allergic responses and cannot take penicillin or cephalosporin treatment, vancomycin may be prescribed as an alternative medication (Table 73.7).
- This may include skin testing to ensure that beta-lactam regimens are not an option for treatment.
- In order to treat patients, a serum trough vancomycin level of 10 to 15 g/mL is necessary; however, serum peak vancomycin levels are not required.
- The combination regimen consists of either aqueous crystalline penicillin G sodium or ceftriaxone sodium + gentamicin sulfate, depending on the kind of infection (Table 73.7).
- gallolyticus strains that are extremely responsive to penicillin, you should just follow the 2-week regimen.
It is recommended that the single daily dosage of ceftriaxone be delivered immediately before or after the gentamicin dose if the ceftriaxone-containing regimen is utilized. There are currently no suggested recommendations for monitoring serum gentamicin concentrations available.
Diseases of the foal
Equine Medicine, Surgery, and Reproduction (Second Edition), by Ramiro E. Toribio and Margaret C. Mudge, published in 2012.
Potassium or sodium penicillin (22 000–44 000 IU/kg IV QID) or metronidazole (20 mg/kg PO TID–QID) can be used to treat a bacterial infection. When using medications that have the potential to increase neuromuscular blockade, extreme caution should be exercised (aminoglycosides, procaine penicillin, tetracyclines). It is possible that aminoglycosides will be required in foals with subsequent infections. Nursing and supportive care of the highest quality are required. For feeding purposes, a nasogastric tube may be inserted.
Alternatively, monovalent antitoxin is an excellent option in areas where the most prevalent kind of botulism is identified.
Read the entire chapter here: URL: (Treponema pallidum) In Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, John E.
Principles of Syphilotherapy
In spite of the fact that penicillin has been in use for more than 70 years, there is no indication that T. pallidum’s sensitivity to it has decreased. Syphilis is treated with aqueous penicillin G, which is delivered intravenously and is the recommended treatment for all kinds and stages of the disease. However, as will be mentioned further below, the formulation utilized, the dose, and the length of therapy are all dependent on the stage of the disease and the symptoms that are being treated.
- A comprehensive literature analysis of the quality of evidence for the CDC guidelines has been published by 261Clement and colleagues388, according to their findings.
- pallidum cannot be cultured, it has never been possible to assess its sensitivity to antimicrobials or to rationally construct therapy regimens using normal in vitro approaches.
- 40,389 and by evaluating the responsiveness of therapy in a rabbit model of diabetes.
- Pharmacokinetic data, animal experiments, and clinical trials have all contributed to this extrapolation.
- pallidum is intensely sensitive to penicillin, but that the determinants of cure were distinct from those reported with other penicillin-sensitive organisms.
- pallidum is a bacterium that is extremely susceptible to penicillin (e.g., streptococci).
- It was discovered that maintaining optimal blood levels of penicillin without protracted breaks was more critical than administering the complete dose of penicillin.
One of the most sensitive in terms of the smallest concentration that can be used to kill a bacterium; on the other hand, one of the most resistant in terms of the amount of time that must be spent exposed to that concentration before it is killed.” It is more likely that the bacterium’s exceptionally sluggish rate of reproduction in mammalian tissues is to blame for this anomalous dose-time relationship than because there aren’t enough targets for -lactams.
39,82,397 In light of these findings, the logic for utilizing depot formulations of penicillin G for treatment of individual patients became apparent, as did the prospect of employing depot formulations of penicillin G as the foundation of public health control initiatives.
A single intramuscular injection of 2.4 million units of BPG produces treponemicidal concentrations that can continue for up to 3 to 4 weeks after administration. 394
DVM, MS, DACVCP Mark G.Papich is a veterinarian who published in Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs (Fourth Edition) in 2016.
Penicillin G potassiumis available in 5- to 20-million-unit vials. Penicillin G benzathine is available in 150,000 units/mL and is commonly mixed with 150,000 units/mL of procaine penicillin G solution. Products containing benzathine penicillin are not recommended. Procaine penicillin G suspension is available in concentrations of 300,000 units per milliliter of solution. Penicillin is one of the few antibiotics that is still measured in units rather than weight, in milligrams or micrograms, as is the case with most other antibiotics.
As a result, one milligram of penicillin sodium equals 1667 units of penicillin.
Penicillin V is available in 250- and 500-mg tablets (250 mg is equal to 400,000 units) (250 mg is equal to 400,000 units).
Bennett, MD, is featured in the year 2020.
It is possible to get penicillin G, also known as benzylpenicillin (Fig. 20.4), in the form of salts for oral and parenteral use as well as repository salts for intramuscular injection. Given that penicillin G is unstable in acid, either penicillin V or amoxicillin should be used when administering antibiotics orally. Crystalline penicillin G in aqueous solution has been administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intravenously, and intrathecally in humans. Penicillin G is rapidly excreted from the body when administered intravenously as an aqueous solution, hence it may be preferred to provide it in a repository form.
- Each million unit of penicillin G includes 1.7 mEq of either sodium or potassium, depending on the strain.
- Penicillins from the repository are only for intramuscular usage; they cannot be administered IV or subcutaneously.
- Penicillin G procaine is a combination of procaine and penicillin G.
- A single injection site of penicillin G procaine is not doubled when the dosage of penicillin G procaine is doubled at a different injection location.
- For example, 2.4 million units of penicillin G procaine are administered in each buttock, resulting in a peak level of 2.4 million units.
- 69 This medication maintains measurable serum levels for 3 to 4 weeks, depending on the quantity of the dosage administered.
68 However, although benzathine penicillin G is the therapy of choice for syphilis, the concentrations of penicillin G in the CSF following treatment with benzathine penicillin G may be insufficient to cure neurosyphilis, and hence intravenous penicillin G is preferable. 70
The Horse, according to the InClinical Veterinary Advisor, 2012.
Acute General Treatment
Bacterial proliferation is under control. Potassium penicillin is used to treat gram-positive bacteria and certain anaerobic bacteria. It is given intravenously every 6 hours. 6.6 mg/kg IV or intramuscularly every 24 hours for gram-negative bacteria. The dose of metronidazole for anaerobic bacteria is 15 to 25 mg/kg PO every 6–12 hours. Antibiotic dosages should be modified in accordance with the findings of the culture and sensitivity test, respectively. Uterine fluids are evacuated during this procedure.
- Unsterile nasogastric tube is used to repeatedly infuse and siphon out 2 to 6 L of warm saline solution (sterile or water with 9 g of table salt/L) until the effluent is clear, then discard it.
- Dehydration and endotoxemia are treated with intravenous fluids.
- Calcium gluconate solution (125 mL of 23 percent solution) can be added to a 5-L bag of crystalloid fluid at a pace determined by the degree of dehydration.
- 7.5 mg/kg PO every 12 hours (Pentoxifylline) In the treatment of laminitis, flunixin meglumine or phenylbutazone are used as previously described.
- Extra bedding and pads should be provided for frog support.
- Read the entire chapter.
Causes and management
The treatment of hypotension should be aimed at identifying and eliminating the underlying cause (Table 21.4,Boxes 21.5-8). It has been reported that intravenous injection of water-soluble sodium or potassium penicillin in horses might result in hypotension, which has been linked to cardiac depression (Hubbell et al., 1987) or anaphylactic reaction (Olsén et al., 2007). In horses, an intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin can result in collapse and death, as well as numerous CNS symptoms such as ataxia, muscle tremors, anxiety, and nystagmus.
(2007) hypothesized that the mechanisms involved anaphylaxis producing collapse and procaine poisoning following an unintentional IV infusion during an IM injection.
Even if intravenous delivery under anesthesia is inevitable, the antibiotic must be administered in modest increments and the patient’s blood pressure must be continuously monitored for potential side effects.
Read the entire chapter. Veterinary Advisor: The Horse, 2012
Treatment with antimicrobial agents Supportive care is provided in accordance with the bodily system that has been damaged.
Acute General Treatment
Parenteral antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity are being developed awaiting culture and sensitivity testing. Depending on the age of the horse, potassium penicillin G (22,000 IU/kg IV q6h) or procaine penicillin (22,000 IU/kg IM q12h) should be used in conjunction with a suitable aminoglycoside. A large number of A. equulii isolates are sensitive to these antimicrobials. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Flunixin meglumine (0.25–0.50 mg/kg IV q6–8h) Flunixin meglumine (0.25–0.50 mg/kg IV q6–8h) As appropriate, fluid and nutritional assistance will be provided.
In accordance with the type of infection Treatment for pericardial effusion may be found under the heading “Pericarditis” in this section.
In addition to the lipopolysaccharide components of the gram-negative cell wall, A. equuli produces a variety of toxins that cause cardiovascular collapse, organ destruction, and abrupt death in humans.
Possible abortion of pasture mates, early foalings with poor foals, and other factors The state of one’s cardiovascular system Foals with sepsis should have their joints checked for bacterial infection. Read the entire chapter. URL: and Electrolyte Issues in Pediatric Critical Illness (nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm nlm_ The authors, Robert E. Lynch and Ellen G. Wood, in Pediatric Critical Care (Fourth Edition), 2011.
True Potassium Excess
Exogenous IV infusions, PO supplements, potassium-containing salt replacements, potassium penicillin, and blood transfusions are all possible treatments. Endogenous Necrosis of the tissues Burns, trauma, rhabdomyolysis, and intravascular coagulation are all possibilities. Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract Liquefaction of tumor cells Absorptive capacity of hematoma
Acute renal failure is a medical condition that occurs suddenly. Chronic renal failure is a medical condition that affects the kidneys on a long-term basis. Deficiency in the mineralocorticoid hormone Addison’s disease is a kind of kidney illness. Defects in the biosynthesis of the adrenal cortex 21-Hydroxylase deficiency is a genetic condition. Deficiency in the enzyme desmolase 3-OH-dehydrogenase deficiency is a metabolic disorder. Deficiency of the hormone aldosterone Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition that affects the body’s glucose levels.
Insufficiency of BRenal tubular secretion Pseudohypoaldosteronism Sickle cell disease is a kind of blood disorder that affects the immune system.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a kind of autoimmune disease. Allograft of the kidney Obstruction of the urinary tract Infants born with extremely low birth weight
Inhibition of Tubular Secretion
Medications such as spironolactone, triamterene, and amiloride Read the entire chapter here: URL: Cattle, sheep, and swine are all affected by transfer technology. Transgenic Animal Technology (Third Edition), by Satoshi Akagi and Akira Onishi, published in 2014.
BPreparation of Recipient Oocytes
‘Transgenic Animal Technology (Third Edition),’ by Satoshi Akagi and Akira Onishi, published in 2014.
1Collection of Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes
It is necessary to transfer the ovaries from the butcher to the laboratory in an antiseptic solution comprising 100IU/mL penicillin G potassium and 100g/mL streptomycin. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) are sucked from antral follicles ranging in size from 2–8mm in diameter using an 18-gauge needle attached to a 5-mL syringe after the ovaries have been washed with saline.
Maturation medium is composed of TCM-199 (Gibco, Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY), which has been supplemented with 10% FBS, 100IU/mL penicillin G potassium, and 100g/mL streptomycin. Afterward, the COCs are moved to each well of a four-well multidish (Nunc, Roskilde, Denmark) containing 700L maturation media (50–70 COCs per well) and containing 700L maturation medium (50–70 COCs per well). The COCs are incubated for 18–20 hours at 38.5°C under 5% CO2 in air for 18–20 hours.
3Removal of Cumulus Cells
Following IVM, COCs are put into a 15-mL conical tube (BD Falcon, Becton, DickinsonCo., Franklin Lakes, NJ) containing 700mL of M2 medium with 0.1 percent hyaluronidase (Sigma-Aldrich) and vortex-agitated for 3 minutes to remove any remaining debris. Following that, cumulus cells are gently pipetted away from the oocytes until they are totally eliminated. Read the entire chapter here: URL: