How Do Horse Breed? (Best solution)

Pasture mating, hand mating and artificial insemination are the three methods used, with variations of each. Breed registry regulations vary regarding the use of artificial insemination. Information on constructing a breeding stall is given in Figure 3. Information on constructing a teasing stall is given in Figure 4.

How do horses mate?

How do horses mate? Horses mate like many other mammals mate – through courtship, followed by the stallion (male horse) mounting a receptive mare (female horse). Mares will show signs of being in heat during her most fertile days, which are 5-7 days during the beginning of her cycle.

How does horse breeding work?

Horses can be bred by live cover which means a stallion mounts a mare to copulate just as would be done in the wild or by artificial insemination (AI) where a vet injects semen into the mare’s reproductive tract.

How do horses breed in the wild?

A mare and stallion in a herd will typically stay close to one another, repeating copulation periodically until the mare’s estrus ends. Subordinate stallions remaining in the herd may breed the younger mares, but most of the breeding is done by the boss stallion.

How do horses reproduce?

Horses reproduce by the male impregnating the female resulting in a live, single birth; the female, or mare, carries the foal for approximately 11 months. Foals are usually born in the spring with the ability to walk, stand and run. Their legs at birth are almost as long as they will be when fully grown.

How long is a horse pregnant?

Estrus (Heat) The duration of estrus is five to seven days (actually about six days ), but it can vary from two to 10 days. The first heat following foaling is referred to as foal heat. Foal heat typically occurs six to nine days after foaling, but it may be as early as five days or as late as 15 days.

Do horses mate with their offspring?

By sexual maturity, though, the young boys need to leave the herd so they won’t challenge their daddy for dominance. Moreover, the stallion’s female offspring also typically leave, since most stallions aren’t interested in breeding with their own female offspring. These youngsters typically leave by age 2.

How many times can a horse mate in a day?

How many times can a horse mate in a day? At a farm, stallions can get an erection up to 18 times a day and can mate more than 2 to 3 times. However, in the wild, a stallion can mate much more than that. Though the number of sperms will go down per breeding when many mares are in the heat on a given day.

How many babies do horses have at once?

Horses typically only have one baby at a time. According to the UC Davis Center for Equine Health, most mares will not be able to take two embryos to term, and usually abort during the later stages of the pregnancy. The twins were named Will and Grace.

How do male horses mate?

When mares are in heat, they often signal willingness to breed by engaging in a variety of “displays,” namely putting their tails up, urinating and displaying their vulvas. At this point, male horses typically indicate their intentions to breed by pushing their top lips up and smelling the female horses’ urine.

How often do horses breed?

Exposing mares to increasing periods of artificial light can get the breeding season started earlier. During the breeding season, mares ovulate regularly every 3 weeks, but they are in heat and receptive to a stallion for only 2 to 8 days.

Do horses breastfeed their babies?

Newborn foals may nurse as often as ten times an hour in their first day of life. Mares that are fed a fortified ration in the last months of pregnancy have all the nutrients they need to produce a strong, healthy foal. After giving birth, the lactating mare uses a tremendous amount of energy in milk production.

Do horses get periods?

Mares normally have 3 or 4 prolonged periods (7–14 days) of sexual receptivity during the vernal transition before the first ovulation of the breeding season occurs. Similar long periods of sexual receptivity normally occur during the autumnal transition between the breeding season and winter anestrus.

How does a baby horse feed?

A healthy mare’s milk provides all of the energy and nutrients a foal needs to support rapid, but steady, growth. Foals often nibble at grass or the mare’s rations, and they can even be seen eating the feces of adult horses.

Everything you wanted to know about horse breeding

Domestic horse breeding is a demanding, yet exhilarating, and profitable enterprise to be involved in. These creatures require a high level of care as well as suitable living circumstances. This page contains information about horse breeding procedures.

Horse selection

When it comes to horse breeding, analyzing the look of the species as well as the needed characteristics related to a certain breed are quite important. The most important instrument is a horse selecting system. Horses are assessed not only on the basis of their appearance and performance, but also on the basis of the quality of their progeny and the country of origin. Horse farms have long kept meticulous records of their lineages. In order to determine the genotype of animals, we must look at their agility, breeding, and external traits in order to do so.

Aims of selection include the improvement of existing species as well as the breeding of new ones.

Essentially, it allows you to “change the system in the appropriate way” by acquiring the necessary traits.

First and foremost, it is vital to examine horses according to their phenotype, which includes their live weight, exterior, proportions, hard effort, and characteristic traits.

There are several criteria for selecting horses:

  • Age, coat color, and lactation are all factors to consider. Other factors to consider include typicality and origin, proportions, performance, and quality of progeny.

It is recommended that, after selecting the appropriate strategy to breeding horses, the selection of species for mating take place. This is a matching of parent pairs (sire and dam) in order to produce the desired kind of progeny. It allows for the enrichment of the breed and the development of new species with unique characteristics.

The selection is based on:

  • When each mating is valid, the aim of the mating is valid
  • A stallion’s supremacy over a mare
  • Making full use of the greatest characteristics of stallions in order to produce effective matches with mares Increasing the dignity of parents in the eyes of their children

A heterogeneous selection and a homogeneous selection are separated based on the differences and similarities between the animals.

  • When beneficial traits are not properly stated, heterogeneous selection is used to choose the best candidates. By virtue of the latter’s clear existence in the second parent, they can be further enhanced. When favorable qualities are equally well developed in two species, homogeneousselection is used to choose them.

A selection of this nature is frequently made on the basis of agility. It increases the strength of hereditary inheritance, allowing for the production of high-class kids. In the case of height selection, a heterogeneous selection is more frequently applied. Both strategies are effective in increasing the exterior, agility, type, and proportions of a vehicle.

Purebred Breeding:

Purebred breeding is the most common way of conducting breeding activities. It is commonly employed while dealing with breeds such as Arabs, Thoroughbreds, Orlov Trotters, Akhal-Teke, and other similar animals. With this procedure, the most desirable breeds may be enhanced, or all of their beneficial characteristics can be kept in their current form. It is also important to distinguish between unrelated breeding (outbreeding) and related breeding (inbreeding).


Crossbreeding is the mating of various species of the same breed. It is most commonly employed in stud farms to breed new characteristics into a certain breed. Horses are frequently “crossed” to produce various species for a variety of purposes. Horses are capable of being athletic, hardworking, and productive (i.e. raised for meat, milk, and offspring). As the genetic qualities of two or three breeds are merged, it is common for new characteristics and markings to arise as a result of crossbreeding.

Several specialized farms and major stud farms are actively involved in purebred horse breeding.

Artificial insemination is becoming increasingly popular since it allows for the production of huge numbers of kids at a minimal cost.

Even the most inexperienced horse farmer may purchase the sperm of a breeding stallion and use it to inseminate his mares, resulting in progeny with the most desirable characteristics. As long as the costs of purchasing and maintaining the breeder are eliminated from the calculation.

Horse breeding

Horses often achieve puberty at the age of two, with some reaching it as early as one year. When they reach the age of three, it is advised that they mate. In the horse breeding industry, there are three types of mating methods: artificial, pasture, and herd. The artificial approach is typically used for stall housing, while the other two methods are typically used for herding and grazing.

Artificial Breeding:

Mare’s “readiness” (if she is “on”) is determined artificially in the artificial instance with a rectal examination or with the assistance of a male tester. Long leashes are used to bring the mare to the head in order to obtain a stallion sample. The horse is being restrained by the reins. If the mare rolls back its ears, frets, and tries to bite or trample, it is not yet ready to breed. When a mare is found to be sexually receptive, the mating arrangements are made. Prior to the procedure, the animals’ sexual organs are cleansed with warm water and the mare’s tail is wrapped to prevent infection.

  1. The process should be carried out in a dedicated area with a flat floor to ensure that the animals do not suffer any harm throughout the procedure.
  2. The up and down motions of the stallion’s tail indicate the ejaculation of sperm during mating.
  3. An further half-hour walk is required after insemination to ensure that the animal is healthy.
  4. Following that, the stallion must be returned to his stable.

Pasture Breeding:

Pasture breeding is utilized when a stallion should not be permitted to join a herd (for example, if the stallion is valuable or if the stallion’s health is in risk). All of the mares are herded into a pasture, and the stallion is brought over to meet them. The stallion will determine which of the mares is in season on his own and will cover the area numerous times a day until he has decided. The task is made easier by using this strategy, and the procedure of selecting a random firm is simplified.

Herd Breeding:

During the process of herd breeding, small groups of animals are generated from the total population. Every herd should have its own stallion to protect them. They are able to detect mares in season and mate with them without the need for human interference. In horse breeding, artificial insemination is used in addition to natural insemination to produce healthy foals. It provides various benefits to natural mating, including the following:

  • In order to avoid sexually transmitted infections, it is possible to inseminate animals even on confined farms. Insemination of multiple mares can be accomplished using a single stallion’s egg (the egg of desirable stallions is utilized more extensively)
  • Having the capacity to inseminate the mare from a considerable distance away from the stallion
  • Being able to produce the greatest number of offspring possible from a desirable stallion

Pregnancy and parturition

When a mare is pregnant, she is no longer in heat and will begin to refuse a stallion’s advances. During this time, the horse gets lazier, calmer, and more content with his diet. During the second trimester of pregnancy, you may notice that your belly has become rounder. If you feed the mare some cold water on an empty stomach, the right side of her body will move in a wave-like pattern. The groin slips off, the legs swell, the udder and abdomen swell, and the belly drops down just before parturition.

It is possible to detect milk on the nipples during the final weeks of pregnancy. The average length of a pregnancy is around 11 months. Colts are borne by a mare for a longer period of time than fillies.

Feeding Quality:

During this time, the nutritional content of the diet must be closely checked. Miscarriages are caused by spoiled, frozen, and other foods that promote intestinal gas production. It is recommended that the mare be fed more frequently, but in smaller quantities. Obesity is bad since it will result in a weak foal. Incorporating 67.6 ounces of wheat bran into the daily serving of cereal and topping it with 2 teaspoons of salt is beneficial. It is important that the water in the drinking bowl not be too cold.

  • During the two weeks prior to delivery, all work should be suspended, although the mare should be walked every day.
  • The pressure starts as the fetus advances towards the pelvis and a bubble emerges on the exterior of the uterine wall.
  • Horses normally give birth while laying down on their backs.
  • If it is not ripped, it should be cut off about 15 cm from the navel and cleansed and lubricated with iodine solution before being stitched up.
  • In the event that this does not occur, the veterinarian should be contacted promptly.

Dam and foal care

The dam is angry after giving birth, and she is concerned about the loudness and yelling. A draught or a sudden drop in temperature might cause the animal to get quite ill. After rubbing it with soft straw and covering it with a warm horse-cloth, it is ready to be used. The dam is fed gradually throughout the first several days. Wheat bran, excellent hay, and carrots are all terrific choices. In a week, it is permissible to switch to oats. Three days after delivery, the dam and foal can be let to go for a stroll in the pasture.

  1. After three weeks, the dam may be used for some minor construction work.
  2. It is permissible to mate nine days after birth.
  3. It is not uncommon for the foal to not respond to the wipe with a clean, soft cloth before being taken to the udder.
  4. If the stomach is not functioning properly, an enema including warm water and oil is required.
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Nursing Period:

The entire nursing time lasts between 5 and 6 months. During the first two weeks of life, the foal can be left in the mother’s stall with the mother. Afterwards, it is segregated and only permitted to feed with milk five times a day. As early as one month after being born, the foal is already beginning to feed himself from the mother’s diet, primarily hay and oats. During the second month, the hay may be provided in large quantities while still maintaining high quality. It is recommended to include oats as well.

Shallow, low bowls are utilized to feed the foal during the day. In addition to regular brushing and walking, it should also be tied up on occasion. The kids begin to molt during the third month of life, especially in warm weather, and it is recommended that they be washed.

Weaning off:

By the age of six months, the kids are being given whole oats and are being weaned from their mother’s milk gradually. Weaning is accomplished in stages. From now on, and for as long as the animals are under 1.5 years old, they should be adequately fed. In addition to being clean and bright, the stall should have enough of bedding. In addition, the hooves require attention. In the last stage, the young horses are used to working: early maturing – from one year old, trotters – from two years, and simple breeds from 2.5 years.

It is possible for your horses to grow strong and healthy if you follow all of the breeding guidelines.

Biographical information about the author: In addition to being a literary aficionado, Roy is a loving father of twins, a programmer for a bespoke software firm, editor in chief of, a voracious reader, and a gardener in his spare time.

Breeding and Reproduction of Horses – Horse Owners

The estrous, or heat, cycle begins in mares at around 18 months of age and lasts for about two weeks. In the course of the breeding season, mares go into heat on a regular basis. This generally occurs during the summer months when the days are long and ends as winter approaches. Increasing the amount of time mares are exposed to artificial light can help to kick-start the mating season earlier. During the breeding season, mares ovulate on a regular basis every three weeks, although they are only in heat and receptive to a stallion for a short period of time, ranging from two to eight days.

  • The gestation period (pregnancy) lasts 330 to 342 days, with lighter breeds having a longer gestation period (340 to 342 days) than larger breeds (330 to 342 days) (330 to 340 days).
  • Foals are able to see and stand to nurse as soon as they are born.
  • You should also coat the foal’s umbilical stump with iodine in order to prevent bacteria from entering the body and causing a potentially fatal blood infection.
  • This is crucial because the first mare’s milk, referred to as colostrum, carries antibodies that give the newborn foal with protection against illness when it is introduced to the environment.
  • Foals should also have a bowel movement within the first 2 hours or so after being born; if they do not, you will need to provide an enema to the foal to correct the problem.
  • As much as possible, the mare and her foal should be kept as calm as possible.
  • A baby foal needs to be handled for at least 15 minutes every day.
  • Being able to handle a foal from a young age will make handling an adult foal much simpler later in life.

In most cases, vaccination against equine influenza occurs when the foal is 8 to 10 months old. Your veterinarian will be able to advise you on the most appropriate vaccination program for your horse.

8 Steps for Breeding Your Mare – The Horse

Meet the sperm and the ovum. That being the case, we would not have an entire division of the veterinary profession dedicated only to the science of horse reproduction. Even in-heat mares and virulent stallions may not always result in a successful foal. In addition, if you have a collection of virgin, elderly, and/or subfertile mares in your broodmare herd, you have even more to consider and keep track of in order to have a successful breeding season. Using a methodical, step-by-step approach to managing each mare, in collaboration with your veterinary staff, can assist you in cultivating success for the following spring breeding season.

Step 1:Consider the mare’s overall health

The University of Florida’s College of Veterinary Medicine in Gainesville’s Margo Macpherson, DVM, MS, Dipl. ACT, is a professor of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and a specialist in equine reproduction. She says there is no one recipe for broodmare management and that veterinarians must evaluate each mare on an individual basis. Prior to focusing on a mare’s reproductive health, owners should take note of her general health and wellbeing. Does she look to be in good health? Is the condition of her hooves satisfactory?

  • Is it necessary for her to get a fecal egg count to check for parasites?
  • Is she in need of a dental examination?
  • ACT, a field veterinarian and reproductive specialist at the Hagyard Equine Medical Institute’s McGee Fertility Center in Lexington, Kentucky, is the mare’sHenneke body condition score, which is calculated by a computer program (BCS).
  • “I like to be able to feel ribs without being able to see ribs,” Wolfsdorf explains.
  • It is also important for her to consider the mare’s breeding history, which may include difficulties becoming pregnant, endometritis (inflammation of the uterine lining), or abortion.

Some breeding sheds, for example, Wolfsdorf explains, require specific vaccinations, such as those for rhinopneumonitis (herpesvirus-1), which veterinarians typically administer three weeks to three months before a stallion is to be used in breeding in order to prevent the stallion from potentially being exposed to the virus.

The American Association of Equine Practitioners advises that mares be vaccinated against herpesvirus-1 at the ages of five, seven, and nine months of pregnancy in order to lessen the likelihood of spontaneous miscarriage.

Veterinarians may administer the herpesvirus vaccination every two months on some high-traffic farms, although this is considered an off-label usage of the vaccine.

Step 2:Schedule a breeding soundness examination and address any problems

According to Wolfsdorf, getting a mare pregnant is a collaborative effort between the broodmare owner and the veterinarian. A pre-breeding soundness check, also known as a reproductive exam for broodmares, is often performed by veterinarians to identify and manage any issues before breeding. When addressing these assessments, Macpherson emphasizes that she is cognizant of a client’s budget and outlines all of the alternatives available to enable him or her to make an informed decision about which evaluations to have done and when.

  1. When it comes to mares that have problems getting pregnant or who are older or middle-aged, Macpherson argues that the examination of breeding soundness is significantly more crucial than it is for the rest of the mares.
  2. Wolfsdorf then performs an ultrasound examination of the mare’s reproductive anatomy.
  3. The vulvar lips can be sutured together (a treatment known as acaslicks) to prevent this from happening and the infection that could occur.
  4. A transrectal palpation as well as an ultrasound examination will be performed as part of the assessment.
  5. The vet can also use these tests to check on the size and functionality of her ovaries and to look for any potential abnormalities within her uterus and vagina, such as excessive fluid, which may indicate inflammation or poor uterine clearance.
  6. When it comes to breeding management, “I believe the instruments of palpation are quite significant, but there is so much that we can observe with an ultrasound that has an influence on breeding management,” she explains.

In order to confirm and identify diseases, she notes, “what we observe in her uterus will define what sort of culture and cytology we may want to undertake.” The procedure, according to her, is most usually performed on mares that have a “baggy, droopy” uterus, such as elderly broodmares, mares who have given birth to several foals, or mares who have a history of endometritis, in order to check for inflammation and infection.

It is possible that these mares are more susceptible to breeding-induced endometritis as a result of their decreased uterine clearance.

This process involves examining a portion of the endometrium under a microscope for abnormalities such as inflammation, scar tissue surrounding glands and arteries, and dilated lymphatics, among other things.

Any further information a veterinarian may want about a mare can be obtained by doing a hysterocopic exam, which entails inserting an endoscope into the uterus and looking for anomalies like as foreign items, adhesions, or fungal/bacterial plaques.

Because of the information acquired during the breeding soundness test, your veterinarian may be able to propose certain management approaches or treatments before you start trying to have children.

Step 3: Get the mare cycling.

Following a thorough examination by your veterinarian and treatment of any potential reproductive disorders, you must ensure that your mare is cycles regularly before attempting to breed her. Mares are seasonally polyestrous, which means that they cycle and come into heat during times of prolonged daylight, such as those experienced throughout the spring and summer months. Some mares, on the other hand, are able to cycle all year. Many breeders, particularly Thoroughbred breeders, strive to get their mares pregnant in the late winter or early spring so that they can foal as early as possible in the year, although this is not always successful.

Mares can be induced to cycle by utilizing treatments like as artificial lighting and/or hormone therapy, which are available to breeders.

“GnRH will then go to the anterior pituitary gland, which is responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH),” adds the expert.

After that, Wolfsdorf explains, “luteinizing hormone causes ovulation to occur (in the dominant follicle).” In anestrus, when she is not cycling, the mare goes through a transition period that lasts around 60 days prior to (this) first ovulation, according to the veterinarian.

Step 4: Track the mare’s estrous cycle to know when she’s ovulating

However, she will only come into heat and be open to breeding for five to seven days during the beginning of her estrous cycle, which is the longest period during which she will be receptive to breeding. A woman’s ovulation happens during the last 24 to 36 hours of her behavioral estrus cycle. “The objective should always be to breed as soon to ovulation as possible,” adds Macpherson. Knowing when a mare is in heat is critical in determining when the veterinarian should begin inspecting the mare for follicles, which can aid in determining ovulation and the best time to breed the mare, whether by natural cover or artificial insemination, and when to begin mating the mare (AI).

Pinched ears, tail-clamping, hostility and striking against the stallion, and indifference are all indications that a mare is not interested in a stallion’s attention. More information about teasing may be found at

Step 5:Determine when to breed the mare

As soon as a mare begins cycling, the owner must decide whether to breed her during the first heat (which, according to Wolfsdorf, is a less popular technique) or whether to wait for successive heats, which have greater pregnancy rates. If you’re breeding for a future Thoroughbred racehorse, on the other hand, you want the foal to be born as near to January 1 as possible, which is the breed’s official birth date. Breeding timing is also dictated by the technique of reproduction used (live cover or artificial insemination).

  • Fresh sperm has the best fertility rates since it has not been treated, but it cannot be transported and must be utilized immediately after harvesting or collection.
  • This means that the veterinarian should prepare the mare to ovulate within 24 to 40 hours following insemination using one of these ways (see step 6).
  • According to Wolfsdorf, while dealing with chilled semen, it is important to establish which days the stallions are gathered and sent, as well as whether the stallions are shipped counter to counter (by commercial flight) or by FedEx overnight.
  • “Timing your insemination using ovulatory-inducing drugs will allow you to receive the sperm at the right moment.”

Step 6:Use veterinary technology to time breeding with ovulation

If you’re breeding her back, one method of getting her pregnant sooner and/or better tracking her cycle is to have a veterinarian “short-cycle” her off the first heat post-foaling (also known as foal heat), if possible. Veterinary prostaglandins (which are not produced by the mare) will be administered to bring her back into heat as quickly as possible, as determined by the veterinarian. This reduces the regular 14- to 17-day diestrus (interval between estrus) period from 14 to 17 days. When the mare goes into heat again is determined by the size of her follicles at the time she takes prostaglandin (usually six days post-ovulation).

“If, on the other hand, she has a large 35-millimeter follicle on her ovary when you give her prostaglandin, and if you remove the corpus luteum (CL, the progesterone-producing structure formed after the follicle releases the egg), that mare comes into heat in two to three days and ovulates in (another) two to three days.” Additionally, the use of an ovulatory-inducing drug such as a GnRH analogue may be beneficial to mare owners in predicting when to breed.

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The use of an ovulatory-inducing substance, according to Wolfsdorf, is “merely an insurance policy to ensure that they will, in fact, ovulate when you want them to,” she explains.

“I’ve discovered that if I get to spend a lot of time looking at the mare, I do a much better job,” she adds.

Once you’ve determined the best time to breed your dog, consult with your veterinarian about live cover or artificial insemination.

Step 7:Encourage uterine clearance, especially in problem mares

The body of a mare undergoes a natural inflammatory reaction every time she is bred, which occurs normally during the first 12 hours after breeding, in order to clear the uterus of dead sperm, inflammatory cells, debris, and other impurities. For example, “under normal breeding conditions,” mares may be mated a countless number of times, and her reproductive canal has the ability to cleanse and clean itself after each breeding, according to Macpherson. Breeding in an artificial environment can interfere with the clearing process, resulting in the development of chronic post-breeding-induced ­endometritis.

It is possible that certain mares, particularly those who have had multiple foals and have a stretched uterus, will have problems with this natural cleansing process due to the fact that gravity is working against them.

When a mare has given birth to several foals, the uterus may dangle below the pelvic level, causing uterine clearance to be impaired since the fluid must go “uphill.” Wolfsdorf proposes that broodmare managers turn freshly bred mares out so that they can get some exercise and aid to empty the uterus.

Additionally, drugs such as misoprostol or Buscopan can assist to relax the cervix, which can be beneficial in older mares with tight cervices that prevent drainage from occurring.

Step 8:Check for pregnancy

Following the breeding of your mare, the final and most important stage is to check that she is pregnant. Ultrasound may be used to confirm pregnancy in your veterinarian 14 to 15 days after the period of ovulation. If the mare is not pregnant, your veterinarian can investigate the situation and determine what might be causing it before attempting to breed her again. For additional information on how to care for a pregnant mare, consult with your veterinarian or go to for more information.

How to Breed a Horse

Article in PDF format Article in PDF format If you have a mare that you like, you may have fantasies of breeding her and nurturing her foal. Realizing that vision would require a significant investment of time and money, not to mention the possibility of serious health consequences for the mare. You must be very convinced that you have a unique horse whose genetic line is worth preserving and that the characteristics you are seeking for in the foal are not already present in an existing horse before proceeding.

Indeed, there is a significant oversupply of unwanted horses, so if you decide to breed your horse, make assured that you will be able to care for the foal for the remainder of its life, no matter what happens.

  1. 1 Determine the monetary cost of impregnating your horse before proceeding. Recognize that there is a significant financial outlay associated with breeding a horse. You’ll have to pay fees to the stallion to mate with the mare, as well as insurance charges to cover you in the event that the mare kicks out and injures the stallion, as well as transportation costs in order to get the mare to and from the stallion. Take into consideration the possibility that she may not become pregnant on the first attempt and that this may need to be repeated
  • You can also use artificial insemination instead of a stallion if you don’t want to use one. This treatment, in which sperm is implanted directly into the mare’s uterus, will necessitate the purchase of sperm from a stallion owner as well as the cost of the surgery to implant it in the mare.
  • 2Estimate the possible veterinarian expenses associated with pregnancy. 3. You should be aware that there are veterinary costs associated with determining whether or not the mare is healthy enough to establish a pregnancy and is free of uterine infections
  • For pregnancy diagnosis
  • Vaccination against equine herpes virus, tetanus
  • West Nile virus
  • And equine encephalitis
  • And the cost of covering any complications with foaling
  • 3 Make a rough estimate of additional expenses. All in all, do not go into horse breeding because it “would be great,” but rather because you have a good reason for wanting to produce a foal in the first place. During foaling, for example, any issues might result in long-term problems or even death of the foal
  • Thus, if you are breeding for the first time, it is recommended that you send your mare to a breeding facility where she can be monitored closely throughout the last month of her pregnancy. You should anticipate to pay between $300 and $500 for the foaling as well as the expense of her board for a month at one of these facilities.
  • It is true that additional expenses like as feed (especially during the latter third of pregnancy), stabling, bedding, and power will be incurred. Then, after you have a living, healthy foal, it will be at least two years before you can saddle the animal, and you have no way of knowing what its disposition will be like, so it may not be suitable for the reason for which you bred it.
  • 4 Determine when the mare will be ready to mate by observing her behavior. The mare is a seasonal breeder, which means that as the amount of daylight grows longer, her brain is stimulated to release hormones that cause her to come into heat. It is common for the mare to cycle (have hot phases) from spring until late summer or early fall.
  • In order to intentionally alter the mare’s reproductive cycle, she must be stall-trained and subjected to electric light throughout the winter months, which can cause her to enter her heat cycle. Occasionally, this is done with thoroughbred mares whose babies are intended for racing, because the birth date of the foals has an impact on the racing classes they will be entered in.
  • 5 Confirm that the mare is of the appropriate breeding age. The optimal time to breed a mare for the first time is when she has reached the end of her growth phase, which is usually around three to four years of age. Despite the fact that it is feasible to breed a mare as early as 18 months, doing so throws a great deal of stress on her body, which is still maturing.
  • In contrast, getting a mature mare to conceive for the first time might be more challenging.
  1. 1Ensure that the mare is impregnated at a period when she will be able to give birth to a foal in the late spring or early summer. If a foal is delivered between May and July, it is most likely because there is enough of nutritious grass available for the mare to feed on, which will increase her milk production. Consequently, the optimal period to breed the mare is between June and August so that she may give birth to a foal 11 months later. 2 If you are employing a stallion, you should get your mare examined for reproductive disorders. For the owner of a stallion, it is important to know that the mare is clean and does not have any transmissible horse reproductive disorders before using him to cover a mare. The mare will be swabbed before to mating, and they will expect this to happen.
  • When a woman is in a heat cycle, a veterinarian swabs her vagina to detect any abnormal cells. An identification and cultivation of any organisms found on the swab is performed in a laboratory.
  • Three, either mate the mare with the stallion or artificially inseminate the mare to produce offspring. Check to see if your mare is in the peak of her reproductive cycle before breeding her. Each estrus cycle lasts around 21 days, with the mare being in estrus or ‘heat’ for an average of six days out of every twenty-one days during the cycle. He or she ovulates and, as a result, is most likely to become pregnant one or two days before the conclusion of the heat, however this might vary depending on the person.
  • The mare should be covered by a stallion on day 2 or 3 following the start of heat, and then on alternate days until the heat is gone, in order to increase her chances of conception as much as possible. It might be difficult to determine when a mare is about to enter her breeding season. Some stud farms utilize “teaser” stallions, which are stallions that the mare may view but cannot approach. Her hormones cause her to become more interested in attracting male attention, and she may behave in a flirty manner towards the male while she is in heat. Additional indicators of heat in a female horse include greater interest in other horses, a change in temperament that is commonly defined as moodiness, and an increase in the frequency with which she urinates.
  1. 1 Determine whether or not the mare is pregnant. Visually detecting pregnancy in mares, particularly in stockier, wide-framed mares, can be challenging. A large tummy may not become apparent until the third trimester of pregnancy, and even then, weight gain due to extra eating may be misinterpreted for the presence of a foal. In some species, the growth of mammary glands is used to suggest pregnancy
  2. However, in the horse, this may not occur until a month before foaling, and even then, “bagging up” may be the consequence of a false pregnancy
  • A transrectal ultrasound exam can be performed by a veterinarian to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. A specific probe is placed into the rectum, and the scan is directed toward the uterus as the result of this procedure. In order to detect changes associated with pregnancy, a urine test can be performed between 12 and 17 days after mating
  • If this option is not available, a blood test can be performed between 45 and 120 days after mating to detect the presence of an estrogen hormone known as equine chorionic gonadotropin (ECG), which is a marker of pregnancy. The fact that no test is failsafe and that it is possible to produce false positive findings should be emphasized
  • Nonetheless, a negative test provides a definitive assurance that the mare is not pregnant.
  • 2 During the first two-thirds of the pregnancy, the pregnant mare should be treated quite often. In most cases, pregnancy lasts little less than a year and lasts on average 340 days, with a 20-day leeway in either direction considered typical. During the first two-thirds of the pregnancy, the mare should be fed according to her normal ration. This is due to the fact that being overweight at the time of birth is a significant factor in the development of difficulties during foaling.
  • During the first two-thirds of pregnancy, the mare can be ridden, and in fact, maintaining her strong and healthy is vital for developing her endurance for foaling, which is an exceedingly physically demanding event. Ensure that the pasture where your mare will be grazing is devoid of fescue grass, which can be hazardous to pregnant mares when consumed in large quantities. Inquire with your veterinarian about the right nutrition for your mare, such as whether or not you need supplement their feed with salt blocks or vitamins.
  1. 3Take special care of the horse as she nears the conclusion of her pregnancy. It is important to remember that carrying a developing foal will place a lot of pressure on the mare’s body, therefore it is important to treat her with additional care throughout the latter third of her pregnancy. Keep her from being ridden, and continue to feed her additional food, which she will require to raise the foal.
  1. 1 Keep an eye out for the early symptoms of foaling to ensure a healthy pregnancy. Mares normally give birth at night, and it appears that they require darkness and silence in order to relax enough to give birth. When a mare is in the early stage of labor, when the uterus tones up and prepares to push the foal out, she is restless and paces, sways her tail as though annoyed, and generally seems cranky.
  • There will be a shift in the position of the foal at this period, as it prepares to be presented into the birthing canal
  • You will not need to interact with the horse during this time. Just remember to keep a closer check on her after she goes into labor
  • Else, things may become complicated.
  • 2 Pay close attention to the second stage of labor, but avoid interfering with it. As the mare prepares for second stage labor and the pushing out of the foal, she will break out in a cold sweat on a regular basis. During this stage of labor, the mare will lie down with her legs outstretched and exert considerable force. In the course of the procedure, she may stand and lie down repeatedly until the foal is pushed out
  • During this stage, it is recommended that close observation be carried out, either via a remote camera or by an observer sitting quietly out of the way with a lamp
  1. 3Be prepared to summon a veterinarian if necessary. If the mare is straining excessively and the foal has not progressed for more than 20 to 40 minutes, quick veterinarian treatment should be sought to prevent further complications. Preparing for this sort of emergency during childbirth is best accomplished by having a veterinarian on call at all times.

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  • Question What kind of feed should I give my breeding mare? Currently, Jessica Rude works on a cutting horse ranch in Valley View, Texas, as well as a horseback riding establishment in Princeton, Texas, where she acquired her Equine Expert certification. Previously, she worked as a Trail Guide and Wrangler at a camp and retreat center in Dallas, Texas, and as the Equine Breeding Barn Manager at a reining ranch near Tioga, Texas, among other positions. Jessica graduated with honors from Tarleton State University with a Bachelor’s degree in Animal Science with a focus in Equine Science. She has conducted research in the areas of horse nutrition, reproduction, and management. Besides horse breeding, Jessica has experience teaching horseback riding classes and conducting trail rides as well as diagnosing and treating equine ailments and delivering remedies. Equine ExpertExpert in the field of equine AnswerSupport Wiki is a collaborative effort amongst volunteers. How? By gaining access to this expert response. You must make certain that you are not underfeeding her, just like you would with a person, because she will be eating for two people. Talk to your doctor about how to supplement her diet with grains, salt blockers, or vitamins, if necessary. Question When is the optimum time to put the mare under the lights for the most effective results? The horse’s natural breeding season runs from May to August, and it is best to breed at this time. This is the time of year when environmental circumstances are the best and the greatest pregnancy rates are observed
  • When we purchased my mini, she was eight months pregnant. It has been 390 days since then, and there has been no foal. Is this a common occurrence? Horses typically give birth between 340 and 370 days after conception. Give her another week, and if she hasn’t given birth by then, visit your veterinarian as soon as possible. Question My mare is 15 hands high and 6 years old
  • How old and how many hands should the stallion be? What age and how many hands should the stallion be? What is your long-term vision for the breeding program? It all depends on whether you want a foal that has a chance to be smaller or larger. Breeding is always a gamble, no matter how careful you are. As an example, consider the large number of horses currently available for adoption, such as off-track thoroughbreds, horse rescues, and other organizations dedicated to assisting horses. Question The gestation period for a horse is unknown. The gestation period of a horse is 320-362 days, give or take a few days. Make sure the veterinarian confirms the time accurately so that you can be prepared at the appropriate moment. Question What is it that I’m supposed to be using the burning flame for? The torch is used for observational purposes. If you want to keep an eye on your mare, I propose setting up a camera in the barn and sleeping next to her stall with a low light on. My mare comes from a mother and sire who are both superb. My plan is to breed her, and my buddy has expressed an interest in breeding her mare. Would it make sense to share expenditures, such as the vet visit and other expenses, between two people? Certainly, that would be entirely reasonable. Perhaps one of you could pay for vet bills and the other could pay for other expenses such as feeding, and when it comes to competitions, the one who is riding should be responsible for paying for registration fees and other expenses. Question For how long should the stallion remain with the mare is up in the air. And, more importantly, can a stallion induce a mare’s oestrus? Shayla Crockett is a member of the community. Answer If the time of year is ideal, stallions may put a mare into heat in as little as a few hours. I normally leave my stallion with my mare for around 3 or 4 days at a time, depending on the situation. That typically works, but repeat the procedure twice within a few weeks just to be sure, and if she doesn’t come back into heat, it’s likely that he successfully bred her.
See also:  What Is A Morgan Horse? (Correct answer)

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Summary of the ArticleXIf you want to breed a horse, attempt to have the mare pregnant between the months of June, July, or August. In this way, it will be certain that the foal will be born in May or July, when the grass will be thick and abundant. When the mare begins to be flirty toward other horses or exhibits a changed attitude, keep an eye out for these signals that she is about to enter her heat cycle. When she begins her heat cycle, introduce her to a stallion on alternate days for the next 2-3 days until the cycle is completed.

Follow the links below to learn more about how to care for a pregnant mare from our Veterinary co-author.

Thank you to all writers for contributing to this page, which has been read 47,317 times so far.

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Posted at 9:06 a.m. hinHealth,Horse Care,Horse Training When it comes to breeding, horses are not the most efficient breeders, with just 50-60 percent of all breedings producing foals. As a result, many of us are familiar with the concept of artificial insemination in horses. However, you may have been curious about how these enormous creatures mate with one another in the wild. If horses are allowed to reproduce spontaneously, how do they mate? What is the method through which horses mate? Many other species, such as humans, mate in the same way as horses do: through wooing, followed by the stallion (male horse) mounting a receptive mare (female horse).

This is the best time of year for horses to mate in order to have a foal.

Continue reading to find out more about the horse’s breeding cycle, sexual maturity, and mating activities in greater detail.

How Horses Mate: The Receptive Mare

Stallions, like the majority of male animals, are willing and ready to mate at any time of the year. In other words, the time is completely dependent on the female. So, what is the best way for a mare to communicate to a stallion that she is ready to mate? In order to indicate that a mare is fertile and in heat, she will exhibit physical symptoms such as discharge and a swelling of the vulva. It’s possible that she’ll urinate in front of him (releasing hormones that will alert him to her readiness for a mate) and position herself in a “straddling” stance when there’s a stallion around.

How Horses Mate: Courtship

Despite the fact that pregnant mares are often receptive to a stallion’s approaches, this does not absolve the stallion of the responsibility of putting up any effort. Stallions will be able to detect the presence of a fertile mare based on the indicators that she will provide him. A stallion may sniff the mares or even push up against them to see whether or not they are open to being touched. Once a stallion has identified a receptive mare, he will elicit the Flehmen Response, which is defined as lifting his head back, with his nose in the air, and sometimes curling his top lip in response.

After that, he would frequently perform a sort of dance, raising his hooves off of the ground and whirling in tight circles with them.

As long as the mare does not reprimand him, he will begin smelling her behind as well as her hind legs and tail.

The process of wooing is typically a lengthier show than the mating act itself, which lasts only a few of minutes on a typical occasion. Are you interested in learning more about female horses? See my post What a Female Horse Is Called: Horse Genders 101 for more information.

How Horses Mate: The Aftermath

It is normal for your mare to fall onto her side following the mating act if you are monitoring a breeding for the very first time. Although it is fairly usual for a mare to fall over immediately after mating, it occurs more commonly with first-timers– yet many mares will fall over immediately after mating every time– There are a variety of explanations for why a mare may lose her balance and require time to recover after mating:


Hormones may be at play in this situation. Hormone levels fluctuate during the estrus cycle and reach a high during the fertile phase of the cycle. It is possible that the hormones in a mare’s body will encourage her to lay down after mating in order to have the highest chance of becoming pregnant.

Regaining Balance

While the weight that a stallion does lay on a mare is not usually harmful, it might lead her to become unbalanced in some situations. When he dismounts, she may experience dizziness and fall to the ground to regain her equilibrium.

Excitement / Stress

Most likely, mares lie down after mating because they are exhausted and require time to recover in order to bring their heart rates back down to normal levels again. When it comes to courting and mating, stallions may be aggressive and energetic, and horses are highly sensitive to their social environments. When a hormonal mare is confronted with an ecstatic stallion, her body and mind may become overstimulated, necessitating the need for a brief period of rest.

When Do Horses Mate?

The majority of horses have a seasonal mating cycle that begins in early Spring and ends in late Summer, with the first occurrence of heat occurring in early Spring and the last occurring in late Summer. During this breeding season, mares go into heat every 21 days and are viable and receptive to mating for the first 5-7 days of their cycles. Mares begin their breeding season in stages, with the first cycle of the year frequently being erratic and unreliable for breeding reasons, as is the case with most horses.

Why Are Horses Seasonal Breeders?

The usual gestational duration for a mare’s pregnancy is 11 months long on average. Late Spring and Summer are the most favorable times to give birth, since the warmer, more temperate temperatures of these months aid to provide the highest possible probability of survival for young foals during their first year. As a result, mares typically cease going into heat in late Summer or early Fall in order to avoid being pregnant in the late months of the year and having to maintain a young foal through the harsher Winter months.

  1. When it comes to breeding mares, many breeders that are able to provide sufficient foal care in the Winter want to encourage a longer (or early) breeding season.
  2. Due to a lack of sunshine during the winter months, many animals are unable to go into heat.
  3. Exposed mares to artificial light during the Winter can be tricked into going into heat in the same way that lighting your chicken coop helps to increase egg production in the winter months.
  4. The amount of artificial daylight you receive each day should be 14 – 16 hours per day if you wish to enhance Winter fertility or a consistent early Spring cycle.

Assuring that your horse has adequate lighting at night may be achieved by installing a light in her stall during the evening hours of the day or night shift.

When Are Horses Sexually Mature?

Sexual maturity is a word used to describe an animal that has reached the age of puberty. In most cases, a mare will go into her first heat when she is between 12 and 15 months old. This early commencement of puberty, on the other hand, should not be construed as a filly who is eager to mate. Currently, the age of two is the absolute earliest at which fillies may be safely bred, and many breeders believe that this is far too early an age for the health and normal development of the filly. Horses do not reach complete physical maturity until they are 4 to 6 years old, depending on the breed, and there is still a great deal of growth and joint development taking on in a 2-year-old filly at this age.

The fact that a horse has an 11-month gestation period must be kept in mind; therefore, an 18-month-old filly that is bred will not give birth until she is three years old.

Breeding a horse under the age of four, on the other hand, should be done with extreme caution and only after consulting with your veterinarian.

An undeveloped mare under the age of 4 or 5 years may not have the mental capacity to respond correctly to her foal, and this might have a negative impact on the development of the foal after delivery.

Both women would have been fertile and capable of conceiving, but the younger mother may have had a more difficult time adjusting to the duties of parenting due to her inexperience.

However, most experts believe that a mare should be between 5 and 10 years old at the time of breeding.

Is Your Mare Ready To Breed?

If you intend to breed your mare, it is a good idea to have her examined by a veterinarian to verify that she is in the best possible health to have a healthy pregnancy. It is critical not to breed your mare when she is too young, and it is as crucial to provide her with additional attention (and calories) when she is pregnant. Although the 11-month gestation period may seem excessive, the wait will be well worth it once she gives birth to her foal. Having a kid will be something to think about once your horse has been successfully bred!

When it comes to working with newborn horses, it is a completely different experience than when it comes to dealing with adult horses. Check out my post How to Train a Young Horse: Everything You Need to Know for more information on how you can begin working with your foal right now.

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