The Trojan Horse. Which Greek Hero Masterminded It, According To The Legend? (TOP 5 Tips)

According to Quintus Smyrnaeus, Odysseus thought of building a great wooden horse (the horse being the emblem of Troy), hiding an elite force inside, and fooling the Trojans into wheeling the horse into the city as a trophy. Under the leadership of Epeius, the Greeks built the wooden horse in three days.

  • Who Masterminded The Trojan Horse? The horse was built by Epeius, a master carpenter and pugilist. The Greeks, pretending to desert the war, sailed to the nearby island of Tenedos, leaving behind Sinon, who persuaded the Trojans that the horse was an offering to Athena (goddess of war) that would make Troy impregnable.

Who masterminded the Trojan horse?

Unlike the other famed Heroes of the Trojan War, Odysseus prefers using subterfuge to outwit his enemies. As the mastermind behind the Trojan Horse, Odysseus cements himself among the most cunning minds Greece has ever seen…

What is the legend of the Trojan horse?

According to ancient Greek history, the Trojan horse allowed the war-weary Greeks to enter the city of Troy and finally win the Trojan war. Legend has it that the horse was built at the behest of Odysseus, who hid inside its structure along with several other soldiers to ultimately lay siege to the city.

Who is the hero in the Trojan horse?

Odysseus: This son of Laertes is known for his cleverness and glib tongue. His accomplishments include a successful night raid against King Rhesus, winning the armor of Achilles, and engineering the famous Trojan Horse. His ten-year trip home to Ithaca (where his wife, Penelope, awaits) is the subject of the Odyssey.

Who came up with the Trojan horse?

Trojan horse, huge hollow wooden horse constructed by the Greeks to gain entrance into Troy during the Trojan War. The horse was built by Epeius, a master carpenter and pugilist.

Where is the original Trojan Horse?

Finding Troy There was — actually, there was more than one. Today, the spot is known as Hisarlik, and it can be found atop a large mound in western Turkey.

What is the significance of the Trojan horse in Greek mythology?

The Greeks, under the guidance of Odysseus, built a huge wooden horse — the horse was the symbol of the city of Troy — and left it at the gates of Troy. They then pretended to sail away. The Trojans believed the huge wooden horse was a peace offering to their gods and thus a symbol of their victory after a long siege.

What Greeks were in the Trojan Horse?

But in the Aeneid by Virgil, after a fruitless 10-year siege, the Greeks at the behest of Odysseus constructed a huge wooden horse and hid a select force of men inside, including Odysseus himself. On the Greek side:

  • Athena.
  • Hephaestus.
  • Hera.
  • Hermes.
  • Thetis.
  • Poseidon.

What is the origin of the Trojan Horse?

The story of the Trojan Horse is well-known. First mentioned in the Odyssey, it describes how Greek soldiers were able to take the city of Troy after a fruitless ten-year siege by hiding in a giant horse supposedly left as an offering to the goddess Athena.

Did they find the Trojan Horse?

No, Archaeologists Have Not Found the Trojan Horse.

Who was the leader of the Greeks during the Trojan War?

Agamemnon. Agamemnon was the leader of the Greek forces in the Trojan War. He was the brother-in-law of Helen of Troy. Agamemnon was married to Clytemnestra, the sister of Menelaus’ wife, Helen of Troy.

Who led the Greek army in the Trojan War?

The coalition of Greek forces (or Archaians as Homer often calls them) was led by King Agamemnon of Mycenae.

Who is the Iliad hero?

The prime example is Akhilleus, more commonly known as Achilles in the English tradition. This, the greatest hero of the Iliad, was the son of Thetis, a sea-goddess known for her far-reaching cosmic powers. 3.

Who fought in the Trojan War?

The Trojan War fought between the Greeks and Troy originated in the following manner. King Priam of Troy was wealthy and powerful; by his wife Hecuba and by concubines he had 50 sons and 12 daughters.

Who kidnapped Helen?

In her youth, she was abducted by Theseus. A competition between her suitors for her hand in marriage saw Menelaus emerge victorious.

Trojan horse

In the Trojan War, the Greeks built a massive hollowwooden horse called the Trojan Horse to gain entry into the city of Troy. Peius, a great carpenter and pugilist, was responsible for the construction of the horse. Pretending to leave the fight, the Greeks fled to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon in charge of convincing the Trojans that the horse was a sacrifice to Athena(goddess of war) that would render Troy impenetrable. Sinon was captured and executed by the Greeks. However, despite the cautions of Laocoön and Cassidra, the horse was driven through the city gates.

The story is presented in great detail in Book II of theAeneid and is briefly mentioned in theOdyssey as well.

Beginning in the late twentieth century, the term “Trojan horse” was used to refer to deceptively innocent computer codes that appear to be genuine applications, but are really created to destroy or disrupt a computer’s programming or to collect personal information from the user of the computer.

Which Greek Hero Was The Mastermind Of The Trojan Horse?

How Did the Trojan Horse Come to Be? Which Greek Hero Was the Mastermind Behind It? IN THE NAME OF THE LORD OF ITHACA A Odysseus was a shrewd, battle-hardened leader who felt that the route to triumph lay in subtlety rather than direct confrontation. He was also the genius behind the Trojan Horse, a clever ruse that ultimately led to the destruction of the mighty city of Troy. What Greek is the brains behind the Trojan horse? It was suggested by the poet Quintus Smyrnaeus that Odysseus construct an enormous wooden horse (the horse being the symbol of Troy), conceal an elite army within it, and trick the Trojans into carting it into town as a prize.

What was the name of the Greek hero who appeared in the narrative of the Trojan Horse?

Examine the life and times of this hero, from his well-known rage to his “Achilles heel.” Who was the cunning Greek warrior who came up with the Trojan horse idea?

The Greeks are eventually victorious in the conflict thanks to a brilliant bit of deceit devised by Odysseus, the hero and king of Ithaca, who is well-known for his ingenuity.

Which Greek Hero Was The Mastermind Of The Trojan Horse – Related Questions

Epeius, a great carpenter and pugilist, was responsible for the construction of the horse.

The Greeks, claiming to have deserted the fight, departed to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon behind, who persuaded the Trojans that the horse was an offering to Athena (the goddess of war), which would render Troy impenetrable if it was sacrificed.

Is Trojan War real?

Epeius, a talented carpenter who also happens to be a pugilist, created the horse for him. The Greeks, claiming to be deserters from the fight, went to the neighboring island of Tenedos, leaving Sinon in charge of convincing the Trojans that the horse was a sacrifice to Athena (the goddess of war), which would render Troy impenetrable.

Is Trojan Horse story real?

Was it, however, a fabrication? According to Dr. Armand D’Angour of Oxford University’s Department of Classics, “Archaeological evidence shows that Troy was indeed burned down; however, the wooden horse is an imaginative fable, perhaps inspired by the way ancient siege-engines were clothed with damp horse-hides to prevent them from being set ablaze.”

Did Helen love Paris?

As a result, Aphrodite and Helen were chosen by Paris. The fact that Helen had already been married to King Menelaus of Sparta (a fact that Aphrodite failed to mention) meant that Paris had to raid Menelaus’s home in order to steal Helen away from him – according to some accounts, she fell in love with Paris and left willingly.

Is Troy a real city?

Troy is a city in Greek mythology that was besieged for ten years before being taken by an army headed by King Agamemnon. Troy may also refer to a genuine historical city located on the northwest coast of Turkey that has been identified by many as the Troy mentioned in the tale since antiquity. This city has been identified as the Troy described in the narrative since antiquity.

Who won Trojan War?

The Greeks were victorious in the Trojan War. As told by the Roman epic poet Virgil, the Trojans were vanquished after the Greeks left behind a giant wooden horse and appeared to be sailing back to their homeland. The Trojans were completely unaware that the wooden horse was brimming with Greek fighters.

Why did Achilles kill Hector?

Returning to the battlefield after being upset about the loss of his comrade, Patroclus, Achilles kills Hector in order to exact vengeance on him.

What is Trojan Horse attack?

A Trojan horse is a sort of malware that infiltrates a computer by masquerading as a genuine software and then running on the machine. Despite its name, a Trojan horse is so named because of the technique by which it is delivered, which often involves an attacker using social engineering to conceal harmful code within normal software.

What does Trojan horse mean today?

Today, the phrase “Trojan horse” is still used to describe to any type of deceit or ruse that includes convincing a target to enable an adversary to enter a secure location freely and without prompting. The Trojan horse is also the inspiration for the term “Trojans,” which refers to computer programs (also known as malware) that have the ability to infect computer systems.

What race were the Trojans?

Troja was a people that lived in the city state of Troy, which was located on the coast of modern-day Turkey, near the Aegean Sea, about the 12th or 13th centuries BCE. However, no one is certain of their origins, which we believe to be Greek or Indo-European.

Who Killed Paris?

Philoctetes assassinated Paris toward the end of the war.

What is Troy called now?

The ancient city of Troy was located on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey, and was known as the “City of Victory.”

Is Achilles a God?

He was born to Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, and Thetis, a sea goddess. Peleus was Achilles’ paternal grandfather. Achilles was very powerful as a result of his half-god status, and he quickly rose to the rank of renowned warrior. He was, on the other hand, half human and so not eternal like his mother.

How big was the real Trojan horse?

The Horse would have measured around 10 feet in width (3 metres). This is based on the breadth of the broadest gate unearthed in the remains of Troy, which was a whopping ten feet wide. In light of the fact that the Trojans had to demolish the higher walls in order for the horse to pass through, it is reasonable to assume that the Horse stood at least 25 feet (7.6 metres) tall.

Did Helen of Troy exist?

Helen of Troy is a fictional figure in Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad, who appears in Greek mythology. There is, however, no credible evidence to prove that Helen was a genuine person in the first place. Despite the fact that the Iliad contains the earliest written account of Helen, the mythology surrounding her has its roots in the Bronze Age and goes back thousands of years.

Who found the city of Troy?

Heinrich Schliemann is credited with establishing archaeology as the science that we are familiar with today. 130 years ago, a German adventurer and multimillionaire named Heinrich Schliemann found Troy and what he believed to be the Treasure of Priam. He died a year later.

Did Helen and Paris have a child?

A second narrative claims that Helen and Paris had three sons, Bunomus, Corythus, and Idaeus. Unfortunately for the family, these sons died when the roof of the family home in Troy caved in, killing them.

Why was Paris of Troy cursed?

He rejected offers of kingly authority from Hera and military prowess from Athena in favor of Aphrodite, who offered him a bribe to assist him in winning the most beautiful lady on the face of the planet. This, along with his seduction of Helen (the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta), and his unwillingness to return her, was the catalyst for the Trojan War.

Where is the real Trojan horse?

The site is currently known as Hisarlik, and it may be located atop a big hill in western Turkey, where it was discovered. However, there isn’t a single city hidden behind that hill. At the very least, there are ten of them. Heinrich Schliemann, a German archaeologist who was overzealous in his pursuit of Troy, was the first to identify Hisarlik as Troy in the 1870s.

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What happened to the survivors of Troy?

According to Virgil, the majority of the Trojans who appear as characters in the Aeneid perish at the end of the story. In the case of the Trojans, the majority of the males were slaughtered, while the majority of the women were captured and held as slaves by the invading Greeks. Those that remained were taken prisoner and sent back to Greece along with Agamemnon and his forces.

Who is the most feared Greek god?

Phobos was the God of Fear and Terror, whilst his brother Deimos was the God of Panic and Panic was the god of fear and terror. The two brothers were reported to frequently follow Ares into combat, according to legend.

They were frequently accompanied by Ares’ sister Eris, who was also a frequent companion. Soldiers throughout the Greek battlefields dreaded and revered the names Deimos and Phobos, and they did so for good reason.

Inside The True Story Behind The Legendary Trojan Horse

Photograph by Adam Jones / Wikimedia Commons In Turkey’s Dardanelles, there is a facsimile of the Trojan Horse. Ancient Greek legend has it that it was the Trojan horse that enabled the war-weary Greeks to eventually invade the city of Troy and claim victory in the Trojan War. In accordance with legend, the horse was erected at Odysseus’s request and he then concealed himself within its framework with several other warriors in order to eventually lay siege to the city of Troy. Its architecture — as well as its function — was so monumental that it was immortalized in classical masterpieces for all time.

Historical scholars have recently questioned if the over-the-top exhibition of Grecian military strength was nothing more than a fiction, created to make the Greek army appear more like a heavenly force and less like the simple mortals that they actually were.

Irrespective of whether or not the Trojan horse actually existed, its significance in history cannot be overstated.

The Trojan Horse in theAeneid

Wikimedia Commons photo by Adam Jones Dardanelles, Turkey, is home to a reproduction of the Trojan Horse. Ancient Greek legend has it that it was the Trojan horse that enabled the war-weary Greeks to eventually enter the city of Troy and claim victory in the Trojan conflict. In accordance with legend, the horse was erected at Odysseus’s request and he later concealed himself within its framework with several other warriors in order to eventually lay siege to the city of Troy. Its structure — as well as its intended use — was so monumental that it was eternally immortalized in ancient works of literature and sculpture.

Historical scholars have recently questioned if the over-the-top exhibition of Grecian military strength was nothing more than a fiction, created to make the Greek army appear more like a heavenly force and less like the simple mortals that they were in reality.

There is no denying the Trojan Horse’s significance in history, regardless of whether or not it occurred in real life.

An Early Skeptic Of The Trojan Horse Story

A drama by Euripides called The Trojan Women, which was written before the Aeneid, also makes allusion to a “Trojan horse.” Throughout the play, which was initially composed in 415 B.C., Poseidon (the Greek deity of the sea) addresses the audience as the play opens. For from his home beneath Parnassus, Phocian Epeus, assisted by Pallas’ craft, framed a horse to bear within its womb an armed host, and sent it within the battlements, fraught with death; wherefrom in days to come men will tell of “the wooden horse,” with its hidden load of warriors, said Poseidon in the opening scene.

Even though the wooden horse was appropriately represented in The Trojan Womenplay as a metaphor, the Aeneid’s representation caused historians to believe that the wooden horse was more literal, as well as really existing in the real world.

Pausanias, a Greek explorer and geographer who lived in the second century A.D.

Pausanias depicts a horse made of metal, rather than wood, that was used to transport Greek warriors in his book,Description of Greece.

But tradition has it that the horse was ridden by one of the most heroic of the Greeks, and the design of the bronze figure corresponds to this account rather well.” Menestheus and Teucer may be seen peering out of the opening, as well as the sons of Theseus.

Historians Think The Trojan Horse May Have Been A Metaphor — Or Siege Engine

Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Trojans are seen celebrating as the horse is driven into town in this image from 2004’s Troy. Image from the film Troy. Dr. Armand D’Angour of the University of Oxford clarified the situation more recently, in 2014. In the University’s newsletter, he said that “archaeological evidence suggests that Troy was certainly burned down; but, the wooden horse is an imaginative myth, presumably inspired by the way ancient siege-engines were coated with wet horse-hides to prevent them from being set alight.” However, as recently as August 2021, researchers in Turkey discovered dozens of wooden planks going back thousands of years in the hills of Hisarlik — which is widely thought to be the historical location of the city of Troy — which they claim to represent the site of the ancient metropolis.

  1. The archaeologists were pretty confident they had discovered the remnants of the very genuine Trojan Horse itself, despite the fact that many historians expressed skepticism.
  2. Regardless of whose version of the narrative you choose to believe, the phrase “Trojan horse” is still in common usage today.
  3. The term “Trojan horse” — more generally referred to as merelya trojan— is now more widely employed in the context of computer malware that deceives users about the real nature of the infection.
  4. Perhaps, in the same manner that we regard Virgil and Pausanias now, historians of the future will regard computer scientist Ken Thompson, who initially invented the phrase in the 1980s.
  5. ‘Perhaps it’s more necessary to put your faith in the individuals who built the program,’ he suggests.
  6. Followed by a story of an old Greek jar that was used to curse more than 55 persons in Athens, Greece.

The Greek Myth of Odysseus and the Trojan Horse

It is believed that one of the earliest myths told about Odysseus had anything to do with the famous Trojan Horse. Many horses, including those from Homer’sOdyssey, have made reference to this horse. Even back in ancient Greece, oral storytelling was a part of the society, and it’s probable that the stories were recounted on a regular basis; it’s just that there aren’t many written copies of them to be found. A “Trojan Horse” is described as “someone or something that is utilized to conceal or conceal what is genuine or real in order to fool or hurt an opponent.” This interpretation is derived from the original narrative, which is based on Greek mythology.

Here’s a look at the story of Odysseus and the Trojan Horse from a different perspective:

What Literature Has to Say About the Trojan Horse

We can trace a great deal of what we know about Odysseus and the Trojan Horse back to Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey. According to this great epic poem, the following is what he had to say about this story: This was also an incredible feat accomplished by that powerful man, who rode the carven horse on which all of us Argives chiefs were seated, carrying death and destruction to the Trojans. Please alter your tune and sing about the construction of a wooden horse, which Epeius built with the assistance of Athena, and which Odysseus once led up into the citadel as a ruse after filling it with the soldiers who sacked Ilion.

This story was mentioned in Virgil’s Aeneid as well.

The Beginning of the Trojan War

Hermes, the messenger deity, spoke about three stories that had anything to do with Odysseus. Even though the earliest of these legends detailed the story of the Trojan Horse, the story began with the events of the Trojan War itself. All three stories revolve around Odysseus’ role at the conclusion of the battle, but The Trojan Horse is unquestionably the most well-known of them all. Legend has it that Zeus was presented with a golden apple, which he was to bestow to the goddess who was considered to be the most beautiful.

Zeus was unhappy with this job, so he delegated it to Paris, the prince of Troy, who accepted the responsibility.

The goddess Aphrodite wanted to win, so she promised Paris that she would make Helen, the queen of Sparta, fall in love with him if he selected her.

After Helen’s wedding to King Menalaus, Aphrodite’s prophecy came true when Paris appeared at Helen’s wedding reception.

Odysseus Doesn’t Want to Go to War

Odysseus, despite the fact that he finally became the hero of the narrative, was adamant about not going to battle. Because his wife had only recently given birth, he desired to spend some quality time with his new child. Due to the fact that Hermes saw that Odysseus did not want to fight in the battle, he advised Odysseus to pretend that he was mentally unwell. It was a complete failure. King Menelaus compelled him to join the battle effort alongside the other military commanders. Odysseus came up with a brilliant idea after 10 years of camped outside the city walls of Troy.

He persuaded them to construct a wooden horse, which they would then deposit outside the city’s walls, claiming that it was a gift for the goddess Athena.

The Trojans were taken in by it.

When they got off the horse, they opened the doors for the remainder of the army, thereby defeating the Trojans and bringing the battle to a close.

Examples of sources include: Wikipedia – Trojan Horse Odysseus, according to Wikipedia Greek Mythology is where this story is classified. This article was posted by on their blog.


According to certain recent reports, the majority of which are strictly genealogical, Odysseus had many additional children besidesTelemachus, the most notable of them are: -with Circe: Telegonus, ArdeaswithCalypsoor ArdeaswithCalypsoor ArdeaswithCalypsoor ArdeaswithCalypsoor ArdeaswithCalypsoor ArdeaswithCaly Circe (also known as Nausinous or Nausitoo) with Calidices (also known as Polipetes) The majority of these genealogy attempted to relate Odysseus to the founding of several Italic towns in distant Antiquity.

  • The Greek hero Odysseus was one of the initial suitors of Helen before the Trojan War.
  • Odysseus and all of the other suitors made a pact to protect Helen’s marriage to Menelaus, the winner of the competition.
  • He feigned to be mad by ploughing his fields and putting salt in place of seeds instead of seeds in his fields.
  • Palamedes was extremely astute, and he placed Telemachus, Odysseus’ young son, in front of the plough to demonstrate his intelligence.
  • In a disguise as a female, Achilles was hiding on the island of Skyros, where Odysseus tracked him down and encouraged him to come out of hiding and fight for his mother, goddess Thetis.
  • One was crammed with high-end apparel and perfume, while the other was crammed with military-grade weapons of war.
  • Achilles, on the other hand, being a man of the sword, proceeded immediately to the second and was thus discovered by Odysseus.

Due to the fact that the wound was festering and smelling foul, Odysseus recommended that he be abandoned.

Odysseus and Neoptolemus traveled to the island of Lemnos in order to collect Philoctetes.

Before the Greek fleet set sail for Troy, Odysseus, Phoenix, and Ajax traveled to Scyros in order to urge Achilles to fight alongside them.

Later, with the assistance of Athena, Ajax was able to recover Achilles’ corpse from the clutches of the Trojans.

This infuriated Ajax to the point where he committed suicide (Odyssey, xi.

A later and more detailed account claims that his disappointment drove him insane; he stormed out of his tent and trampled on the flocks of sheep in the camp under the mistaken belief that they were the Trojan enemy; upon regaining his composure, he killed himself with the sword that he had received as a gift from Hector.

  1. When Palamedes recommended the Greeks to return home, Odysseus accused him of being a traitor, manufactured false evidence against him, and enlisted the help of a fictitious witness in order to bring him to justice.
  2. The Greek siege of Troy had lasted ten years at this point.
  3. It is possible that the choice of gift was influenced by the fact that the Trojans were well-known horse breeders, as archaeology has confirmed.
  4. The rest of the Greek army appeared to have dispersed, and the Trojans took the horse as restitution for the theft of the Palladium from the Greeks.
  5. The Trojans erupted in jubilation, and when the Greeks emerged from the horse, the city was in a state of oblivion due to excessive drinking.
  6. The city was then looted mercilessly, with all of the males being slaughtered and all of the women sold into slavery.
  7. For two reasons, Poseidon put a hold on Odysseus’ journey: his involvement in the fall of Troy, and his activities against Poseidon’s son, Polyphemus, which are explained further down.
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Upon leaving Troy, Odysseus and his crew are met by pleasant and peaceful seas, which continue to welcome them.

The team had successfully arrived at Ciconia.

Odysseus and his soldiers raided the city and stole it of all of its valuables, including gold and silver.

The Ciconians returned the following morning, accompanied by their savage kinsmen from the highlands.

The Lotus Eaters are a group of people that eat Lotus flowers.

This caused them to fall asleep and lose interest in the prospect of ever returning home.

The Cyclops Polyphemos and Odysseus are two of the most famous Greek heroes.

They enter the cave and immediately begin feasting on the food they have discovered inside.

He then proceeds to devour numerous members of the crew, but Odysseus has prepared a cunning strategy to escape.

When Polyphemus inquired as to Odysseus’ name, Odysseus replied that it was “Noman,” which means “Nobody.” Once the monster had fallen asleep, Odysseus and his companions used a hardened spear to sever Polyphemus’ one remaining eye.

When the Cyclops let the sheep to graze, the men were captured and dragged away.

Once the sheep (and men) had been securely escorted out of the cave, Polyphemus recognized that the men were no longer within.

As Odysseus and his men were sailing away, he informed Polyphemus, “Noman/Nobody wounded you, Odysseus did!” As Odysseus and his men were sailing away, he said, “Noman/Nobody hurt you, Odysseus did!” Odysseus was unaware that Polyphemus was the son of Poseidon, and that informing him of his father’s identity would have dire consequences for him.

  • Achaemenides was a member of Odysseus’ crew who lingered on Sicily with Polyphemus until Aeneas arrived and took him with him, according to Virgil’s Aeneid.
  • He welcomed them into his home for a month and made arrangements for a west wind to transport them back to their homeland.
  • It was blowing them back to Aiolia, where Aeolus refused to furnish them with any further assistance.
  • They arrived to Telepylos, the fortress of Lamos, ruler of the Laestrygonians, where they stayed for a while.
  • Circle of Odysseus, 5745, Circe, Italy Next destination was the island of Circe (Aeaea), where Odysseus dispatched a reconnaissance party ahead of the rest of the crew to gain a better understanding of the terrain.
  • Only Eurylochus, who had a sneaking suspicion of deceit from the start, managed to escape and alert Odysseus and the others who had remained at the ships.
  • When her spells failed, he was able to coerce her into returning his soldiers to their human shape, which they did.

In some accounts, Odysseus and Circe were the parents of three children: Telegonus, Argius, and Latinus, according to certain sources.

He died as a result of the fall.

They all provided him with helpful tips on how to get through the rest of his adventure.

He kept them at bay and asked to speak with Tiresias, who provided him with instructions on how to pass through Helios’ herd.

He was supposed to make a sacrifice to Poseidon at that location.

It has been speculated that this refers to his death occurring far away from the sea.

By having all of his men muffle their ears with wax and tying him to the mast, Odysseus managed to evade capture by the Sirens.

The sailors refused to untie him when he heard their beautiful music and he ordered them to do so when they heard it.

Scylla and Charybdis are mythological creatures.

The Sacred Cattle of HeliosFinally, Odysseus and his surviving crew arrived on Thrinacia, an island sacred to Helios and where he kept his sacred cattle.

The island’s guardians, Helios’ daughters Lampetia and Phaethusa, informed their father of the situation.

It is possible that Apollo is mentioned in this section of the mythology in lieu of Helios.

It was seven years before she allowed him to leave her, despite her promise to give him immortality in exchange for remaining with her.

Kalypso sent Odysseus off on a small raft, which she had outfitted with provisions of water, wine, and food.

On the twentieth day of his journey, he arrived at his home in Ithaca, New York State.

In Ithaca, Odysseus works as a beggar.

440 BC), from Tarquinia.

Penelope was fending off a slew of suitors in Ithaca, while Odysseus’ mother, Anticlea, had died as a result of her grief.

Odysseus’ faithful dog Argus was the only one who recognized him in his rags.

He tried his hardest to wag his tail as he laid down to die, despite his advanced age and decrepitude.

Euryclea, his old wet nurse, was the first person to recognize him when he returned.

A maid of hers had been revealing this information to the suitors every night until one day she was discovered by one of the suitors.

Fortunately, this occurred just before Odysseus arrived on the scene.

Meanwhile, Penelope declares that she will marry whoever is able to thread Odysseus’ bow and hurl an arrow through twelve axes before the end of the story.

As soon as he removed his disguise, Odysseus led Telemachus, Athena, and Eumaeus into the swineherd’s den, where they were all slaughtered, with the exception of Medon, who had been courteous to Penelope, and Phemius, a local singer who had been forced to assist the suitors in their battle against Penelope.

  1. She instructed her maid to make up Odysseus’ bed and move it out of their bedchamber so they could sleep together.
  2. Penelope believes Odysseus’ claim to be her husband since only he knows the truth about their relationship.
  3. Odysseus was killed by Laertes, and Athena then demanded that the suitors’ families and Odysseus come to terms, and the story of the Odyssey comes to a close there.
  4. However, the time-frame for these future events is left vague, perhaps because Homer intended to compose the continuation of the story and wanted room for improvisation.
  5. Various other tales Odysseus is one of the most well-known characters in Western literature, having appeared in over a thousand works.
  6. He plays a role at the conclusion of the story of King Telephus of Mysia.
  7. In fifth-century Athens, tales of the Trojan War were popular topics for tragedies, and Odysseus featured centrally or indirectly in a number of the existing plays by Aeschylus, Sophocles, (Ajax, Philoctetes) and Euripedes, and figured in yet others that have not survived.
  8. He in turn delivers a first-person description of some of the same events Homer narrates, in which Ulysses appears directly.

Using sections of Odysseus’ adventures, focused on his amorous involvements with Circe and Calypso, Ovid recasts him as “one of the great roaming womanizers,” in the words of Harold Bloom, “one of the great wandering womanizers.” During the course of the Divine Comedy, Dante encounters Diomedes in the eighth circle of Hell, where he is condemned, along with Ulysses, to be imprisoned for all eternity in a sheet of flame.

  1. The specific sin which Dante has in mind as to Diomedes appears to be the theft of the Palladium.
  2. As recounted in a well-known passage, Dante has Odysseus relate a version of his final voyage and death that differs from the one foreshadowed by Homer.
  3. After traveling east and south for five months, they came across a great mountain rising from the sea (which, according to Dante’s cosmology, is Purgatory), before being swept away by a storm.
  4. Ulysses, by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, depicts an aging king who has seen far too much of the world to be content with sitting on a throne and idling his days away on the throne.
  5. The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel, a 333,333-line epic poem by Nikos Kazantzakis, begins with Odysseus purifying his body of the blood of Penelope’s suitors, which is then followed by the death of Penelope.
  6. He abducts Helen, incites revolutions in Crete and Egypt, communes with God, and sees representations of different historical and literary personalities, including Vladimir Lenin, Jesus, and Don Quixote, before dying.

Stamps from Homer’s Odyssey Kavafis (Cavafy) – Ithaca A Plan of Odysseus’ Palace According to Johann Heinrich Voss (1820), translator of Homer’s writings Odysseus crater on the Saturn moon Tethys References to Odysseus in classical literature

  • Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey
  • Apollodorus’ Bibliotheke III, 8
  • Apollodorus’ Epitome III, 7
  • V, 6-22
  • VII, 1-40
  • Ovid’s Metamorphoses XIII, 1-398
  • Ovid’s Meta

The Trojan Horse in Greek mytholgy

Aeschylus’s Iliad and Odyssey; Apollodorus’ Bibliotheke III, 8; Apollodorus’ Epitome III, 7; Apollodorus’ Epitome V, 6-22; VII, 1-40; Ovid’s Metamorphoses XIII, 1-398; Aeschylus’s Iliad and Odyssey; Aeschylus’s Epitome III, 7; Aeschylus’s Epitome III, 7;

Ancient Sources for the Trojan Horse

The Iliad, written by the Greek poet Homer, is considered the primary source for the Trojan War today; yet, this epic poem concludes before the events associated with the Trojan Horse, although Homer did make reference of the Wooden Horse in theOdyssey. Only two entire works from the “Epic Cycle” have survived to the present day, and the lost worksLittle Iliad(attributed to Lesches) andIliouPersis(Arctinus) are more likely to have dealt with the Trojan Horse than the surviving complete works from the “Epic Cycle.” Despite this, information on the Wooden Horse may be gleaned from other ancient sources, such as Virgil’s Aeneid, which is a work of literature.

Prelude to the Wooden Horse

Prior to the arrival of the Trojan Horse, the conflict between the Achaean armies of Agamemnon and the defenders of Troy had stretched on for 10 years, and while cities loyal to Troy had fallen to the Achaeans, the walls of Troy remained steadfast against them. Despite the fact that both sides suffered the loss of their most famous soldiers, Achilles on the Greek side and Hector on the Trojan side, neither side was able to achieve a decisive edge. Calchas and later Helenus prophesied about how Troy would be destroyed, yet even with the bow and arrows of Heracles, the son of Achilles, and the stolen Palladium from the Achaean army, Troy remained impregnably strong.

The Trojan Horse is Built

​The likes of Neoptolemus andPhilocteteswere keen to continue fighting, but both were relatively new to the battlefield, for the other battle weary Achaean heroes, it was decided that now was the time for subterfuge rather than conflict.Thus the idea of the Wooden Horse was put forward. Surviving sources give credit to either Odysseus, under the guidance of the goddess Athena, or to the seer Helenus, for the concept of the Trojan Horse. The idea being that a large wooden horse would be constructed of sufficient size that a number of heroes could hide inside it, and then some method of enticing the Trojans to take the horse inside Troy must be devised.With the idea in place, design and construction was given over to Epeius, son of Panopeus, whilstAjax the Lesserassisted. Wood was cut from Mount Ida, and for three days the Achaeans toiled to craft a horse like structure upon wheels. Then touches including hooves of bronze and a bridle of ivory and bronze were added to make the Wooden Horse more elegant.The people of Troy saw the Wooden Horse being built, but they failed to see the hidden compartment inside the horse’s belly, or the ladder inside, or indeed the holes in the horse’s mouth which allowed air into the hidden section.

War had been raging between Agamemnon’s Achaean troops and the defenders of Troy for ten years before the Trojan Horse arrived, and while many cities associated with Troy had been captured by the Achaeans, the walls of Troy remained intact. Despite the fact that both sides suffered the loss of their most famous soldiers, Achilles on the Greek side and Hector on the Trojan side, neither side was able to gain a significant advantage. Calchas and later Helenus prophesied about how Troy would be destroyed, yet even with the bow and arrows of Heracles, the son of Achilles, and the stolen Palladium from the Achaean army, Troy remained steadfast in the face of overwhelming odds.

Heroes Within the Trojan Horse

As the Trojan Horse was being built, a group of Achaean heroes slipped inside the concealed compartment and waited for their chance to strike. Traditional accounts place the number of Achaean heroes in the belly of the Wooden Horse somewhere between 23 and 50, with John Tzetes, a Byzantine poet, placing it at 23, and the Bibliotheca of Alexandria placing it at 50. Later on, it became traditional to refer to the Trojan Horse as containing 40 heroes, according to popular belief. The most well-known of these heroes were, possibly, the following:

  • Odysseus – King of Ithaca, heir to Achilles’ armor, and the most crafty of all the Achaean heroes
  • Odysseus – King of Ithaca
  • Odysseus In the mythology of Locris, Ajax the Lesser was the king of the kingdom, and he was renowned for his agility on foot and his prowess with a spear. At least until the arrival in the Greek camp of Helenus, Agamemnon depended primarily on the prophesies and counsel of Calchas, the Achaean seer, whose forecasts and counsel Agamemnon leaned greatly on throughout the battle. Following the death of Achilles, Diomedes was proclaimed the greatest of the Achaean heroes, and he even went so far as to injure the gods Ares and Aphrodite. Hector’s hero, Idomeneus, was the hero who defended Crete against Hector and killed 20 Trojan heroes. The king of Sparta, the spouse of Helen, and the brother of Agamemnon is Menelaus. According to legend, Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, was destined to battle at Troy in order for the Achaeans to emerge victorious over the Trojans. As the son of Poeas and the owner of Heracles bow and arrow, Philoctetes was a latecomer to the conflict, but he was a very adept bowman. Son of Telamon and another renowned archer in the Achaean ranks, Teucer was born in the year 480 BCE.
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List of Greeks Within the Wooden Horse

Acamas Idomenus
Agapenor Iphidamas
Ajax the Lesser Leonteus
Amphidamas Machaon
Amphimachus Meges
Anticlus Menelaus
Antimachus Menetheus
Antiphates Meriones
Calchas Neoptlemus
Cyanippus Odysseus
Demophon Peneleus
Diomedes Philoctetes
Echion Podalirius
Epeius Polypoetes
Eumelus Sthenelus
Euryalus Teucer
Eurydamas Thalpius
Eurymachus Thersander
Euryplyus Thaos
Ialmenus Thrasymedes

The Intrigue Begins

With heroes hidden inside the Wooden Horse, the rest of the Achaean army now burnt their camp, boarded their ships, and set sail, giving the appearance that they were abandoning the battlefield and war. The Achaean’s of course had not sailed far, perhaps only as far as Tenedos, and were now awaiting the signal to return.The next morning, the Trojans saw that their enemies were no longer camped outside their city, and all that remained of the Achaean presence was a large Wooden Horse.

ODYSSEUS– King of Ithaca, heir to Achilles’ armor, and the most cunning of all the Achaean heroes; Odysseeus– son of Odysseus; Odysseeus– son of Odysseeus; Odysseeus– son of Odysseeus; Odysseeus– son of Odysseeus; Odysseeus– son of Odysseeus; Odysseeus– daughter of In the mythology of Locris, Ajax the Lesser was the king of the kingdom, and he was renowned for his agility on foot as well as his prowess with the spear.

  • At least until the arrival in the Greek camp of Helenus, Agamemnon depended primarily on the prophesies and counsel of Calchas, the Achaean seer, whose forecasts and counsel Agamemnon relied greatly upon throughout the battle.
  • Hector’s hero, Idomeneus, defended Crete against Hector and murdered 20 Trojan heroes in the process.
  • According to legend, Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, was destined to battle at Troy in order for the Achaeans to win the war.
  • Son of Telamon and another renowned archer in the Achaean ranks, Teucer was born in the year 480 B.C.

The Story of Sinon

As a result, it was determined that a Greek hero would remain behind to attempt to persuade the Trojans to withdraw the Wooden Horse from the location where it had been constructed; and this Achaean hero turned out to be Sinon, son of Aesimus. Sinon, of course, had been kidnapped by the Trojans, and he had now begun to recount his “story.” Upon learning that he was to be sacrificed to provide for favourable winds for the Achaean fleet, Sinon would recount his escape from the Achaean camp to his Trojan captors, exactly as Iphigenia had done ten years previously.

Sinon also informed the Trojans that the Wooden Horse had been constructed on such a grand scale as to ensure that it would not be able to pass through the main gate of Troy, preventing the Trojans from capturing the horse and obtaining the blessing of Athena as a result of doing so.

The majority of the Trojans who listened to Sinon’s speech believed what he was saying, but there were others who were skeptical as well.

Laocoon and Cassandra Doubt the Trojan Horse

To begin with, there was Laocoon, a priest of Apollo in Troy, whom Virgil had heard say the immortal words “I fear the Greeks, even when they bring gifts,” and the priest even went so far as to try and hit the flank of the Trojan Horse with his spear, which Virgil thought was a good idea at the time. Laocoon and his sons were killed by sea serpents before he could do any damage to the Achaeans’ plot. Poseidon, who was associated with the Greeks, intervened before Laocoon and his sons could do any harm.

As a result, the Sinon’s were believed, and the Achaean was granted his freedom by King Priam, who permitted him to roam around Troy while the Trojans plotted how to get the Wooden Horse into Troy.

Keep an eye out for Greeks bringing gifts.

Helen and the Trojan Horse

Once the Trojan Horse got safely inside Troy, the entire city joined in a tremendous celebration, but the heroes trapped inside the Wooden Horse still had one more obstacle to face. Helen, for some reason, recognized the Wooden Horse for what it was, and as she walked around it, Helen would imitate the sounds of the ladies who were married to the Achaean heroes who were housed within. Helen’s motivation for doing so has been contested throughout history, although it is widely accepted that she was demonstrating her own intelligence rather than assisting the Trojans.

However, despite hearing the voices of their spouses, not a single one of the concealed Achaeans answered the phone when it was rang.

HEROES EXIT The Trojan Horse

​As night fell, the celebrations in Troy continued, until the majority of the population of Troy were in a drunken stupor. Then, either Sinon from the outside, or Epeius within, unlocked the hatch to the belly of the Trojan Horse, and deployed the ladder; and one-by-one the Achaean heroes within descended Troy.​At the same time, a signal light was lit, either by Sinon or Helen, recalling the Achaean fleet from its anchorage at Tenedos.Some of the Achaean heroes made their way to the gates of Troy, and silently opened them up, before guarding them to prevent their closure again; and whilst these men awaited the return of the rest of the Achaean army.Other heroes previously hidden with the Trojan Horse, now started to kill the slumbering Trojan heroes and soldiers. This killing soon turned into a slaughter, and eventually it was said there was but one male survivor of Troy, Aeneas; whilst many of the Trojan Women had become prizes of war.Thus the Trojan Horse had helped to achieve what ten years of fighting could not, the fall of the mighty city of Troy.

As soon as the Trojan Horse was brought into Troy, the entire city joined in a jubilant celebration, but the heroes trapped inside the Wooden Horse still faced a formidable adversary. Irrespective of how Helen perceived the Wooden Horse, she would walk around it imitating the voices of the Achaean heroines wedded to the horse’s Achaean heroes. Helen’s motivation for doing so has been contested throughout history, although it is widely accepted that she was demonstrating her own intelligence rather than assisting the Trojan cause.

God vs Humans in The Iliad and The Odyssey – Free Essay Example

The Iliad and the Odyssey are two of the most famous Greek epics of all time, and they are both set in Greece. Both of these works were written by Homer, and both of them tell the stories of Greek heroes. The Iliad tells the story of Achilles, the most powerful fighter who fought for the Achaean army during the Trojan War. The Odyssey depicts the adventures of King Odysseus, who longs merely to return home after having fought in the same battle as his father. In both pieces of literature, the gods frequently interfere on the behalf of the heroes and, as a result, influence the path of their lives.

The instances of divine intervention depicted in The Iliad and The Odyssey aim to highlight the disparity in status between simple mortals and omniscient gods in the two epics.

In two of his poems, Homer expresses his conviction in the power of poetry.

They are described as vindictive and cruel, and they illustrate throughout the two works of literature how completely at their mercy mortals are.

Odysseus has completed his service as a soldier in the war and is returning home through the sea to Ithaca.

As a punishment, Poseidon summons the sea to anger at Odysseus, resulting in the crew being stuck at sea for several years at a time.

Even Zeus, the king of the Gods, makes an attempt to rescue Odysseus, but his brother rejects him and, in doing so, proves how even a great deity can do little to quell their wrath and anger.

The Iliad also depicts the relationships between the God and the humanity.

In fact, he disposes of so many dead in the river Xanthus (or Scamander) that the river deity comes up to prevent Achilles from continuing his journey and the soldier assaults him.

Achilles, who is well-known among humans for his remarkable strength, is yet no match for even the most powerful of the lesser gods.

Xanthus, while being easily vanquished by the other gods, was able to overcome the great Achilles in a matter of minutes.

When even the most powerful human can be defeated by the weakest of the gods, it demonstrates the deities’ superiority.

They are solely concerned with the kind of individuals that possess abilities that are virtually divine in nature, but which ordinary mortals do not possess.

When Athena, the Goddess of knowledge, learns of Odysseus and his all-too-long journey away from home, she declares that her “‘heart is torn for Odysseus, / the strategist of war,'” as she puts it (Odyssey 1.67-8).

She wishes for him to be successful and have a fulfilling life in comparison to the people in whom she does not see any potential for success.

In the Iliad, a similar circumstance occurs, albeit this time it does not involve the main character.

When the deity Apollo sees Agênor, he sends him courage, because he considers him to be a “strong and honourable” man (Iliad 21.633).

In the absence of these attributes, Agenor would have been just another soldier in the deities’ army, and he may even have been killed during the coming fight.

In Homer’s Odyssey, Eumaios, the man who takes Odysseus in when he eventually returns home in disguise, is referred to be little more than a “forester” and a “swineherd” throughout the novel (Odyssey 14.56, 65).

The course of his life is not disrupted in any manner, and no divinity pays him a covert visit in disguise, as they are so fond of doing in the Bible.

Throughout his works, Homer makes allusions to the hierarchy of the gods and men.

A good example of hierarchical behavior may be found at the conclusion the Odyssey, when Odysseus and his son begin to slay the individuals who have offended them.

She only intervenes when her comrades are on the verge of death (Odyssey 22.263, 264).

Athena is ultimately in charge of human life, since she is the one who makes all of the final decisions, including whether or not to reject any suitors and whether or not to go to war on Ody’s behalf.


The highest gods have complete power over everything, while lesser gods may at the very least exert authority on everyone on the mortal spectrum.

The Iliad and The Odyssey both contain instances of divine intervention that serve to underscore the inferiority of humanity while enhancing the importance of great heroes and gods.

In order to comprehend the characters of the epics as well as the epics themselves, it is necessary to grasp the motives of the gods–the fundamental driving forces of the poems–first and foremost. Did you find this example to be useful?

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