How To Read A Horse Pedigree? (Solution found)

The horse that is “registered” is at the top of the certificate. The pedigree that follows is the horse’s sire and dam. The sire (which is the father to the horse) is on the top or first branch of the pedigree. The second branch is the dam (the mother of the horse).

When reading a pedigree What is the sire?

Step 2: The upper portion of the pedigree always includes the sire’s ( father of your dog ) information. The sire’s information will include registration number, dog’s name and most often a short narrative on the dog. The sire will be connected to your dog off the top of the tree.

What does a horse’s pedigree mean?

1: a register recording a line of ancestors The pedigree traces the family back to the 18th century. 2a: an ancestral line: lineage That horse has an impressive pedigree.

Is the sire the mom or dad?

The word sire in the horse world is usually used in place of the father. A horse’s father is the sire, and so is the horse’s male parent. A foal’s sire then is the stallion who was bred to the mare to produce that foal. A mare can’t be a sire, as sire only refers to the male antecedents of a horse.

How do I know if my horse has a good bloodline?

Information on a horse’s bloodline can be both valuable and interesting. The information you’ll see includes:

  1. The horse’s name.
  2. The year of the horse’s birth.
  3. The horse’s color.
  4. The horse’s sex characteristics (not strictly male/female — includes classifications like gelding, colt, etc.)
  5. The horse’s sire and dam.

How do I look up my horses papers?

How do I look up AQHA records and pedigrees?

  1. Free Records.
  2. Step 1: Go to
  3. Step 2: Click Free Records.
  4. Step 3: Select a record type from the dropdown.
  5. Step 4: Search by horse registration number or name.
  6. Step 5: Type in your email address.
  7. Premium AQHA Records.

What is a dad horse called?

Sire: The father of a horse. A horse becomes a sire after one of his offspring wins a race at a recognized racetrack. Spell: When a horse has been given a break from racing and been freshened up. Stallion: A male horse that has not been gelded (castrated).

What is a black type pedigree?

Black type: Indicates a stakes winning/placed horse in a pedigree. Typically will specify the race if a graded/group event. More black type can typically indicate a better pedigree.

What does slipped mean in horse breeding?

Older mares are over-represented as are those mares with a history of reproductive loss. While many mares will simply ‘ slip’ their foal early in gestation, leaving the owner to find the foetus in the paddock, mares aborting later in their pregnancy may need assistance.

What is DP in horse racing?

The Dosage Index is a mathematical figure used by breeders of Thoroughbred race horses, and sometimes by bettors handicapping horse races, to quantify a horse’s ability, or inability, to negotiate the various distances at which horse races are run.

Why is a horse called a dam?

A sire and dam refer to a horse’s parents. Just as you refer to your parents as mom and dad, a horse’s parents are referred to as a dam and sire. A sire is a term used to describe the father of a horse. A sire can also be referred to as a stud.

What does DAM mean in horse racing terms?

In horse racing, a sire is the father of a racehorse, and the dam is the mother.

Is Dam a female horse?

In Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse more than four years old. The word can also be used for other female equine animals, particularly mules and zebras, but a female donkey is usually called a “jenny”. A broodmare is a mare used for breeding. A horse’s female parent is known as its dam.

What makes a horse a stud?

Male animals made available for breeding to outside female animals are said to be “standing at stud”, or at “stud service”, referencing the relatively high probability that they are kept at a stud farm. The word stud is often restricted to larger domesticated (especially farm) animals, such as cattle and horses.

What is the most famous Quarter horse?

Seven of the most famous ranch and quarter horse bloodlines are Doc Bar, Driftwood, Two Eyed Jack, Joe Hancock, Playgun, Old Sorrel, and Peppy San Badger. These horses have played an influential role in the Quarter horse breed and ranch horse industry.

What is the best cutting horse breed?

Top 5 Cutting Sires of 2020

  • Hottish. 2008 sorrel (Spots Hot-Stylish Play Lena by Docs Stylish Oak)
  • Once In A Blue Boon. 2008 brown roan (Peptoboonsmal-Autumn Boon by Dual Pep)
  • High Brow Cat. 1988 chestnut (High Brow Hickory-Smart Little Kitty by Smart Little Lena)
  • Dual Rey.
  • Metallic Cat.

How to Read a Pedigree

Reading a pedigree is one of the most essential parts of a horse sale. It’s a huge part of the due diligence of buying a horse. If you are going to be spending any sort of money on a horse, then you need to know as much as you can about the horse. There isn’t a lemon law in the horse world like there is if you buy a car. So you need to make sure you have a horse that is a caliber you are expecting or you could be out quite a bit of money. Just a fair warning. This post won’t help you rate/grade/appraise a horse.

So if you are looking for something more advance, this isn’t it.

Different Parts of the Pedigree

The lineage is divided into a number of distinct sections. It will have either all or a subset of the following characteristics starting at the top:

  • Three Cross
  • Sire Blurb
  • Female Family
  • Race Record
  • Produce Record
  • Engagements
  • Subject Line
  • Three Cross

The objective of a pedigree is to have a comprehensive grasp of what the family has done or is currently doing. A broad concept of what a horse’s life is like may be gained by reading the material provided above. There are other components that contribute to the determination of their worth. Things like as conformation, temperament, intellect, pace, and so on are all important. We’ll get into those in a minute. In the meanwhile, if you’re interested in learning more about how to read a pedigree, continue reading!

Angela Renee’s full name is Angela Renee.

It was written in August of 2015, according to our records.

Subject Line

If you’re looking at a sales catalog, the subject line will inform you who is selling or who the consignor is, as well as the name of the horse that’s being offered for purchase. If the horse is not given a name, it will be identified by its color and gender. For example, “Chestnut filly.” In the example we’re presenting, you can see who the consignor is as well as the name of the horse being offered for sale. The worth of a horse remains unchanged as a result of this. This is only to provide you with some contact information for people with whom you may speak if you wish to learn more about this horse.

Because you’ll want to inspect a horse and see it in person before placing a bid on it, and you’ll also want to know when it’s going to be sold, these are essential.

Three Cross

This is the most fundamental component of a lineage. In this section, you may learn about the horse’s ancestors. Taking a look at this, you will be able to see the tree’s ancestry going back three generations. One of the primary reasons you would look at this is to find out what sort of caliber horse you are looking at, which is important information. When you look at it, you’ll be able to tell which horses are whose relatively quickly.

For example, you can see that A.P. Indy is the great-grandfather of the breed. That sire has a great deal of influence. To some extent, the price of that horse was determined by the sire’s performance (in a positive way).

Sire Blurb

Following the three-cross, there are two major sections to the pedigree. There is a brief about the sire and a family of females. It is explained briefly in the sire blurb that he was a racing horse in the past, and then it is discussed in detail about his descendants. So let’s take a look at the Bernadini’s sire’s biographical information. Bernardini is a champion racehorse, which is a tremendous accomplishment. His accomplishments on the track are every bit as amazing as the $3,060,480 he has amassed.

  1. That demonstrates the caliber of races in which he was participating.
  2. However, this is only part of the solution.
  3. If you are planning to purchase a horse, you need be aware of not only how brilliant the lineage is, but also how well they are able to pass on their abilities to their children.
  4. He has harvested six harvests (6 years of horses racing).
  5. A substantial sum of money has been sold.
  6. So far, he has 39 black type champions, who have collectively received about $45 million.
  7. This implies that his wins have earned more money than the typical horse throughout the course of his career.
  8. If the figure was closer to $33 million, rather than $45 million, the situation would be slightly worse.
  9. It’s possible to see some of the horses that he has bred, and they’re all rather stunning.
  10. Additionally, you can see that all of the horses listed in the sire description are winners.
  11. This also represents around half of the tale.

Female Family

The feminine side of the family is explored in greater depth. The female family’s actions are discussed in depth because there are far more dams than there are sires. A single sire may produce around 50-100 offspring each year, whereas a single dam can produce one child per year. As a result, we have a lot more information on the sire simply because there are more of them competing. The mare, on the other hand, performs an equally vital function. To have a better idea of what is going on, let’s walk through this one step by step.

  • In this case, the mother, the mother’s mother, and the mother’s mother’s mother are all involved.
  • As a result, the first dam competed at the second and third levels, winning three races and earning somewhat more than $100,000.
  • Then we go to talking about their progeny and descendants.
  • He is also mentioned in the sire’s blurb, which means he is considered to be one of his best horses.
  • As you can see from the pedigree, the majority of the horses mentioned are of the black variety.
  • There will also be a large number of horses that are believed to be of the light kind.
  • More information will be provided later, along with a link to the regulations, but for now just trust us that the more flamboyant a pedigree’s appearance, the better.

We’ll also explain why certain words are in all capitals and others aren’t, as well as the distinction between the two. This falls under the same category as the reason why some people are brave and others aren’t.

Race Record

This is a relatively self-explanatory question. The majority of the pedigree discusses what his or her ancestors has accomplished, while the racing record and produce record are concerned with what the particular horse has accomplished. The sire blurb and female family section are excellent indicators of the horse’s potential, but the racing record demonstrates what the horse has really accomplished. So let’s take a look at what’s going on in this race record one by one. As a result, Angela Renee raced at positions 2 and 3.

  1. We record every race in which she finished in the top three, but we do not include races in which she did not finish in the top three.
  2. We would say something along the lines of: At number two, three victories in five starts.
  3. She didn’t place in the top three in the other two races.
  4. So her first race at two was a Grade 1 Stakes event, which is the most prestigious sort of race that can be won, and she earned $180,000 from that race, which was her first win overall.
  5. If the horse has a lengthier racing history, we will usually list down the totals at the end of the race.
  6. When looking at her race record, we can see that she has won two races and finished second in another two.
  7. She also received a total of $462,000 in revenue from all of her endeavors.


Engagements provide information on what the subject horse is involved in. Normally, this will tell you whether or not they are registered with the state. The importance of this is due to the fact that state purse incentive schemes exist. They will also state whether or not they are eligible for certain sorts of races, such as the Breeders’ Cup. They will also include a line indicating how the horse is being sold, such as if it is being sold as a broodmare, a racing prospect, a broodmare/racing prospect, or a stallion prospect.

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Final Thoughts

If you aren’t sure what to look for on a pedigree page, it might be a little intimidating.

If you have any questions about what is going on inside a pedigree page, please do not hesitate to ask them. This should provide you with a rough knowledge of what goes into creating a pedigree page, but if anything is still unclear, please don’t hesitate to contact us for clarification.

Pedigree Basics: Terminology

Pedigree analysis is likely one of the most difficult perspectives to study for a handicapper, but don’t be scared by the prospect of learning it. A little basic information may be quite beneficial, especially when wagering on races involving 2-year-olds, first-time starts, or horses racing on a different surface than their usual one. In addition to genetics, a successful racehorse’s surroundings, upbringing, and training regimen all play a role in his success on the track (not to mention just pure luck).

  1. (See also: sire and dam.) Training can surely help to improve (or worsen) such predispositions, but the root of the problem is always genetics.
  2. First, let’s go through the fundamentals of terminology, using Kentucky Oaks and Belmont Stakes champion in 2007 as an example.
  3. Rags to Richesis the progeny (offspring) of A.P.
  4. Better than Honour in this case.
  5. Her dam’s sire (more particularly, damsire) is Deputy Minister, who was named Canadian Horse of the Year in 1981.
  6. It’s Far Better Than Honouris a black-type producer, which means that she has produced multiple stakes winners, including the Belmont Stakes winner, during the course of her career.
  7. Because they are descended from the same dam but are sired by separate sires, JazilandMan of Iron and Rags to Riches are called half-brothers.

Indy, and he is thought to be a three-quarter brother of Rags to Riches (Rags to Riches is his older brother).

If you look at the pedigree chart above, you’ll note that the stallionsBold RulerandNasrullahappear twice in the lineage of Rags to Riches, indicating that they are important in the breeding program.

When reading a pedigree, it is usually best to read it from top to bottom.

If you are looking for information regarding a mare’s progeny and their individual racing records, you will be hard pushed to find one that is more informative than this one.

Identical pedigree and racing information for horses racing in Europe may be accessed at Racing Post and for horses racing in Australia and New Zealand can be found at Racing and Sports.

I felt it would be a good idea to seek advice from a professional in order to find out.

He also publishes a must-read blog for anyone interested in international racing and breeding at

In the same way that humans pass down certain genes to their children, do sires and dams pass down specific genes to their offspring that impact specific areas of physical development such as color, height (including bone structure), and muscularity (including muscle mass)?

The two primary colors are bay/brown and chestnut, and chestnut is a recessive gene, which means that you must have a recessive chestnut gene from each parent in order to have a chestnut color.

Some stallions, for example, are dominant bays—that is, they do not contain the chestnut gene — and their progeny are always bays.

Grays, on the other hand, are feasible at any point in time when these genes come together.

Q: Is there a relationship between the size of horses and how far or fast they can run?

What about shorter horses in sprints?

What do you think?

However, lighter-made horses appear to do better on turf and over longer distances, while sprinters, like people, have a tendency to be heavier than their counterparts.

Suppose the sire excelled at sprinting and the dam’s family is known for their stamina.

Extend your body.

What about the other way around: If the sire is aRouterA distance runner, this is a good sign “>router, but the dam is only capable of sprinting?

In the end, it all comes down to the stallions and mares in question.

And there are mares and families that are more focused on speed than others, such as Carson City, who was more suited for dirt racing than others.

When this occurs, it is referred to as “fish and fowl” mating.

Take, for example, the most well-known example of combiningDynaformerwith aCarson Citymare—the sad Derby heroBarbaro—as a case in point.

A complete sister to the stakes-winning sprinterLucky Lavendar Gal, hisCarson Citydam has won each of her seven races over sprint distances, much like a typicalCarson City.

She turned out to be the ideal partner for Dynaformer.

Does it make a difference if some hereditary features alter or disappear after so many generations?

Q: What does it imply when you hear the word “back class” in a pedigree and what does it signify exactly?

Q: Could you recommend any decent books that are must-reads for someone who is just getting started with researching pedigrees and bloodlines?

What are the traditional sources?

Abe Hewitt’s The Great Breeders and Their Methods is another excellent book with historical background information.

A:Keep an eye out for sires whose offspring excel on both grass and off-track surfaces.

A horse that has not yet been victorious in a race “While looking at distance races on the turf, for example, seek for turf and distance sires, and when looking at maiden races, look for maiden sires. Some other places of interest that you might find interesting

Reading Our Pedigree Charts

Understanding our handicapping reports and the phrases we use across the site might be difficult at first, but this page is a fantastic place to start. The example Race Index Summary chart shown below serves as an example.


Our pedigree handicapping reports include racing index charts that contain the information shown below. A dose profile (DP) consists of the following elements: brilliant, intermediate, classic, solid, and professional. The dosage profile is a sequence of five numbers that indicates how many points this horse has inherited from its sires in each area. The dosage profile is calculated using the following formula: Each category has a different focus, ranging from speed (Brilliant) to stamina (Professional).

  1. A horse with a DI of 4.0 would have 4 times the amount of speed points as he has stamina points, and he would be heavily favored in sprint events.
  2. The higher the number, the “faster” the horse is said to be.
  3. This signifies that the horse has an equal amount of speed points as he does stamina, which is represented by CD = 0.
  4. Using racingbreeding statistics from more than 6,500 stallions, the Genetic Strength Value (GSV) is calculated for each generation of a horse’s pedigree rating.
  5. Sire (Sire Rating)- This is a rating for the horse’s father, also known as the sire.
  6. If the value is more than one, the sire is statistically superior.BM Sire (Broodmare Sire Rating)- This is the broodmare sire rating (also known as the dam’s sire rating).
  7. Reines- There have been around 1,000 Reine-de-course mares designated by Ellen Parker during the course of her career ().
  8. The greater the number of reines, the better bred the horse is.

As a general rule, it can be ignored until the percentage is greater than 5.00 percent. In that situation, the horse’s lineage has practically an excessive amount of inbreeding. A percentage more than 10% suggests an excessive amount of inbreeding, and such horses often fare poorly on the racetrack.

Using the numbers for handicapping

A number of handicappers think that pedigree ratings may be quite useful in handicapping, particularly for maiden and maiden claiming races, and that pedigree ratings should be used wherever possible. A horse’s choice for distance, as well as whether or not the horse is more likely to be a sprinter or router, can be determined by the amount of medication given to the horse. The development of horses with high DI values is usually more rapid than that of other horses, and they are more likely to be sprinter types who can manage short distances.

  1. When looking for better-bred horses, you may utilize the GSV to your advantage.
  2. When calculating GSV value, the horse’s sire and broodmare sire ratings are significant aspects to consider, and all three should be considered in conjunction with the other criteria.
  3. The majority of horses will have a COI in the range of 2-3 percent, which is normally not a concern in racing.
  4. Horses with a COI more than 5 percent should be avoided, while horses with a COI greater than 10 percent should be avoided even more.
  5. At the end of the nineteenth century, a man named Bruce Lowe categorizes each of these families and assigns the number 1 position to the family that has generated the most stakes winners, the number 2 position to the family that has produced the second most stakes winners, and so on.
  6. There are around 200 branches or sub-families that have been identified as of now.
  7. There are some individuals who believe that some families are considered “sire” families, while others believe that they are “broodmare” families.
  8. For example, a mare with a family 1-x pedigree will always be a tail female to La Troienne, which is a particularly good female family in the world of racing horses.

Whenever you see a pedigree online, the female family numbers for each horse in the most recent generation are displayed at the bottom of the far right column of the pedigree. If you’re interested in learning more about female families, check out the following website:

Pedigree chart information

MOST DESIRABLE OCCASION ch. F, published in 1999 = 7-0-17-0-0 in the DP (24) DI = 1.82, CD = 0.58, and so on.

DESIRABLE MOMENT ch. 1999 PETESKI(CAN) ch. 199011-7-2-1 $1,287,864 AFFIRMED(USA) ch. 197529-22-5-1 $2,393,818 Champion EXCLUSIVE NATIVE (USA) ch. 1965 RAISE A NATIVE (USA) ch. 1961 8-f
EXCLUSIVE (USA) ch. 1953 10-a
WONT TELL YOU (USA) b. 1962 CRAFTY ADMIRAL (USA) b. 1948 8-c
SCARLET RIBBON (USA) b. 1957 23-b
VIVE (USA) ch. 19858-4-1-1 $103,602 NUREYEV(USA) b. 1977 NORTHERN DANCER (CAN) b. 1961 2-d
SPECIAL (USA) b. 1969 5-h
VIVA REGINA 1979 HIS MAJESTY (USA) b. 1968 4-d
ALYS JOYCE 1991 CAPOTE(USA) dkb/br. 198410-3-0-1 $714,470 SEATTLE SLEW(USA) dkb/br. 1974 BOLD REASONING (USA) dkb/br. 1968 1-k
MY CHARMER (USA) b. 1969 13-c
TOO BALD (USA) dkb/br. 1964 BALD EAGLE (USA) b. 1955 4-m
HIDDEN TALENT (USA) b. 1956 21-a
AKRON 198412-2-2-1 $59,625 ALYDAR(USA) ch. 1975 RAISE A NATIVE (USA) ch. 1961 8-f
SWEET TOOTH (USA) b. 1965 9-c
SAVE WILD LIFE 1977 QUACK (USA) b. 1969 1-w
SAVE gr. 1970 14-b

Right below the horse’s name is a line that contains some current racing statistics regarding the horse in question. The following is how the line should be read:, DP is an abbreviation for Direct Participation (tot points) In most cases, ancestor information like as name, nationality, year born, starts-wins-place-shows and career earnings will be included in the pedigree tree. The presence of an X-Factor between generations is indicated by a dashed line. Inbreeding is shown by a colored box next to an ancestor.

  1. Following the horse’s name, year of birth, and color, the first few generations of the pedigree provide the horse’s racing record and earnings for that particular generation.
  2. When looking at a horse’s pedigree, there are a few characteristics you should check for that are very essential.
  3. We examine to see if the dam raced and won, as well as if she was a stakes winner, before making our decision.
  4. Many of our pedigree charts include information about the horses’ racing achievements and earnings throughout their careers.
  5. We also take into consideration the number of female family members (bottom right corner of the pedigree).
  6. I’d like to see a horse come from one of these families rather than the others, but it shouldn’t have an impact on handicapping selections in most situations.
  7. This denotes that a horse has won a Grade I race or has been crowned champion of the world.
  8. Become a subscriber now for unlimited access!

Reading Pedigrees – The Horse

The horse you see–or the foal you imagine–represents the descendants of many generations of ancestors. The owners of their ancestors made judgments about marrying horses, and they planned each generation in advance. They chose horses by looking at the records of past horsemen’s accomplishments, which were documented in pedigrees. Individuals who fulfill the requirements of a breed registration are considered members of that breed. The registry, which may be an organisation or a government entity, is responsible for maintaining the entries in a studbook.

  1. Knowing a horse’s pedigree can help you forecast whether or not it will be a good performance or will make good breeding stock in the future.
  2. Starting with a three-step method that includes several prominent registries as well as European sport horses, here’s what you need to know.
  3. You’ll see charts in advertising for horses for sale and stallions at stud, as well as in sales catalogues and farm brochures, among other places.
  4. The registry that provided the certificate validates the accuracy of the lineage by referring to stallions and mares who were registered in studbooks, according to the certificate.
  5. The majority of pedigrees are written from left to right, branching on the “top line” (the sire and his ancestors) and the “bottom line” (the dam and her ancestors) (the dam and her ancestors).

The certificate should include the following information: registration number, birth date, color, markings, sex, breeder, and an identification number.

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What is a Sire and Dam Horse? Horse Pedigree Terms

We’re going to go over some horse pedigree words today, so pay attention. Pay great attention to the details because this material may be rather intricate. It is quite acceptable if you do not comprehend everything. Throughout this section, we will attempt to explain everything in the most straightforward manner possible so that you can better comprehend the many horse pedigree jargon. The first item we’re going to speak about is the horse’s father and mother, which will be followed by a discussion of the horse’s siblings.

After that, we’ll go through exactly how to read a horse’s pedigree and what you should look for.

How To Read a Horse Pedigree Chart

A good starting point is essential when investigating pedigrees or learning about etymological terms. The certificate itself certifies the horse’s identification and is written in a left-to-right direction from top to bottom. The registry that produces the certificate has previously confirmed the authenticity of the information and will name the stallions as well as the mares or dams that produced the information. A family tree should have four generations, which allows you to look at your parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, and even great-great-grandparents at one glance.

What is a Dam Sire in Horses?

Whenever people are talking about a horse’s pedigree, the terms sire and dam are likely to be the two most frequently heard. These are the parents of a certain horse, and they are not specified further. It’s the same as referring to your own parents as mom and dad or mother and father, respectively. The mother of a horse, however, is referred to as a dam, and the father is referred to as a sire in this context. This is due to the fact that horse breeding is extremely crucial. Horses are not the same as stray cats.

Individuals expend a significant amount of money and effort in ensuring that the appropriate stallion is paired with the appropriate mare in order to produce the greatest outcomes in the new horse.

And, like with anything this significant and valuable as this amount of money, there will be unique conditions attached.

It’s exactly the same way we would refer to our own parents or grandparents.

As vital as the parents of a given horse, the grandparents of that horse are also important. It all comes down to the bloodline! This is how you can breed a horse to have the characteristics you want.

What is a Dam Horse?

A dam horse is just a horse that is the mother of another horse. That is all there is to it in terms of explanation. When referring to a horse as being descended from a certain dam (mother), you will frequently hear people refer to the horse as “the horse is out of” or “the horse is from” the particular dam they are referring to. This differs from the way you describe where a horse’s sire originates from in the previous paragraph. Another key phrase to be familiar with is broodmare, which refers to a female horse, also known as a mare, that is utilized in the process of producing horses.

Most of the time, a stallion will only breed with the greatest of the best broodmares.

What is a Sire Horse?

The sire horse is slightly more essential than the dam horse in terms of breeding. A sire is the phrase used to describe the horse’s father, and it is derived from the Latin word meaning father. When referring to the sire, it is sometimes referred to as the stud. If the horse is not going to be utilized for breeding purposes, it will most likely be castrated before being sold. The sire, on the other hand, is an uncastrated male horse that is primarily utilized for breeding. These are the greatest of the best, and nothing less.

  • Traditionally, one stallion is given the opportunity to mate with all of the finest mares.
  • This is how the horse breeding industry operates.
  • “This horse is by that sire,” you’d remark, or something along those lines.
  • People will pay money to have their mares bred to a sire since he is such a highly sought-after horse.

What Does Broodmare Sire Mean?

In this context, the word broodmare sire is specifically reserved for referring to the father of the dam’s offspring. If you wanted to find out who the father of the horse’s mother is, you would use this word to do it. Essentially, you’re inquiring as to who the horse’s maternal grandpa is on his mother’s side. Some individuals may use the terms damsire and broodmare sire interchangeably when referring to the same animal. The distaff refers to the side of the family that the horse’s mother is on, which is the horse’s maternal side.

This includes horses that have been in existence for hundreds of years or more.

How Do You Read a Horse’s Pedigree?

The pedigree of a horse refers to the horse’s whole family tree. The father and mother, the grandparents on both sides, and even horses that have been in the family for several generations are all mentioned. The pedigree contains the blood of dozens or even hundreds of horses, depending on the breed. A chart is often used to depict the family tree. To understand the pedigree, all you have to do is read the chart. It will be divided into two lines: the top line will be for the sire and the bottom, for the dam.

There should be a certificate with every horse that has the registration number, the birth date, the gender, the breeder, the owner, the horse’s color, and even the names of the animal’s forefathers and foremothers.

What Does Black Type Pedigree Mean?

A horse with a black type pedigree has either won or finished second in a black type race in his or her lifetime. Breeders and purchasers will benefit from knowing which horses are winners and which horses aren’t by looking at this data. However, the situation is a little more complicated than this. If the horse has a black pedigree, his name will be inscribed in strong black writing on the stall door. If a horse wins a black type race, the name of the horse will be in all capital letters, indicating that it was the winner.

Please understand that a black-type race is the highest level of racing for thoroughbred horses and is defined as follows: This is essentially the equivalent of the Olympics for horses.

Obtainable from –

Arlene Magid ~ How to Read A Pedigree

How to Read a Pedigreeby Arlene Magid For many people the study of Arabian pedigrees is an endless source of fascination, and for serious breeders it is a requirement. Still, terminology remains puzzling. When asked about the dam line of a mare, this writer has heard owners reply “oh, she’s out of Khemosabi”. Actually, if Khemosabi is her maternal grandsire, the correct way to describe the pedigree is to say that the mare’s dam is by Khemosabi (out of is a term reserved to describe what mares have produced). Also, since Khemosabi is a stallion, he cannot be the “dam line” of the mare-the dam line is the females listed descending from the mother of the mare herself. Her “dam line” would trace to a mare like Bint Sahara, for example. By the time one tries to learn all the correct words for pedigree analysis, one’s head can be spinning. Taproot mares, family strains, plus symbols before and after names-it seems to be a foreign language, and one that one cannot buy a translation dictionary for in a local bookstore! For our example of a pedigree we will use that of the late, great Huckleberry Bey, who was been the leading halter and performance sire at the National shows for a number of years.To view Huckleberry Bey’s Pedigree, click here.

SIRE LINE The top part of the pedigree tracing through the sire, to his sire, and so forth is termed the “sire line”. This ends in the foundation sire, who is the penultimate source to whom the sire line traces. In Arabian pedigrees, this is always a horse bred in the desert whose parents are not named. For Huckleberry Bey, it is *Mirage, a grey stallion imported to America in 1928 by Roger Selby, who had bought him from Lady Wentworth of England. Since *Mirage left no registered get in England, his sire line appears in pedigrees today only through American sources. Had Sheila Varian not used the *Mirage great-great grandson Bay Abi as the foundation sire for her breeding program, the sire line might well be extinct today. Examplesof some other foundation sires are: Ibrahim (Poland), founder of the Skowronek sire line, Kuhailan Haifi (Poland), from which *Bask descends, and Saklawi I (Egypt), from whom Nazeer descends. The sons of a foundation sire form the branches of the sire line (think of a tree with branches extending from its central trunk). The sire line of Huckleberry Bey is marked in red on the six-generation pedigree chart that accompanies this article.Sometimes a sire line does not survive in direct male descent (as was nearly the case with *Mirage, whose sons were excellent broodmare sires). In such a case, it is a sire line that is said to exist “through the middle of the pedigree” as it is found only in females. Of course, this means that it is extinct as a sire line per se. There is such a horse in Huckleberry Bey’s pedigree-Karnak, the sire of Reina Regente. Karnak sired eight daughters and five sons. Of his sons. three left no get at all, one sired one daughter, and the fifth sired two daughters and a son who was gelded, thus rendering the sire line from Karnak defunct. However, Karnak’s daughters were highly prolific broodmares and through them he is found in many pedigrees today. Many of the winners at the 1998 U.S. Nationals were from sire lines commonly found today, such as those of Kuhailan Haifi, *Mirage (through Bay Abi) and Saklawi I(through various sources including Aswan, the Nazeer son who had so much influence on the Russian breeding program). However, other sire lines are still showing influence, including that of Seanderich, a desertbred stallion used at stud in Spain at the beginning of this century. 1998 U.S National Champions of this sire line include National Champion Western Pleasure C A Hermoso, National Champion Western Pleasure AOTR 40 and Over WN Knight Rider, National Champion Hunter *Betys, National Champion Show Hack Venus Del Nilo, and U.S. National Champion First Level Dressage Silversun De Nilo (a Half-Arabian).

THE FEMALE SIDE In Arabians, the tail female line is also called the dam line or family. It was especially prized by the Bedouins. The tail female descends through the dam (mother of the horse), her dam (the granddam), and so on to the taproot mare, who is always a desertbred. Examples of some prominent taproot mares include the Blunt’s Rodania (who is the taproot mare for Huckleberry Bey and whose line originates from her foals in England), the Davenport import *Urfah, and Mlecha from Poland (from whom the breed’s all time leading sire of champions, *Bask, descends). Breeders often make reference to “numbered” dams (third, fourth, etc.). The numbers indicate how many generations back they are from the horse whose pedigree is being read. Huckleberry Bey’s dam line is marked in blue on the pedigree chart. His dam is Taffona, his second dam is Waneta, his third dam is Rhadna, his fourth dam is Reina Regente, and his fifth dam is Rabbani. Huckleberry Bey is 11 generations removed from the foundation mare of his dam line, Rodania.The noted equine geneticist Michael Bowling found in an unpublished study of every 20th horse registered in Volume 72 of the American stud book (most of these were foals of 1996) a sampling which provided information on the most frequently found dam lines in modern stock. Of the top ten, four came through the Crabbet Stud (those of Rodania, Ghazieh, Basilisk and Ferida). Rodania was the dam line found most often in the horses studied-of the 500 horses in the group, she was the taproot ancestress of 69 of them (13.8%). Three of the top ten are from the 1906 Davenport importation (*Abeyah, *Urfah, the second most common, and *Wadduda, to whom Bint Sahara, Ferzon and Khemosabi trace, among others). One mare, El Dahma, founded her family in Egypt, and the Zulima tail female is found through Spanish pedigrees. Some of the less numerous dam lines have also produced important horses. The Polish dam line of Ukrainka is found today in tail female only through Forta, but she founded a dynasty of successful race and show horses. One of the rarest female families is that of Wild Thyme, whom the Blunts brought to England’s Crabbet stud in one of their early importations. U.S. National Champion Stallion Arn Ett Perlane traces to her in tail female. Another infrequently found line is that of Dafina, a desertbred mare brought to England in 1927. She had a daughter who went to Russia in the 1936 exportation from the Crabbet Stud, and from that daughter descends U.S. Reserve National Champion Stallion and National Champion sire Padrons Psyche so there is a refreshed presence of the Dafina line in current Arabian breeding. One other term from the dam’s portion of the pedigree is important. This is “broodmare sire”, the maternal grandsire. Huckleberry Bey’s broodmare sire is Raffon, noted for his excellent daughters. Certain stallions are famed for their production of exceptional mares, so the broodmare sire position in a pedigree is one to evaluate with care. Many significant breeding stallions are the grandsons of important broodmare sires. The complete female side of the pedigree (including the broomare sire, the dam, granddam and tail female line plus all the sires of those mares) is called the distaff side of the pedigree.

LINEBREEDING AND INBREEDING Linebreeding refers to the occurence of the same horse multiple times in the pedigree. In Huckleberry Bey’s pedigree, there is linebreeding to *Mirage and *Kareyma (Arabi Kabir and Ibn Mirage are 3/4 brothers), to Skowronek through his sons *Raffles, *Raseyn and Naseem, and to Indraff, the son of *Raffles who is the maternal grandsire of Gazon and the sire of Vadraff. (Raffon, who is by Gazon out of Vadraff, can be considered inbred to Indraff). Horses who occur multiple times in the pedigree are marked in yellow.Many very successful Arabian breeding programs have been based on linebreeding and/or inbreeding. Bazy Tankersley of Al-Marah Arabians has linebred and inbred to her foundation sire Indraff since she purchased him in the 1940s. Alice Payne, the final owner of *Raffles, developed an inbreeding program around him so intense that she produced Celeste, who was 87 1/2% *Raffles (she was sired by him, out of a daughter of his who was also his granddaughter!). By the time Payne died in 1969, her younger horses had as many as 11 lines to *Raffles in the first six generations of their pedigrees. Henry Babson of the Babson Stud concentrated his efforts on the stallion *Fadl, who he imported in 1932. Some breeders have linebred to mares-the McCoy program was founded on offspring of Bint Sahara and later linebreeding to her. It is important to understand that the terms “linebreeding” and “inbreeding” are used somewhat differently in the Arabian community than they are in some other breeds. In Thoroughbreds, who have less occurence of linebreeding than Arabians, horses are said to be “inbred on a coefficient” if the same animal appears several times in the pedigree. “Inbred 2:3” means that the same horse appears once in the second and third generations. For Arabians, the term inbred would refer to a horse who is incest bred, the product of a mother/son, father/daughter, or sibling mating, or a horse who had more than 2 lines to a particular ancestor in the first few generations of the pedigree.

FAMILY STRAINS The concept of family strains can be difficult to grasp, as it is based in both legend and reality. Family strain designation among the Bedouins came from the dam line as a way to identify the tribe which had bred a particular horse. Family strain is passed from generation to generation through the dam line, never through the sire line.The legendary origin of strains is based on the story of “Al Khamsa” (the five), who were the mares of the Prophet Mohammed. After being denied water for some time, they were allowed to drink, but turned back from the waterhole when a horn was blown indicating an impending battle. Since they were the true “war mares”, they became the foundresses of the five main strains of Arabians: the Kehilan. Seqlawi, Muniqi, Dahman and Hadban. There are variant spelling for these-Kehilan can be spelled Kuhaylan, or Koheilan. These are the masculine version of the strain names-the feminine ones have different forms. A horse who is of the Seqlawi Jedran of Ibn Sudan strain has a taproot mare bred by a tribe different than one of the Seqlawi al Abd strain. Since horses were exported from the desert to various countries, one finds the Seqlawi al Abd strain in America through the 1906 Davenport import *Wadduda, and the same strain in Spain through Zulima, who was brought from the desert in 1905. With the passing of time other strains came into being, including the Abeyan, Jilfan, Shueyman, and Wadnan. The latter three are thinly represented in modern breeding, with the Shueyman known through one taproot mare in Poland (though that mare, Cherifa, founded the dam line that includes U.S. National Champion Stallion *Elkin and Swedish National Champion Stallion *Exelsjor, found close up in the pedigree of World Champion Stallion *Gazal Al Shaqab). The Abeyan strain has a rare substrain-Umm Jaras-found in Egyptian horses today through the taproot mare El Obeya Om Grees. From this line descend the excellent sire *Ibn Hafiza as well as Nabiel and Ruminaja Ali! There are also many substrains of each of the major ones, some of which exist in modern breeding and some of which do not. Researching strains can be a difficult task. In the first four volumes of the American stud book family strains were recorded for each horse, but the information was dropped from subsequent volumes. To trace all of the strains in a pedigree with many different origins, many reference sources must be used (the Arabian Datasource online unfortunately does not record family strains). Our sample horse, Huckleberry Bey, is of the Kehilan Ajuz of Ibn Rodan strain. He is actually pure-in-strain Kehilan Ajuz, as his sire Bay El Bey is of the Kehilan Ajuz strain through the Polish taproot mare Gazella. The Bedouins prized horses who were closely bred within the strain as they believed this set desirable traits and made them more consistent breeding stock. The significance of family strains has been the subject of much dispute over the years. The writer Carl Raswan felt that the horses of the late-developed Muniqi strain were less pure, and therefore undesirable, though Wilfrid Blunt of the Crabbet Stud highly prized this strain for its racing abilities (one of the founders of the Thoroughbred, the Darley Arabian, was reputed to be a Muniqi). Raswan believed there were three basic strains that were also accompanied by a distinct physical type of horse. Kehilans were heavier in muscling, wide- chested and masculine of appearance, appearing more like a Morgan or even a Quarter Horse (this included the mares). His concept for the Seqlawi was a slimmer, more elegant horse with a narrower head, which he later compared to be more like an American Saddlebred. His description of a typical horse of the Maneghi strain was a taller animal, coarser in appearance, resembling the Thoroughbred in looks and speed.

SYMBOLS AND SUCH Arabian horse pedigrees often have symbols that puzzle the reader. On the registration papers and the pedigrees on the AHA Datasource online (or the old Arabian Horse Registry Bookshelf CD ROMs, last issued in 2001),three or four letter abbreviations often accompany the registration numbers following the horses’ names. These are codes for the registry of origin of a particular horse. In Huckleberry Bey’s pedigree, AHR represents the American registry and PASB is the Polish stud book, while SBFAR is the French Stud Book. Such designations can give clues to the national origins of horses in the pedigree, but must be used with care in determining whether a horse represents a certain bloodline group. For instance, Bay El Bey’s dam *Naganka was bred in Poland but her maternal granddam Bad was bred in France. Some other common abbreviations for foreign stud book origins are: AHSA (Australia), AHSB(Great Britain, though some horses up to 1964 were registered with both the Arab Horse Society stud books and the GSB, the General Stud Book), AVS (the Netherlands), CAHR (Canada), DAV (Old German stud book), EAO (Egypt), GASB(Germany), RASB (Russia), SAHR (Sweden), and SSB (Spain). Another area of confusion is the use of asterisks before the name of the horses, as with *Naganka and a number of other horses in Huckleberry Bey’s pedigree. The asterisk indicates that the horse was imported to America. This symbol was used by the Arabian Horse Registry of America until the early 1980s, when their computer system was altered so that the asterisk became a function key. Now imported horses are registered with the stud book of origin following their names. Poland’s Bandos became Bandos PASB in America after his 1982 importation. However, he is often mentioned as *Bandos, which is also correct usage since he was imported (there is also an American born Bandos foaled in 1940). An example of incorrect usage of the asterisk is often seen in horses who have been exported and then reimported, as was U.S. National Champion Stallion Ali Jamaal, whose correct designation is Ali Jamaal, not *Ali Jamaal-since he was foaled in America the asterisk should not be used. Generally, if a horse is imported the asterisk should still be used in front of its name, even if it is not used in its registration name due to the technical requirements of the Arabian Registry.Due to litigation between the US Arabian Registry and South American registries, certain Arabians bred in South America and not previously accepted in the US Registry as purebred have now been given adesignation after their names. An example is *JJ Apharina , named a 2005 U.S. Top Ten Junior Mare. This designation is designed to assist people concerned with pedigree purity. Plus (+) and slash (/) symbols after the name of a horse indicate that it is the recipient of an Arabian Horse Association merit award. The program was initiated in 1965 to recognize horses who performed well in the show ring, but now racing, eventing, dressage, distance riding also earn points for these awards. The designations are: Legion of Honor (+), Legion of Supreme Honor (+/). Legion of Merit (++), Legion of Excellence (+//), Legion of Supreme Merit (+++), and Legion of Masters (++++). There are also combinations of awards including Legion of Supreme Honor/Merit (++/), Legion of Supreme Honor/Supreme Merit (+++/), Legion of Merit/Excellence (++//), Legion of Supreme Merit/Excellence (+++//), Legion of Masters/Supreme Honor (++++/), and Legion of Masters/Excellence (++++//). Horses earning awards in the honor, supreme honor and excellence divisions have won points in halter and/or performance. The merit, supreme merit, and masters awards are given to horses who have earned a certain number of points in both halter and performance events-Huckleberry Bey, his sire Bay El Bey, and grandsires Raffon and Bay Abi are all recipients of the Legion of Merit award.

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