How Long Is The Gestation Of A Horse? (Solution)

How long does horse stay pregnant until it gives birth?

  • Though a horse is generally pregnant for 10-11 months, they still may give birth to a healthy foal before or after that time. It is important to provide your mare adequate care during this time to ensure a healthy foal. Please comment if you enjoyed this article or have any remarks regarding this article!

How long is normal gestation in horses?

Normal mares have a broad range of gestation. It is very normal for mares to carry a fetus for 320 to 380 days. In general 330 days (11 months) is the most commonly cited gestation length.

How long is a horse pregnant the first time?

The average gestation length of the mare is 340 days (range 315-365 days) and gives ample time to prepare for the arrival of the newborn foal.

Whats the longest a mare can pregnant?

The ‘average’ gestation for horses is 340 days, but ‘normal’ gestation can be as short as 320 days and as long as 370 days. The longest recorded successful gestation was 445 days, although most foals born after an extended gestation are small in size due to delayed uterine development.

Can a horse be pregnant for 12 months?

Average Gestation Period The gestation period in horses is typically between 330 and 345 days, or 11 months. 1 Some mares will be inclined to foal earlier or later than the average, and breeders will get to know these tendencies. Ponies usually have a shorter gestation period than horses.

Which animal is pregnant the longest?

Elephants have the longest pregnancy period of any living mammal. If you – or someone you know – has experienced a pregnancy that seemed to go on forever, spare a thought for the elephant. It’s the animal with one of the longest gestation periods of all living mammals: nearly two years.

How long can a mare carry a dead foal?

What is abortion? Abortion is the delivery of a dead foal and its placenta before an age at which the foal would have been able to survive independently. This is usually taken to be up to day 300-310 of gestation. After 300-310 days, if a dead foal is delivered it is usually termed stillborn.

How many baby can a horse have?

On average, a female horse, or mare, can have between 16-20 foals in her lifetime. However, this number is a rough estimate because so many factors can affect the number of foals a mare can have. Such factors include the breed, health, and fertility of the mare.

What do we mean by gestation?

Gestation is defined as the time between conception and birth. Though we’re focusing on human gestation, this term applies more broadly to all mammals. A fetus grows and develops in the womb during gestation.

How long does a horse live?

The normal gestation length for a mare can range from 320 to 360 days, with the average being around 340 days.

What is the earliest a mare can foal?

Foals are born after 11 months gestation (time in the mare’s womb). Some mares foal earlier and some later. Foals are not usually viable if born before 290-300 days. Some older mares and others with chronic uterine problems sometimes ‘hang on’ to their foals for up to 350 days and, unusually even a full year.

Do older mares have longer gestation?

According to our results, gestation length decrease as the mare gets older, with the shortest gestation periods when the mare is 10-12 years old, and from this point on, it slowly increases. The gestation period shortens as the 4th or 5th birth approaches, and then gets progressively longer.

Can a horse have twins?

Rare Case All Around In horses, twin fetuses are uncommon. Carrying them to term is even more unusual, and birthing healthy twin foals is especially unlikely. “Twin pregnancies are extremely undesirable in horses, as they almost always have a bad outcome,” said Dr.

How long does an elephant carry a baby?

Ultrasounds reveal how elephants remain pregnant for 22 months. Nothing about elephants is small, and their pregnancies are no exception. Before giving birth to a 110-kilogram calf, mothers carry the fetus for 22 months, the longest gestation period of any mammal.

How does a stallion mate?

How do horses mate? Horses mate like many other mammals mate – through courtship, followed by the stallion (male horse) mounting a receptive mare (female horse). Mares will show signs of being in heat during her most fertile days, which are 5-7 days during the beginning of her cycle.

Gestation in Mares: What Is Premature? What Is Overdue?

The following article features 14 unusual horse breeds from throughout the world, which we hope you found interesting and informative. The number of endangered horse breeds has become much too large in recent years, whether they are strong plow horses, wild ponies, or graceful riding horses. Numbers may and do recover, though, thanks to the love and care of specialized breeders. Interested in supporting a rare horse breed? Consider joining one of the several organizations that exist to do so.

Enjoy the opportunity to view a rare horse if you are fortunate enough to do so – and remember to capture a photo of the sighting.

What to Expect When Your Mare is Expecting

A few fundamentals of equine reproduction and pregnancy include mating, the gestation period, and foaling, among other things. In most cases, a mare (or female horse) can produce one viable foal every year on average. An adult mare is capable of delivering afoalat at the age of around 18 months, but it is healthier if the mare is at least four years old, since she will have grown to her maximum size by that time. A mare can produce offspring until she is in her late thirties, if she is in good health.

Average Gestation Period

When it comes to horses, the gestation period is normally between 330 and 345 days, or 11 months. A breeder’s ability to recognize if a mare is more likely to foal earlier or later than the norm is essential for success in the breeding industry. In a natural context, the stallion will breed the mare in the summer, and the foals will be born the next year, either in the spring or early summer of the following year. This guarantees that the foals are born when there is plenty of forage and the weather is moderate, which is ideal for raising them.

These seasonal estrus cycles occur typically every three weeks during the spring and summer.

Because of the artificial sunshine, the mare’s brain is stimulated, causing it to release the reproductive hormones necessary to induce estrus.

Checking For Pregnancy

Mares may not display any obvious indicators of pregnancy during the first three months of their pregnancy, other from the absence of an estrus cycle. Ultrasound can be used to confirm pregnancy roughly two weeks following the breeding event. Two to three months after conception, blood and urine tests can be performed to confirm the pregnancy. Instead, a veterinarian may be able to feel the little embryo in the mare’s uterus physically by rectal palpation at roughly six weeks into the pregnancy, and in some cases even sooner.

Horse twins are extremely unusual, however they have been known to cause spontaneous abortions.

As a result, it is frequently suggested to “pinch off” one embryo at a time.

It is not uncommon for a mare to miscarry her pregnancy, and it is advised that she get an ultrasound and have her blood or urine tested again after around three months.

Things like seeing how a mare shakes her head, the expression in her eyes, or the way a needle moves when held over her tummy are not reliable indicators of whether or not she is in foal.

Later Stages of Gestation

After around three months, the foal will be growing fast and will begin to resemble a little horse. After around six months, the mare may begin to show signs of pregnancy. Mares that have already given birth may exhibit signs of an enlarged abdomen more quickly than a virgin mare. While still pregnant, the mare’s abdomen will continue to develop in size as the foal near the time of foaling or the due date for birth. The mare’s udder will begin to develop around three to six weeks before the due date, and the teats will begin to produce a sticky yellowish fluid a few days before the due date of the birth.

  1. If the yellowish fluid is allowed to ferment, it will transform into the first milk or colostrum.
  2. It is possible that her stomach will appear to lower as the foal aligns itself for delivery.
  3. The mare will appear restless shortly before giving birth; she may paw the ground or continually glance toward her flank (hip) area on either side (similar tocolic symptoms).
  4. The mare may lie down and rise up several times, but she will most likely give birth while lying down on the ground.
  5. At this point, the foal is usually born within a few minutes after being conceived.
  6. Sometimes a mare or foal gets damaged during the birthing process, or the mare or foal may be suffering from another problem that needs immediate or expert treatment.
  7. This is a life-threatening situation that cannot be postponed (not even for the arrival of the vet).
  8. The foal should be protected by this membrane.
  9. The placenta is responsible for supplying the foal with oxygen, and if it is prematurely removed before the foal is able to breathe on its own, the foal will be deprived of this vital source of nutrition.
  10. In such instances, every second matters, and the mare must be physically aided in the birth of the foal, and the’red bag’ must be burst as soon as possible to allow the foal to take its first breath.
  11. If you have any reason to believe your pet is unwell, contact your veterinarian immediately.

Always consult your veterinarian for health-related inquiries, since they have evaluated your pet and are familiar with the pet’s medical history, and they can provide the most appropriate suggestions for your pet.

What is the Gestation Period for a Horse?

A large and profitable company, horse breeding can also be a profoundly satisfying endeavor. If you’re thinking of breeding from your mare, you’ll want to be prepared for what to anticipate. When it comes to horses, one of the most often asked questions is “How long does a horse take to give birth?” We’ll take a look at the answer, as well as some other fascinating facts regarding horse reproduction, in this section. So take a step forward to learn more about excellent horse breeding practices.

When do horses mate?

In the spring and summer, mares are receptive to stallions at regular intervals throughout the season. The times during which they are “in heat” or, to give it its proper term, “estrus,” are referred to as “estrus.” The length of the cycle varies from animal to species, although it is typically three weeks in length. A mare is normally in heat for around 6 days, however this might vary between 4 and 10 days depending on the individual mare. Furthermore, mares can be in heat for substantially longer periods of time during their initial estrous cycles in the spring.

Breeders, particularly those that specialize in the production of Thoroughbred racehorses, will occasionally attempt to move this schedule forward.

This deceives the animal’s brain into believing that the longer days of summer have arrived as a result of this.

How long is the gestation period?

In our previous discussion, we learned that horses often marry in the summer, with foals born the following spring. However, the exact length of pregnancy varies substantially. Many other animals, including horses, vary from horses in this regard. Sows, for example, will give birth between 114 and 118 days following conception, which is a reliable period of time. With horses, the range is far greater and varies depending on the individual animal. Ponies, on average, have shorter gestation periods than horses, which is a good thing.

  • There is a range of 320 to 380 days between the two dates.
  • Many research have been conducted to investigate this contradiction.
  • Five hundred ninety-four foals were born throughout the research period, with an average gestation of 349 days.
  • Colts had a slightly longer gestation period than fillies, with an average of 350 days compared to 348 days for colts.

How to tell if a mare is pregnant

The presence of pregnancy in horses may not be evident for up to three months following conception. Today, ultrasound technology makes it possible to determine whether or not a mare is pregnant at a much earlier stage. An first examination can be performed around day 14 of pregnancy to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. Even earlier in the pregnancy, an ultrasound may be used to examine the heartbeat of an embryo as early as 26 days into the pregnancy. Breeders used to be able to monitor the horse’s estrous cycle to see if the breeding attempt had been effective before ultrasonography became accessible.

The mare may show signs of estrus by expanding and closing her vulva, tucking her hips, and lifting her tail.

Another symptom of pregnancy is a mare with a cervix that is tightly clamped shut. Using a disposable sterile speculum, an experienced veterinarian can check for this condition. A bulge in the mare’s uterus will be visible to expert veterinarians from approximately day 35 of the pregnancy.

The problem of twins

There are virtually no exceptions when it comes to a horse carrying twins: the pregnancy will nearly always be unsuccessful. The uterus is just not big enough to accommodate two fetuses at the same time. However, even if the mare is successful in giving birth to both foals, they are often weak and will not live. Unfortunately, this means that the most humane solution is to sacrifice one of the twins. A smaller procedure, performed at an earlier stage of the pregnancy, this is typically the more common of the two.

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It will be necessary to terminate the smaller twin if they are present.

This will be used to determine whether or not the remaining embryo has survived.

Care of pregnant mares

Most pregnancies end in failure if a mare is carrying twins; this is virtually always the case. Because the uterus can only support one fetus at a time, two fetuses are born. However, even if the mare is successful in giving birth to both foals, they are frequently feeble and do not live. It is unfortunate because this means that the most effective strategy is to sacrifice one of the twins. A smaller procedure, performed at an earlier stage of the pregnancy, this is typically the more common option.

It is possible that the smaller twin will be terminated if they are both present.

Approximately 2 to 3 days following the surgery, the veterinarian will do another exam.

When do horses give birth?

The majority of mares give birth at night, according to statistics. Most people assume that this is a form of self-preservation strategy. A nighttime delivery will allow the foal enough time to discover its feet so that it can run by the time the sun comes up. It has been shown in several studies, however, that a considerable number of mares gave birth around noon. One commercial farm reported that 41 percent of mares gave birth throughout the day. As a result, it is critical to conduct routine checks on the horse at all times of the day and night when it is preparing for labor.

Can labor be induced in horses?

Owners may inquire as to whether labor may be induced on occasion, particularly if they are concerned that a pregnancy has gone on for an excessive amount of time. The vast majority of veterinarians strongly advise against it. One of the most prevalent causes of a protracted pregnancy is that the mare has consumed fescue. Inducing labor will not be effective by the time this becomes apparent.

In addition, both the mother and the foal are at great risk of experiencing significant adverse effects, including death. As a result, unless there is an immediate threat to the mare’s health, it is not recommended that this be performed.

How long is a horse in labor?

Equine labor is a rather rapid and efficient method of production. A three-stage process may be described as follows: During the initial stage, the mare is nervous and may kick at her stomach to relieve the stress. She may construct a “nest” and urinate excessively. She will occasionally break out in a cold sweat. This stage will be completed when her waters rupture – you will notice a sudden influx of fluid at this moment. The appearance of the foal occurs during the second stage. This process normally takes between 15 and 25 minutes to complete.

During the third and last stage of pregnancy, the placenta is expelled from the mother’s body.

However, if this does not occur, immediate medical assistance will be required.

So to sum up…

The length of a horse’s gestation period varies greatly from one individual to another. The length of time it takes is determined on their size and genetic makeup. As a result, plan on spending anywhere between 320 and 380 days in the field. If you intend to breed from your mare, be certain that she has received all of her vaccines and deworming treatments in advance. Furthermore, if you have a pregnant horse, it is critical that you provide her with additional attention. Maintain a stress-free environment and encourage her to engage in frequent physical activity.

Composites and other supplements can assist in ensuring that she receives all of the nutrients she requires.

When it comes to providing your horse with the finest possible care, your veterinarian will be able to offer sound guidance.

How Long Is a Horse Pregnant?

How long does it take a horse to become pregnant? Well, the quick answer is 10 to 12 months, or around 326 to 354 days, depending on your perspective (although there have been cases where gestation for a mare has gone as long as 365 to 370 days). The majority of mares only give birth to one foal per pregnancy, while twins do occur on rare occasion. If you’re thinking of breeding your horse, there’s a lot more information you should be aware of. Mares are polyestrous on a seasonal basis. Put another way, it indicates that the mare behaves somewhat similarly to a cat in that she will go through numerous cycles throughout a specific season.

This is assumed to be an evolutionary trait to guarantee that the mare gives birth at the most favorable time of year, which is believed to be in the springtime.

A mare can only have one pregnancy every year, and she will typically only produce one foal in a given year as a result of these considerations.

The Mare’s Cycle is Key

A thorough understanding of a mare’s life cycle is essential for managing mares in general, and it is absolutely essential for designing a successful breeding program. Due to the fact that mares are seasonally polyestrous, the mare will respond to light stimulation. This implies that when the amount of daylight increases, her cycles will begin to begin by reducing melatonin levels. The following are crucial dates to keep in mind for horse breeders:

  • In the United States, the Summer Solstice is celebrated on June 21, which is the longest day of the year and the apex of the natural mating season. During the Fall Equinox, which occurs on September 21, when there is equal daylight and darkness, and the mares are shutting off as the season changes, Horses are in their deepest anestrus on December 21, which is the shortest day of the year and the shortest day of the year. The mares are in Spring Transition 1 during the time of the Spring Equinox, which occurs on March 21 when there is equal light and dark.

These are, of course, estimates based on current information. When it comes to the commencement of cyclicity, temperature can also play a role because it is thought to be regulated in part by a neurotransmitter that is also involved in prolactin release. The lowering of opioid inhibition of the gonadal axis may also have a role in the initiation of the breeding season, according to certain theories. Normal horse cycles are said to begin around the Summer Solstice, which coincides with the start of the natural mating season.

  • Those mares that are bred early in the year (typically during the first quarter) will often carry their foal for a longer period of time than anticipated.
  • 2 In addition to these considerations, whether the foal is a colt or a filly is another aspect that may influence a mare’s gestational duration.
  • Body weight can also have an impact on gestation times; mares that are thinner have a tendency to bear their offspring for a longer amount of time than mares who are heavier.
  • Due to this, the mare will go into heat earlier in the year, which will result in the foal being born earlier in the year, which is typically a benefit for the owners and managers of performing breeds.

Gestation Stages

During their pregnancy, mares go through three trimesters, which are called trimesters. The first trimester begins with conception and is usually completed within two weeks of confirmation. 3 It is critical to have the mare examined by a veterinarian during the first trimester in order to safeguard her and her foal’s health throughout the whole pregnancy. When the foal is roughly 25 days old, the veterinarian can do an ultrasound to identify the foal’s heartbeat and establish that the foal is still alive.

  1. If twins are discovered, the veterinarian may inquire as to whether the owner or management would be interested in having the second embryo removed in order to offer the surviving embryo a greater chance of survival.
  2. A horse-like appearance may be recognized in the foal at three months by ultrasound testing; important characteristics can be identified, and the gender of the foal can be confirmed.
  3. 3 In this period, the mare can begin receiving deworming and vaccination treatments.
  4. The mare will begin to exhibit her abilities after six months.
  5. At this point, it is necessary to increase the number of veterinarian visits once more.

Regular exercise can be continued up to the seventh month of the pregnancy. As the mare approaches her due date, it is critical to maintain a pleasant and stress-free environment for her, avoiding any dramatic changes that might cause her to become worried.

Leading Up to Foaling

During their pregnancy, mares go through three trimesters. It is commonly agreed that conception occurs about two weeks into the first trimester. 3 It is critical to have the mare examined by a veterinarian during the first trimester in order to safeguard her and her foal’s health throughout the pregnancy. It is possible for the veterinarian to do an ultrasound on the foal at around 25 days to identify the foal’s heartbeat and confirm that the foal is alive. Twins can also be verified at this point if they are one among the exceedingly uncommon situations that occur.

  • Within the first six weeks of pregnancy, it is not uncommon for mares to abort twins, which would clearly make the pregnancy unviable and result in the loss of both foals.
  • 3 At roughly day 114, the second trimester officially kicks in.
  • In order to offer the necessary nourishment to the rapidly developing foal, more feed should be added to the mare’s diet.
  • The mare is in her third trimester at the time of Day 226, according to the calendar.
  • You can continue to engage in regular exercise until the seventh month of pregnancy.

Labor and Delivery

Approximately 85 percent of mares give birth at night, which is likely a survival adaptation that allows the foal to be ready to run with the mare as soon as daylight appears. This will cause the mare to become anxious during the first stage of labor. She may begin to kick at her stomach and engage in nesting behavior. A large number of mares sweat during the process of foaling, which is referred to as the mare “heating up.” Wrap the tail and thoroughly clean the perineal area. This stage usually lasts about an hour and fifteen minutes.

  • The foal’s front hooves, nose, ears, and other features should be revealed as the foal grows.
  • This can be elicited by lightly massaging the foal’s nostrils with a blunt object, such as a pencil.
  • 3 Other recommendations and warnings include disinfecting any biologics with iodine before using them.
  • After birth, some researchers believe that a small amount of blood enters the foal through the umbilical artery, which is connected to the mother.
  • According to the literature, if the placenta does not pass within three hours, it should be considered an emergency requiring the attention of a veterinarian.

Within one hour, the foal should be standing, and within two hours, the foal should demonstrate the ability to nurse itself. The mare herself should not require any post-partum care in most cases.

Emergency Situations

The development of the amniotic sac as a “red bag” during the second stage of labor is one of the more prevalent complications during pregnancy and childbirth. The amnion (also known as the amniotic sac) is the first item to appear during a normal foaling. It is a white membrane that surrounds the foal. When the placenta separates from the uterine wall prematurely, blood will collect within the amnion, giving it a deep crimson look. This is an uncommon occurrence, but it does occur. This is a life-threatening emergency that might result in the foal’s death if not addressed immediately.

  1. 1 Eilts, B., et al., Equine Seasonal Cycle.
  2. How Long Do Female Horses Stay Pregnant?
  3. “How Long Are Female Horses Pregnant?” Animals –, November 21, 2017, accessed October 7, 2018.
  4. The American Association of Equine Practitioners published a statement on October 7, 2018.

About NexGen Pharmaceuticals

NexGen Pharmaceuticals is an industry-leading veterinary compounding pharmacy that provides sterile and non-sterile compounding services to veterinarians in the United States and Canada. NexGen, in contrast to other veterinary compounding pharmacies, concentrates on pharmaceuticals that are difficult to locate, are no longer accessible owing to manufacturer discontinuance, or have not yet been commercially released for veterinary purposes, but which nonetheless fill an essential need for our clients.

  1. It is also urged that our pharmacists establish excellent working connections with our veterinarians in order to provide better treatment for our animal patients.
  2. Disclaimer The material provided in this blog post is of a general nature, and it is intended to be used solely as a source of information.
  3. Neither is the information intended to serve as medical advice or diagnosis for specific health problems, nor is it intended to be used in making an assessment of the risks and benefits of using a particular medication.
  4. The Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) has not examined the information and assertions provided, and the FDA has not authorized the drugs for use in diagnosing, curing, or preventing illness in humans.
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Mare Gestation Calculator

Ucja Zaborowska, MD, PhD candidate, came up with the idea. The most recent update was made on November 12, 2021. The mare gestation calculator will predict your pregnant mare’s foaling day (due date) and will lead you through all of the stages of the horse gestational period, from conception to delivery. Find out how to use the foaling calculator, how long a horse’s gestation period is, and how to calculate it correctly by continuing reading!

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How long is a horse pregnant for?

Developed by Dr. Ucja Zaborowska, a doctoral candidate at the University of Warsaw. November 12, 2021 is the most recent update. You may use the mare gestation calculator to determine the foaling day (due date) of your pregnant mare and to assist you through each step of the horse gestational period. Find out how to use the foaling calculator, how long a horse’s gestation period is, and how to calculate it correctly by continuing to read on.

What is foaling?

Foaling is the term used to describe a female horse (a mare) who is about to give birth. It goes without saying that the end product of the entire procedure is a foal. So, just to be clear, delivery day equals due date equals foaling day, and Yes, our mare gestation calculator is capable of calculating all of them!

How to use the mare gestation calculator?

No horse gestation calculator has ever been as simple as this one! Enter theMating date (the date of a successful breeding attempt) and you will obtain the whole set of results, which will include:

  • The anticipated start date, as well as its complete range
  • Current gestational day
  • Also, the day of the week in which the projected labor day falls.

Essentially, our mare due date calculator helps you to keep track of all of your mare’s pregnancy’s critical dates with great precision! You must remember, however, that each pregnancy is unique, and some mares may foal successfully before or beyond the projected dates, depending on the circumstances.

How to calculate foaling date with horse pregnancy length?

Using a few simple formulae, you can easily reproduce the findings of our horse gestation duration calculator, for example:

  1. The following is the projected delivery date: Foaling is equal to MatingDate + 338338 days, which equals 11 months. For a complete list of probable foaling days, see below: The earliest feasible foaling date is equal to MatingDate + 331 MatingDate + 346 is the latest feasible foaling date.

The reason we added an extra day to our calculations is likely beyond your comprehension. This is due to the fact that ovulation in horses, like in humans, can linger for up to 24 hours, allowing for the fertilization of the egg to take place later. We can get a little bit more exact results from our mare gestation calculator by using this easy approach.

How far along is my mare?

If you know the date of your mare’s breeding (mating), determining the day of her pregnancy is a simple matter of calculation. You may use the same calculation that we used in our horse due date calculator to calculate your horse’s due date: Pregnancy day equals the current date minus the mating date.


During the spring and summer months — precisely, from May to August — horses are in season for breeding. These are the months when the likelihood of becoming pregnant is at its maximum level.

How do I calculate how far along my mare is?

Follow these steps to determine how far along your mare is in her pregnancy:

  1. Take the current date as an example
  2. Make a reservation for a date
  3. Subtract the date of the mating from the present date: The current date is the mate-finding date. You now have an idea of how long your horse’s pregnancy is currently lasting!
  4. Keep in mind that the average length of a horse’s pregnancy is 338 days.

Dr. Ucja Zaborowska is a doctoral candidate in medicine.

Intro – Length of Gestation

The mare’s gestation duration should be noted since she will have a tendency to repeat the length of her gestation period. As a result, in future years, this information will be useful in forecasting the day of foaling. The normal gestational period in themare is 335-342 days, however gestational periods ranging from 320 to 367 days have been recorded. Premature foals are those born before the age of 320 days and require particular veterinary care if they are to have a chance of survival. Foals born before the age of 305 days are not likely to survive.

Many factors, including daylength and heredity, influence the length of a woman’s pregnancy.

This can be a difficulty when trying to breed mares from the middle of February to the beginning of March.

This therapy, which is the same as the one used to induce mares to cycle early, will decrease the gestation period by 10 days, according to the manufacturer.

Keep this in mind if you decide to put all of your mares under artificial light in order to stimulate early ovulation in non-pregnant mares. Due to these conditions, even mares whose parturition is scheduled for later in the breeding season will have their gestations pushed.

Still Waiting for your Foal?

We’re all excited to meet the new arrivals! When do they expect to have a foal? Equine gestation lasts 340 days on average, however it can be as little as 320 days or as long as 370 days depending on the individual horse. The longest successful pregnancy ever documented was 445 days, however most foals delivered after such a lengthy gestation are modest in size due to the delayed growth of the foetus in the uterus. There are a variety of factors that influence the length of gestation, including the genetics of the foal and the time of year in which the foal is due.

  • Keep in mind that the phrases ‘premature,’ ‘dysmature,’ and ‘postmature’ refer to the state of the foal at the time of delivery, not the length of the mother’s pregnancy.
  • Pregnancies in miniature horses may be shorter than those in full-size horses, and foals born after gestations as brief as 280 days may be healthy.
  • If you have a foal born between 300 and 320 days gestation, you run the danger of it being preterm and needing some form of critical care.
  • There are no precise signs of approaching parturition that may be identified.
  • The mare’s belly will become larger and pendulous throughout late pregnancy, although the abdomen may get smaller during the last week of pregnancy when the foal slides towards the birth canal.
  • Approximately 4 weeks before parturition, the mare’s udder should begin to grow and fill with milk, with continuous expansion and filling of the teats occurring one week before parturition.
  • The calcium content of the mare’s milk may be measured on a daily basis, and when it reaches 200 parts per million (ppm), the mare is on the verge of giving birth.
  • False labor is a possibility, but keep an eye on her since she is likely to reach the latter stages of labor very rapidly!

Gestation Calculator

This gestation calculator is intended solely for informational and amusement purposes.

In no way should the dates that are computed be construed as a precise date for the birth of your child. This Foaling Date Estimator is based on a gestational age of 340 days. The actual foaling window should last around 10 days on average, plus or minus 10 days.

Week 2 (2 weeks to 18 days)

The first ultrasound or palpation to detect pregnancy is called the first trimester. In order to Calculate

Week 4 – 1st Month

A second ultrasound or palpation is performed to detect the presence of a heartbeat. In order to Calculate

Week 12 – 3rd Month

Give all of the immunizations that have been advised for your location. Worm the mare’s horns In order to Calculate


In order to Calculate

Week 20 – 5th Month

In order to calculate the first equine rhinopneumonitis vaccination,

Week 28 – 7th Month

Calculate the effectiveness of the second equine rhinopneumonitis vaccination

Week 36 – 9th Month

In order to calculate the third equine rhinopneumonitis vaccination,

Week 44 – 11th Month

Give your mare all of the immunizations required for your area in order for her to generate antibodies in her colostrum. Worm the mare’s horns Begin keeping an eye out for indicators of early foaling, such as waxing. Disclaimer: It is the mare owner’s obligation to contact with their veterinarian regarding the health of their mare’s offspring. To Calculate This Calendar should only be used as a guideline.

Gestation Periods & Breeding Mares

Is your mare in the process of becoming pregnant? With our Gestation Calculator, you can find out when your pregnant mare is anticipated to give birth. When it comes to breeding, mares are very seasonal, with their most productive phase occurring between the end of winter (August) and the beginning of fall (September) (March). Be a result, mares are referred to as “long day breeders” since their breeding season takes place during the summer months, when the daylight hours are the longest. During the winter, when daylight hours are at their shortest, mares are classified as “seasonally polyoestrus,” which means that they have a clearly defined breeding season with multiple heat (oestrus) cycles.

  • A woman’s monthly cycle, known as oestrus, lasts on average 21 days; however, at the height of summer, the cycle might be reduced to 18 days.
  • This is what she looks like when she’s “on heat.” Ovulation takes place around 24 hours before the conclusion of the oestrus cycle begins.
  • An ultrasound examination of the mare’s ovaries can be performed by a veterinarian to predict when she is most likely to ovulate, therefore increasing the likelihood of a successful pregnancy.
  • If she is unable to conceive, she will go through another oestrus cycle after that.

After either natural cover or artificial insemination, veterinarians can use ultrasonography to confirm pregnancy at intervals of 15 and 45 days following the procedure. Vote for the following content: 54321 Looking for more information about horse health?

Equine Gestation Timeline » Large Animal Hospital » College of Veterinary Medicine » University of Florida

Day 0: Ovulation is the first day of the month. Days 14-16: Pregnancy ultrasound to check for twins and determine the stage of pregnancy. Day 18: An further ultrasound examination for the assessment of the twins may be required. Days 25-30: Second pregnancy ultrasound (heartbeat), to determine whether or not there are twins. Days 45-60: Third prenatal checkup with ultrasound to establish the presence of a fetal heartbeat and the viability of the pregnancy, if applicable. Days 60-90: The first deworming for the mare is performed, and fetal sexing can be conducted using ultrasound imaging.

Second Trimester

Day 114: The second trimester officially begins. Between days 120 and 150, fetal sexing can be conducted by the use of transabdominal ultrasound examination. Day 150: First EHV-1 immunization, followed by a second deworming treatment Day 210: EHV-1 vaccine for the second time

Third Trimester

Day 226: The third trimester officially begins. Day 270: EHV-1 immunization for the third time On day 300, increase mare’s nutrition to prepare her for foaling, perform third deworming for mare, open caslicks, administer additional vaccinations according to veterinarian recommendations (EHV1/4, EEE/WEE, Tetanus, Flu, West Nile Virus Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Streptococcus equi, Botulism, Rotavirus), move mare to the area where she will foal to stimulate immune system and develop antibodies, and move mare to the Days 320-365: The normal foaling period is between these dates.

Day 340: Typical date of conception

Post Foaling

  • UF Newborn Foal Unit– UF veterinarians and personnel are accessible 24 hours a day, seven days a week to assist with any neonatal foal condition. Preparing for Foaling– Learn about the tools you should have on hand before to foaling, as well as warning signals and what to do after foaling. Care of a RoutineEmergency Foal – Learn about the foal’s first day, typical clinical indicators, nourishment and restraint for the foal, danger indications, and more. Neonatal Foal Diseases– Learn about Neonatal Isoerythrolysis (NI), Sepsis, Neonatal Encephalopathy, Prematurity, and other conditions that affect foals during their development.

More Information

  • The University of Florida’s horse reproductive specialists provide breeding management services utilizing fresh, chilled, or frozen sperm and may identify pregnancy at any time. Throughout the course of a pregnancy, ultrasound examinations can be conducted at the UF Large Animal Hospital or on-farm by our ambulatory service. UF specializes in high-risk pregnancies that need a higher level of veterinarian supervision and treatment. Mares experiencing issues during pregnancy are closely observed 24 hours a day, seven days a week until foaling. Post-foaling care is provided in our state-of-the-art equine neonatal intensive care unit
  • UF also provides concierge foaling services for that specific mare. Reproductive professionals are ready to birth your foal and ensure that it gets off to the best possible start in life. If your mare is not pregnant, UF reproductive specialists are experienced in the examination and treatment of infertility problems in both horses and humans. A particular strength of ours is the use of intensive mare management to address breeding challenges. In addition to providing vaccines, parasite treatment, and other preventative veterinary care for your mare as needed throughout pregnancy, the UF Large Animal Reproduction program also provides: All big animal patients at the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital can benefit from services for dystocia treatment and care of retained placentas. We are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week for all reproductive emergencies. The University of Florida offers mare and foal monitoring and upkeep. Board-certified veterinary internal experts and highly trained employees are on call 24 hours a day, seven days a week. There are certain clinical indications that are clear, and others that are more subtle. If any issues emerge following foaling, contact the professionals at the University of Florida Equine Neonatal ICU. In the neonatal intensive care unit, video camera monitoring is provided, and all stalls are equipped with barriers to allow mother and foal to remain together while one is being treated. On-farm services are available through the University of Florida’s Large Animal Ambulatory Reproduction Services website.
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The veterinarians at the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital care for equine and large animal patients from the Gainesville, Ocala, and Jacksonville areas, as well as Alachua and Marion Counties in Florida, and our clients come from all over the country. To talk with one of our professionals or to schedule an appointment, please contact us.

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Gestation length variation in domesticated horses and its relation to breed and body size diversity

According to certain sources, the domestication process and selective breeding have altered several life history factors. It has been asserted that the length of a horse’s gestation period is unusually varied. Some of the elements that influence gestation time are previously known and may be divided into environmental and genetic factors; however, the impacts of breed and body size have just recently been investigated and documented. In this study, we looked at the impact of breed and body size on the length of gestation in 25 horse breeds from Central Europe, and the results were interesting.

A statistically significant relationship between body size and gestational length was not found.


DomesticationEquusEvolutionEvolutionEquusEvolution 2017 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde (German Society for Savage Animal Research).

Elsevier GmbH is the publisher of this title. All intellectual property rights are retained.

The Foaling Mare

THE FOALING MARE’S VOICE Extension Horse Specialist at the University of Nebraska, Kathleen P. Anderson, PhD. The ultimate objective of any breeding business should be to produce as many foals as possible while also maintaining a high survival rate for the foals. If left neglected, the majority of mares will have a normal pregnancy. The value of broodmares and their progeny, on the other hand, might make relying on nature to complete the process an expensive bet. As the value of mares and foals increases, having someone there during foaling may be quite beneficial, as it allows for quick aid to be provided to both the mare and the foal if necessary.

  • Mares appear to prefer seclusion and silence throughout the process of giving birth.
  • and 6 a.m., 75 percent to 85 percent of foals are born.
  • The length of a woman’s pregnancy Mares have an average gestation length (period of pregnancy) of 335 to 340 days, however this can vary between 320 and 370 days.
  • A foal is termed preterm if it is born before 326 days of pregnancy, and it will almost always require veterinary care right afterwards.
  • Many breeders would compute the estimated foaling date as 11 months after the previous breeding date, which is the standard practice.
  • A mare’s pregnancy duration can be influenced by a variety of factors.
  • The nutritional plane of a mare has an impact on the length of her pregnancy as well.

Aside from that, mares foaling throughout the late spring and summer months (when the days are long) have a shorter gestational period than mares foaling during the months of January and February.

Early Warning Signs The indicators of approaching parturition are as different as the duration of a woman’s gestational period.

Therefore, it is critical to maintain correct data on each mare in order to assist with future deliveries.

4 to 6 days before the due date of the baby, milk is allowed to drain into the teats (teat distension).

It is possible that some mares will have intermittent leaking or streaming of colostrum at this period.

Furthermore, muscle relaxation occurs gradually in the pelvic area during the last 7 to 14 days of pregnancy, in addition to the alterations related with the mammary gland.

These typical indicators of imminent parturition are present in a large number of mares, making it quite simple to forecast when they will give birth.

Furthermore, maiden mares (mares who have just given birth to their first foal) may exhibit any or all of the indications listed above.

There are a number of commercial products available to help you estimate when your baby will be born.

A considerable increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations is observed in the majority of mares soon prior to parturition.

The kits have shown to be very beneficial in detecting when a mare will not foal again.

When a spike in calcium levels is detected, extra care should be paid to the mare.

Once traditional symptoms of imminent parturition are observed, all kits require the administration of 1 to 4 cc of milk daily.

According to recent research, daily samples taken during the early evening hours of the day were sufficient for detecting the pre-partum calcium spike.

When it looks that the delivery procedure has begun, these predictors activate alerts to alert the user.

A halter is often used to secure this alert to the mare’s neck (.

When the delivery procedure has commenced, an alert is activated to notify the recipient.

Parturition – Stage I of the process Parturition is usually divided into three phases, which are as follows: Stage I, which typically lasts 1 to 4 hours, is characterized by the onset of uterine contractions and the final positioning of the foal in preparation for delivery.

When the mare experiences these contractions, she will seem frightened and uncomfortably. Typically, the mare will display the following characteristics:

  1. Restlessness is manifested by frequent disruptions in one’s eating routine. She may decide to stop chewing the meal that is already in her mouth, or she may walk about the stall. Her tail is constantly moving directions as she paws the bedding or the ground in different locations as if she is hunting for something. Getting up and down on a regular basis
  2. Sweating on the sides of the body
  3. Having frequent urination

These markers are by no means foolproof, and in some mares, the appearance of the water bag (the outer membranes covering the foal) may be the first symptom of parturition to be detected, while in others, it may be the last. If it is desirable, the mare might be readied for foaling at this point in her development. Cleaning the mare’s vulva and udder with warm water and wrapping her tail with a clean bandage are two examples of what you may do. A excellent time to contact a veterinarian about the problem is now, especially if one is nearby and can be reached quickly in case of an emergency.

If the mare’s foaling is progressing properly, she should be left alone for the time being.

This second stage, which includes hard labor and foal delivery, is normally finished in 10 to 30 minutes on most animals.

Some mares are adamant about not being assisted during this period.

Heavy abdominal contractions will cause the mare to fall on her side and rest flat on her back.

In spite of the fact that dystocia (foaling difficulties) is rare in mares (less than 10% of the population), make certain that the foaling attendant is knowledgeable with both normal and abnormal foal presentations.

Generally speaking, one foot will be somewhat ahead of the other when walking (Figure 2).

If this is not the case, contact a veterinarian as soon as possible.

This “hip lock” is generally relieved by gently pushing in a downward manner toward the mare’s heels when the foal is born, except for the hips and hind legs.

Some aberrant presentations are life-threatening to both the mother and the foal, necessitating the evacuation of the foal by surgery.

Consult with a veterinarian prior to the start of the foaling season to learn how to deal with an aberrant foal presentation in the future.

Once the foal is delivered, it is essential to be patient.

Allow the mare to lie down for as long as possible to avoid early cord rupture, since the foal will get many quarts of blood through the umbilicus if the mare is left alone.

If the chord has been severed, do not sew it back together unless the foal is bleeding profusely.

This procedure should be repeated multiple times during the first few days of a child’s life.

Stage III of pregnancy is known as parturition.

During the course of pregnancy, these membranes, which surround the foal, should be ejected 3 to 4 hours after the foal is born.

Placenta retention can be an issue, and it can result in uterine infection (endometritis) and/or laminitis in certain cases (founder).

A typical situation is for the mare to stand with the placenta half discharged, while the foal tries to stand and suckle.

Pulling the placenta may cause the uterus to rip or prolapse, or it may result in the uterus becoming contaminated with bits of torn placenta.

The delivery of oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions, is frequently included in this therapy.

Mares who have retained placentas may be unsuitable for breeding while they are in foal heat.

It is possible to have a reddish-brown discharge within the first week after giving birth.

If a white discharge appears, on the other hand, this suggests a uterine infection, and a veterinarian should be called for further treatment options.

Any abrupt alterations may cause foetal development to be delayed.

According to the weather and the availability of facilities, mares can give birth in a number of locales.

Mares scheduled to foal during the winter months will require a big (at least 14′ × 14′) and clean foaling stall to accommodate them.

If at all possible, stay away from dirt lots.

An 8- to 10-inch-thick bed of straw will reduce dust and the likelihood of infection, and it will be easier to maintain.

Stalls should be built in such a way that the mare can be kept isolated and the newborn foal may be kept safe.

Up to the time of foaling, the mare should be given plenty of activity.

Paddocks and pastures should be set up in such a way that mares foaling in them are either isolated or have enough space to be separated from the other horses in the pasture.

In the event of inclement weather or extreme cold, a shelter should be provided.

It cannot be overstated how important it is to keep the foaling area clean.

Making Preparations for Foaling — Removal of Caslicks Early in gestation, some mares require a Caslicks operation to partially suture together the lips of the vulva.

Mares that have a Caslicks must have the lips of the vulva opened at least 30 days prior to foaling.

Is it possible to induce parturition?

The induction of parturition in mares is technically conceivable, although it is not encouraged.

This should only be done under the supervision of an experienced veterinarian in order to avoid severe complications for both the mare and the foal.

At least 330 days must have passed since the mare’s last menstrual period was recorded.

Additionally, the cervix must be soft and dilated to a width of one to two fingers in order to be effective.

This is important because if these criteria are not met, the mare may not be close enough to parturition to allow for a safe induction.

Keep in mind that induction of parturition in mares should not be performed on a regular basis owing to the hazards associated for both the mare and her baby.

Anderson published in 2008.

Evans, W. The Horse, published in 1990. eXtension is a type of article. Horse Behavior During the Foaling Period. eXtension HorseQuest Learning Lesson: How to Score Horses Based on Their Body Condition. Selected Courses from the MHU Horse Breeding Short Course Series

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